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1 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart


Industrial Automation
1 What is Industrial Automation?
2 Automation Device Systems and Structures
3 Process Periphery
4 Real-time Programming
5 Real-time Operating Systems
6 Programming Languages for Industrial Automation
7 Reliability and Safety of Industrial Automation Systems
Industrial Automation
2 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.1.1 Technical Process
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
1.1.3 Real-time System
1.1.4 Automation Computer
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.1.1 Technical process
3 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Definition #1:
A technical process is a process during which material, energy or
information is altered in its state. This modification of state can imply
the transition of an initial state to a final state.
process, procedure, event
final state of
material, energy
or information
TECHNICAL
PROCESS
in a technical system
initial state of
material, energy
or information
transformation
transport storage
refers to: flow of material, energy or information
1.1.1 Technical process
4 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Examples
Initial State Technical Process
in a technical system
Final State
Low ambient
temperature
Thermal process regarding
house heating with an oil-fueled
heating system
Higher ambient temperature
Dirty laundry Washing process in a washing
machine
Fresh laundry
Unsorted parcels Transportation and distribution
process in a parcel distribution
system
Parcels sorted by destinations
Energy of fossil or
nuclear fuels
Enegry transformation and
energy generation processes in
a power plant
Electric energy
Parts to be stored Storage process in a high bay
warehouse
Parts compiled for commissions
Train at location A Traffic process of a train journey Train at location B
Monomere substance Process in a chemical reactor Polymeric substance
Untested device Test process in a test laboratory Tested device
Parts without a drill-
hole
Drilling process of a drilling
machine
Parts with drill-hole
Pollutants Process in a system for pollution
monitoring
Information on pollution
concentrations are indicated in
monitoring center
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1.1.1 Technical process
5 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Definition #2: DIN 66201
A process is the entirety of all interacting processes within a system
that transforms and stores material, energy or information.
A technical process is a process in which its physical parameters
are recorded and influenced by technical means.
from simple to highly complex
different partial processes are combined to an overall process
washing machine, power plant
car with automotive electronics
TECHNICAL PROCESS
in a technical system
affectuating
variables
output
quantities
material,
energy or
information
inflow
material, energy
or information
outflow
1.1.1 Technical process
6 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Technical system with technical process
Technical Process
Technical System
(device, machine
or technical plant)
process
input
variables
process
output
variables
material, energy or
information inflow
material, energy or
information outflow
actuating
signals
process-
influencing
information
process
outcome
information
measured
signals
the technical
process runs on
technical system
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1.1.1 Technical process
7 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Example for a technical plant with technical process
fill
reac-
tion
empty
outflow
reaction
product
substance C
feed
substance A
feed
substance B
Technical Process
substance A
substance B
actuating signals
substance
C
measured signals
Technical Plant
technical plant: chemical reactor
technical process: 3 sub-processes (fill, reaction, empty)
Industrial Automation
8 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.1.1 Technical Process
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
1.1.3 Real-time System
1.1.4 Automation Computer
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.1.2 Industrial Automation
9 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Industrial automation
= process + automation
= independently
operating
technical systems
cigarette vending machine
ticket vending machine
= to enable machines,
installations and facilities
to operate independently
office automation,
traffic automation,
railway automation,
industrial automation
automat
automation
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
10 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
= the automation of a technical process
industrial automation system
= technical system with technical process
+ computer and communication system
+ process operators
industrial automation
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1.1.2 Industrial Automation
11 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Structure of an industrial automation system
computer and communication system
consisting of e.g., programmable logic
controllers (PLC), industrial PCs, micro
controllers, bus systems, etc.
technical system
(technical product or technical plant ), in
which a technical process takes place
people
(process operators)
for managing and
operating the technical
process as well as
intervening in
exceptional situations
process
outcome
process
influence
control signals
to the
technical process
signals from the
technical process
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
12 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
goal is the automation of operations in the technical process with the
help of appropriate information processing units
human operators only places requests on the operating results
goal is the management of the procedure of the technical process by
human operators, supported by the automation of individual
operations
managing refers to controlling and regulating
goal is an automation software system
real-time system
automation of the technical
process in the foreground
operation in the
foreground
computer and communication
system in the foreground
industrial automation system
process control system
process computer sciences
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Industrial Automation
13 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.1.1 Technical Process
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
1.1.3 Real-time System
1.1.4 Automation Computer
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.1.3 Real-time System
14 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Definition: DIN 44300
Real-time operation is the operation of a computer system, in which
programs required for the handling of arising data are in constant
operation so that the processing results are available within a given period
of time.
