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Beneficence vs.

Nonmaleficence
Beneficence:
Definition: Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of others. Beneficent actions
can be taken to help prevent or remove harms or to simply improve the situation of
others.
Clinical Applications: Physicians are expected to refrain from causing harm, but they also
have an obligation to help their patients. Ethicists often distinguish between obligatory
and ideal beneficence. Ideal beneficence comprises extreme acts of generosity or attempts
to benefit others on all possible occasions. Physicians are not necessarily expected to live
up to this broad definition of beneficence. owever, the goal of medicine is to promote
the welfare of patients, and physicians possess skills and knowledge that enable them to
assist others. !ue to the nature of the relationship between physicians and patients,
doctors do have an obligation to "# prevent and remove harms, and $# weigh and balance
possible benefits against possible risks of an action. Beneficence can also include
protecting and defending the rights of others, rescuing persons who are in danger, and
helping individuals with disabilities.
Examples of beneficent actions: %esuscitating a drowning victim, providing vaccinations
for the general population, encouraging a patient to &uit smoking and start an exercise
program, talking to the community about '(! prevention.
Non-maleficence:
Definition: )on*maleficence means to +do no harm., Physicians must refrain from
providing ineffective treatments or acting with malice toward patients. (his principle,
however, offers little useful guidance to physicians since many beneficial therapies also
have serious risks. (he pertinent ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the
burdens.
Clinical Applications: Physicians should not provide ineffective treatments to patients as
these offer risk with no possibility of benefit and thus have a chance of harming patients.
In addition, physicians must not do anything that would purposely harm patients without
the action being balanced by proportional benefit. Because many medications,
procedures, and interventions cause harm in addition to benefit, the principle of non*
maleficence provides little concrete guidance in the care of patients. -here this principle
is most helpful is when it is balanced against beneficence. In this context non*
maleficence posits that the risks of treatment .harm# must be understood in light of the
potential benefits. /ltimately, the patient must decide whether the potential benefits
outweigh the potential harms.
Examples of non-maleficent actions: 'topping a medication that is shown to be harmful,
refusing to provide a treatment that has not been shown to be effective.
Balancing Beneficence and Non-maleficence:
0ne of the most common ethical dilemmas arises in the balancing of beneficence and
non*maleficence. (his balance is the one between the benefits and risks of treatment and
plays a role in nearly every medical decision such as whether to order a particular test,
medication, procedure, operation or treatment. By providing informed consent,
physicians give patients the information necessary to understand the scope and nature of
the potential risks and benefits in order to make a decision. /ltimately it is the patient
who assigns weight to the risks and benefits. )onetheless, the potential benefits of any
intervention must outweigh the risks in order for the action to be ethical.

TERJEMAHAN
Kebaikan vs Nonmaleficence
Beneficence : Kebaikan:
Definition : Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of others. Definisi:
kebaikan adalah tindakan yang dilakukan untuk kepentingan orang lain. Beneficent
actions can be taken to help prevent or remove harms or to simply improve the situation
of others. Pemurah tindakan dapat diambil untuk membantu mencegah atau menghapus
kerugian atau untuk sekadar memperbaiki situasi orang lain.
Clinical Applications : Physicians are expected to refrain from causing harm, but they
also have an obligation to help their patients. Aplikasi klinis: !okter diharapkan untuk
menahan diri dari yang menyebabkan kerusakan, tetapi mereka 1uga mempunyai
kewa1iban untuk membantu pasien mereka. Ethicists often distinguish between obligatory
and ideal beneficence. 2hli etika sering membedakan antara wa1ib dan ideal kebaikan.
Ideal beneficence comprises extreme acts of generosity or attempts to benefit others on
all possible occasions. 3ebaikan ideal terdiri dari tindakan*tindakan ekstrem kemurahan
hati atau mencoba untuk menguntungkan orang lain pada semua kesempatan yang
mungkin. Physicians are not necessarily expected to live up to this broad definition of
beneficence. !okter tidak selalu diharapkan untuk hidup sesuai dengan definisi luas ini
kebaikan. owever, the goal of medicine is to promote the welfare of patients, and
physicians possess skills and knowledge that enable them to assist others. )amun, tu1uan
pengobatan adalah untuk meningkatkan kese1ahteraan pasien, dan dokter memiliki
keterampilan dan pengetahuan yang memungkinkan mereka untuk membantu orang lain.
!ue to the nature of the relationship between physicians and patients, doctors do have an
obligation to "# prevent and remove harms, and $# weigh and balance possible benefits
against possible risks of an action. 3arena sifat dari hubungan antara dokter dan pasien,
dokter tidak mempunyai kewa1iban untuk "# mencegah dan menghapus merugikan, dan
$# menimbang dan keseimbangan kemungkinan keuntungan terhadap kemungkinan
resiko dari suatu tindakan. Beneficence can also include protecting and defending the
rights of others, rescuing persons who are in danger, and helping individuals with
disabilities. 3ebaikan dapat 1uga termasuk melindungi dan membela hak*hak orang lain,
menyelamatkan orang*orang yang berada dalam bahaya, dan membantu individu dengan
cacat.
Examples of beneficent actions : %esuscitating a drowning victim, providing
vaccinations for the general population, encouraging a patient to &uit smoking and start
an exercise program, talking to the community about '(! prevention. Contoh tindakan
dermawan: %esuscitating korban yang tenggelam, memberikan vaksinasi untuk
masyarakat umum, mendorong seorang pasien untuk berhenti merokok dan memulai
program latihan, berbicara kepada masyarakat tentang pencegahan '(!.
Non-maleficence : Non-sifat mencelakakan:
Definition : )on*maleficence means to +do no harm., Physicians must refrain from
providing ineffective treatments or acting