This data may appear according to a random time distribution or at regular
intervals.
hardware/software system
data reception, data processing, data delivery to the process within a
given time limit
external events
processing priority
Features of a real-time system
Real-time system allows real-time operation
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1.1.3 Real-time System
15 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Requirements on real-time systems
timeliness
reaction right on time
simultaneousness
simultaneous reaction to various events
dependability
reliable, safe, available
predictability
all reactions must be planable and deterministic
not too soon, not too late
parallel processes
important reason for purchase
comprehensible in case errors occur
1.1.3 Real-time System
16 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Industrial automation system are real-time systems
computer and
communication
system
technical process
in a
technical plant
sensor signals
control signals
people
time time
external
influences
operating personnel
computer and communication
system
technical process
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Industrial Automation
17 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.1.1 Technical Process
1.1.2 Industrial Automation
1.1.3 Real-time System
1.1.4 Automation Computer
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.1.4 Automation Computer
18 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Features
Processors applicable in a process automation system are free
programmable digital processors (computers) that have to show
mainly 3 features:
Compliance of real-time operation requirements, that is recording,
processing and output of process data in a timely manner
Possibilities for input/output of process signals (directly or via a
communication system) for process connection
Processing of numbers, characters and bits
In 60th and 70th years specific process computers
- Term antiquated, because differences disappeared
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1.1.4 Automation Computer
19 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Different forms of automation computers
programmable logic controller (PLC)
micro controller
personal computer (PC)
process control system
Industrial Automation
20 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
21 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Degree of automation:
The sense and benefit of an automation depends of the technical process
(accessible / inaccessible) and the general conditions (economically
reasonable / senseless). The degree of automation describes the extend of
the processes included in the automation.
bandwidth: from zero up to fully automated operation
Types of operation:
off-line operation (operation with indirect process connection) with the
lowest degree of automation
on-line / open-loop operation (open on-line operation) for a medium
degree of automation
on-line / closed-loop operation (closed on-line operation) for a high degree
of automation
Caution! - Also with fully automated operation the human being can
make interventions (set point default or malfunction)!
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
22 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Operation without computer use
operation
accounting
general management
orders
applications for
the process
management
operation
protocol
process
personnel
control and
regulation
devices
manual
device
display device
and graphical
recorder
technical plant
no automation
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1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
23 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Off-line operation (indirectly connected operation)
low degree of
automation, no
connection to
the technical
process
general management
orders
process
personnel
control and
regulation
devices
manual
device
display device
and graphical
recorder
technical plant
off-line-
computer
instruc-tions
for the
process
manage-ment
operation
protocol
input,
operation modes,
instructions
input of the
operation
protocol
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
24 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
On-line/ open-loop operation
medium degree
of automation,
data acquisition
from the
technical process
general management
orders
process
personnel
control and
regulation
devices
manual
device
technical plant
operation
protocol
instructions
operation
monitoring
computer
system
control board
on-line
open-
loop
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1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
25 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
orders
technical plant
operation
protocol
computer and communication system
emergency
control
emergency
instruments
operation management
and control
On-line-/ closed-loop operation
high degree of
automation, data
recording and
influence of the
technical process
on-line und
closed-loop
Industrial Automation
26 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.3.1 Types of automation systems
1.3.2 Product automation
1.3.3 Plant automation
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.3.1 Types of automation systems
27 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
product automation
plant automation
industrial automation systems, in which the technical process takes place
within a device or within a single machine
large quantities
industrial automation systems, in which the technical process is composed of
single partial processes that take place on greater, often geographically wide
spread plants
unique systems
1.3.1 Types of automation systems
28 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Examples for the two types of industrial automation systems
Examples of products in product
automation
Examples of technical plants
In plant automation
heating systems
washing machines
sewing machines
kitchen tools (e.g., dish washer,
microwave, etc.)
TVs, radios
cameras
alarm systems
toys
navigation systems
answering machines
musical instruments
machine tools
measuring devices
automobiles with sub-systems:
motor control, ABS, distance
warning system, route planing, etc.
power plants (steam generator,
turbines, generators)
energy grid
high bay warehouse
parcel distribution installations
chemical reactors
process engineering installations
steal production plants
milling installations
railway traffic system ( long distance
trains, commuter railways, metros)
traffic light installations
gas supply installations
purification and water plants
building system installations
laboratories and test fields
environmental measurement
installations
etc.
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Industrial Automation
29 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.3.1 Types of automation systems
1.3.2 Product automation
1.3.3 Plant automation
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.3.2 Product automation
30 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Characteristic criteria regarding product automation
technical process in a device or machine (embedded systems)
dedicated automation functions
automation computer in the form of a micro controller or PLC
few sensors and actuators
degree of automation 100%, on-line/closed-loop operation
high quantities (serial or mass products)
engineering and software costs of inferior importance since they are
distributed among large unit numbers
simple
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1.3.2 Product automation
31 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Structure with simple product automation
example:
kitchen tool
technical product
user
or
operator
micro controller
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1.3.2 Product automation
32 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Structure with complex product automation
user
or
operator
micro-
controller
micro-
controller
1
micro-
controller
2
micro-
controller
n
subsystem
1
subsystem
2
subsystem
n
bus system
technical product
example:
automotive
electronics
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Industrial Automation
33 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.3.1 Types of automation systems
1.3.2 Product automation
1.3.3 Plant automation
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.3.3 Plant automation
34 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Characteristic criteria regarding plant automation
technical process in an industrial plant, often geographically wide
spread
extensive and complex automation functions
PLCs, PCs and process control systems are used as automation
computer systems
large number of sensors and actuators
medium to high degree of automation
unique system
engineering and software costs are critical for overall costs
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1.3.3 Plant automation
35 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Structure for a larger technical plant
master
computer
PC PC
PLC PLC PLC
factory bus
observation,
operating,
protocolling
level 3
plant bus
level2
field bus field bus
level1
sub-
system
sub-
system
sub-
system
technical plant
Industrial Automation
36 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.4.1 Technical components
1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
1.4.3 Communication system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
1.4.5 Automation software system
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.4.1 Technical components
37 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
technical components of an
industrial automation system
technical system to be
automated (automation object)
facilities necessary for
automation (automation system)
technical
product
technical
plant
interface to the
technical process:
sensors and actuators
facilities for
user - process
communication
hardwired individual
devices
communication system
communication
system close to
the process
(field bus)
bus system for the
communication
between
automation computers
automation computer
system
hardware system
(device system)
automation software
system
computer
hardware
process
periphery
user
software
system
software
Industrial Automation
38 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.4.1 Technical components
1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
1.4.3 Communication system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
1.4.5 Automation software system
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
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1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
39 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Sensors
acquisition of information on the progression of process variables
sensors, detection devices, measuring devices
conversion into electrical or optical signals
examples: temperature,
pressure ,
velocity
Actuators
conversion of control information in order to influence process variables
actuators (correcting element)
examples : relays,
magnets,
servomotors
Industrial Automation
40 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.4.1 Technical components
1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
1.4.3 Communication system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
1.4.5 Automation software system
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
21
1.4.3 Communication system
41 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Communication system in product automation
simple products
few sensors and actuators
short line distances
complex products
communication between subsystems via bus system
examples: CAN bus, Interbus-S
technical product
user
or
operator
micro controller
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d
is
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a
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ip
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v
a
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b
le
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p
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s
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s
u
lts
user
or
operator
micro-
controller
micro-
controller
1
micro-
controller
2
micro-
controller
n
subsystem
1
subsystem
2
subsystem
n
bus system
technical product
1.4.3 Communication system
42 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Communication system in plant automation
many sensors and actuators, geographically distributed
many automation computers, geographically distributed
Communication tasks on several levels
master
computer PC PC
PLC PLC PLC
factory bus
observation,
operating,
protocolling
level 3
plant bus
level2
field bus field bus
level1
sub-
system
sub-
system
sub-
system
technical plant
factory bus
plant bus (process bus)
field bus
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Industrial Automation
43 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.4.1 Technical components
1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
1.4.3 Communication system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
1.4.5 Automation software system
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.4.4 Automation computer system
44 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
originally replacement for relay and contactor control (1-bit-computer)
today wide range of service up to the operation of big machine
compounds
programming through specific programming devices with the aid of
ladder diagram or function diagram
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1.4.4 Automation computer system
45 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Micro controller (One-chip-computer)
highly integrated components
employment for mass products
composition of
standard Micro processor
data memory / program memory
bus interfaces
process signal interfaces
programming with development system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
46 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Personal Computer (PC) resp. Industrial PC (IPC)
for adverse environment deployment of industrial PCs
plugable circuit boards for connection of
electrical process
signals
optical process
signals
bus systems
programming in high-level language
use of real-time operating systems
as single operating system
in addition to standard operating systems
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1.4.4 Automation computer system
47 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Process control system - PCS (1)
distributed computer systems, connected via bus systems
usage of prefabricated program modules developed by the
manufacturer of the PCS
configuration by operator
interconnection with PLC computers
1.4.4 Automation computer system
48 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Process control system (2)
display and
operation
component
engineering
station
display and
operation
component
field level
component
field level
component
field level
component
operation
master
computer
sensors and actuators field bus field device
redundant manufacturer-specific system bus
factory
bus
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Industrial Automation
49 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.4.1 Technical components
1.4.2 Sensors and actuators
1.4.3 Communication system
1.4.4 Automation computer system
1.4.5 Automation software system
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.4.5 Automation software system
50 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Automation software system
set of all programs necessary for the execution of automation tasks,
including their documentation
differentiation between executive and organizational/administrational
tasks
executive programs
(application software)
input measured values
calculation of control
variables
organizing and administrating
programs (operating software
or system software)
software device drivers
operating system
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1.4.5 Automation software system
51 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
programs for organizing
execution of application
programs
programs for managing
peripheral devices
programs for organizing
data traffic with external
memories
programs for the dialogue
between human and
computer
compilation programs
run-time programs
programs for acquisition of
process variables
programs for process
monitoring
programs for process control
programs for process
regulation
programs for process
optimization und
management
programs for process safety
and security
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System software Application software
Industrial Automation
52 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
27
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
53 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Model of levels in the management of a technical process
strategic
level
long-term
distribution policy
distribution planning
distribution tactic
sales
business management
level
production
management level
process control level
level of measuring
controlling and regulat
ing process variables
(process variable level)
technical process in a
technical system
dispositive
level
tactical level
operative level
levels of hierarchy levels in distribution levels of a company
field of action market
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
54 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Time requirements on the different levels
process control level:
business management level:
operation / production management level:
process variable level:
Effects ranging between
months-years
Effects ranging between
days-weeks-months
Effects ranging between
minutes-hours
Effects ranging between
microseconds-seconds
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1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
55 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Automation functions
cost analysis,
statistical evaluations
work sequence planning,
capacity optimization,
evaluation of process results
process monitoring,
start-up and shut-down,
malfunction handling, process
guidance, process security
measuring, controlling,
manipulating, regulating
interlocking, emergency
handling of process
variables,shut-down, protection
recording and influencing
process variables with sensors
and actuators
business
management level
production and
operation
management level
process control
level
process variable
level
field level
Levels of a company Automation functions
Industrial Automation
56 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
1.6.3 Classification of technical systems
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to
process types
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
29
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
57 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Types of occurring process variables
Process variables, that are allocated to the course of physical
state-variables with a continuous or piecewise continuous range of values
example: temperatures in a heating system
Process variables, that are allocated to certain discrete process states
physical variables with a continuous range of values that characterize
the process states
binary process variables that are allocated to state transitions i.E., To
events that cause the change of state
example: switch setting: 0/off - 1/on
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
58 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Types of occurring process variables
process variables that are allocated to individually identifiable objects
physical variables with a continuous range of values
example: temperature of a slab in a clogging mill,
size of a part in a store
identification numbers i.e., non-physical variables
example: type, design, application, depot number
30
Industrial Automation
59 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
1.6.3 Classification of technical systems
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to
process types
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
60 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Definition of three process types in technical systems
continuous processes
sequential processes, discrete event type processes
object-oriented processes
Caution! - a clear distinction is not always possible !
example: transportation as a continuous and object-oriented process
31
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
61 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Continuous processes in technical systems
Characteristics processes containing timedependent continuous
process variables
Process variable physical variables with a (at least piece-wise)
continuous range of values
Examples generation processes,
transformation processes,
movements, etc.
Mathematic
models
differential equations (time as an independent
variable), transfer functions
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
62 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Sequential processes in technical systems
Characteristics processes containing sequences of
different, distinguishable process states
Process variables binary signals that cause or indicate
discrete process states as well as
continuous physical variables allocated to
process states
Examples sequences of process states during start-
up or shut-down of a turbine,
sequence of states during the operation of
an elevator, sequence of states during
production using a machine tool
Models flow charts, state models, Petri nets,
function plans according to DIN 40719
32
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
63 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Object-oriented processes in technical systems
Characteristics processes during which individually
identifiable objects are transformed,
transported or stored
Process
variables
physical variables with a continuous
range of values or non-physical
variables (e.g., type, design,
application, bay number) that are
allocated to the objects, as well as
binary variables, that cause or indicate
state changes of objects
Examples processes during the manufacturing of
parts, traffic processes, storage
processes, information processes in
computers
Models simulation models, queue-models, state
models, Petri nets
Industrial Automation
64 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
1.6.3 Classification of technical systems
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to
process types
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
33
1.6.3 Classification of technical systems
65 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Classification methods
Classification according to the kind of...
transformed or transported medium
effect
material-related transformation
dominating process type
material related processes, energy related processes,
information related processes
generation processes, distribution processes, storage processes
chemical processes, production processes
flow processes (continuous), successive processes (sequential),
piece-related processes (object-related)
Industrial Automation
66 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.6.1 Process variables in technical systems
1.6.2 Processes in technical systems
1.6.3 Classification of technical systems
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to
process types
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
34
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to process types
67 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Assignment of technical production processes to process
types
Technical production
processes
Process types
Energy-related
processes
continuous processes,
sequential processes
chemical processes continuous processes,
sequential processes
production processes continuous processes,
sequential processes,
object-related processes
material-handling
processes
continuous processes,
sequential processes,
object-related processes
Technical processes can contain processes of different types,
on the other hand a process in turn can be a technical process.
1.6.4 Assignment of technical production processes to process types
68 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Examples:
generation of electric energy in a turbo generator
continuous process
sequential process (start-up sequence of plant)
Chemical processes
batch processes
single process steps are continuous processes
sequence of steps is a sequential process
production process
manufacturing a turned part
transportation of the sleeve is an object-related process
manufacturing process consists of a sequence of steps (mount part,
drive drilling machine to position etc.), thus it is a sequential process
machine-cutting process is a continuous process
energy-related processes
35
Industrial Automation
69 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
70 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Flowchart
similar to block diagrams used in control engineering
processes and process steps are represented as rectangles
arrows represent the information or material flow
bundles of connections are shown as double lines with arrow
Example:
dissolve reaction separate
material
dissolved
inter-
mediate
product
solvent
final product
additive
chrused
additive
raw material
solvent
crush
36
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
71 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Information/material-oriented representation
information/materials as circles
processes/functions as linking arrows
Example
inter-
mediate
product
additive
material
solvent
material
dissolved
additive
crushed
c
ru
s
h
d
is
s
o
lv
e
d
is
s
o
lv
e
re
a
c
tio
n
r
e
a
c
tio
n
solvent
final
product
s
e
p
a
r
a
tio
n
s
e
p
a
ra
tio
n
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
72 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Phase model representation
mixture of flowchart and information/material-oriented representation
additive
raw
material
solvent
sub
process
"crush"
sub
process
"dis
solving"
reaction
inter-
mediate
product
separate
additive
crushed
material
dis-
solved
solvent
final
product
Example
37
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
73 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Examples for the flowchart representation
crushing
dissolving reaction separation
additive
raw material
solvent
solvent
final product
additive
350 kg/h
solvent
1000 kg/h
raw material
800 kg/h
x
M M
M1 M2
z1
1 bar
20 C
B2 B1
P1 P2
1 bar
20 C
h
e
a
t
i
n
g

s
t
e
a
m
3

b
a
r
W1
heating
steam
solvent
700 kg/h
1 bar
108 C
final product
1450 kg/h
depot
simple flow chart
process flow chart
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
74 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
additive
350 kg/h
F1
solvent
1000 kg/h
raw material
800 kg/h
FRC
1.01
FRC
2.01
TRC
1.02
LRC
1.03
P1
V106
V101
V201 V202
V102
V203
V103
V204
V105
B1
B2
LRC
1.04
P2
V106
X Z1
M
3 h
M1
M
3 h
M
3 h
M
3 h
M
3 h
V111
TRC
1.02
V304
V301
V302
V303
solvent
700 kg/h
V206
heating steam
5 bar
W1
M2
V110 V107
V112
V305
V306
condensate
LRC
1.04
M
3 h
K1
final product
1450 kg/h
V301
V302
V303
V116
W3
A1
LRC+
1.04
W2
Pipes and instrumentation flow diagram
38
Industrial Automation
75 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.8.1 Product automation
1.8.2 Plant automation
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.8.1 Product automation
76 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Automation system of an industrial washing machine
PI-flowchart
A B C
drawer
dosage pump
drum
steam or electrical
heating
soft cold
soft hot
hard cold
M filter
waterpump
drain
tank
39
1.8.1 Product automation
77 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Simplified block diagram
micro computer
human-process-communication
chip card interface
input and display
modul
program system 1: evolution & operating
program system 2: control and monitoring
sensors actuators
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
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v
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p
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p
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p
h
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a
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i
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g
technical process in technical system
"washing machine"
user
automation system
Industrial Automation
78 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Basic Process Types in Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.8.1 Product automation
1.8.2 Plant automation
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
40
1.8.2 Plant automation
79 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Automation system of a heating and industrial water system
radiator im room 1 radiator in room n
low-
temperature
boiler
circulation
pump
fuel-oil
feed
industrial
water
reservoir
industrial water
load pump
cold
feed-water
forced-air
burner
exhaust gas flap
smokestack
PI-flowchart
1.8.2 Plant automation
80 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Simplified block diagram
TECHNICAL PROCESS consists of the thermal process
in the building and of the process in the low-temperature heating system
"sensors"
detection devices for measurment of
process variables
r
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m

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p
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f
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p
residents
equipment for human-process communication
program system 1 "control and
monitoring"
hardware 1
program system 2 "evalution and
operating"
hardware 2
computer 1 (PLC) computer 2 (PLC)
"actuators"
correcting element to influence the
technical process
automation system
prozess automation system
41
Industrial Automation
81 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
1.1 Definition of Several Basic Terms
1.2 Degree of Automation and Computer Deployment
1.3 Automation of Technical Products and Technical Plants
1.4 Components of an Industrial Automation System
1.5 Levels of Process Management and Automation Functions
1.6 Technical Systems
1.7 Graphical representation of technical processes
1.8 Examples of Industrial Automation Systems
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and
Environment
1 What is Industrial Automation?
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
82 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Intentional (positive) effects of industrial automation
simplified and more convenient operation
automation of a washing machine
automation of a heating system
production of better, cheaper products of even quality with lowered
production costs
automation of chemical production processes
reduction of of the endangerment of people
ABS system
traffic system automation (like inductive train security, automatic
barrier close)
better, more humane working conditions
automation of painting or foundry work
Securing jobs through higher competitiveness
use of robots in automobile manufacturing
42
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
83 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
Unintentional (negative) effects of industrial automation
redundancy of workers may lead to unemployment
use of robots in manufacturing
restructuring of jobs due to changes in work flow and fields of work
lower/ higher qualified jobs
drop of ancillary tasks
increase of jobs in the service sector
reduction of human relationships
introduction of ticket vending machines and information systems
increase of stress and reduction of relaxing tasks
automation of testing systems
overtaxing in difficult situations
safety-critical decision in a nuclear power plant
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
84 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
The automation engineer is responsible for the effects of
industrial automation
direct, immediate responsibility
damages in industrial automation systems designed by him
violations of generally accepted guidelines and regulations
(regulations of the VDE, etc.)
safety of automation systems
Dilemma: trade-off between benefits and damage
industrial automation has effects on:
people
society
environment
energy and resources
43
1.9 Effects of Industrial Automation on People, Society and Environment
85 IAS, Universitt Stuttgart
important: sense of responsibility
of the automation engineer
indirect, oblique responsibility
unintentional side effects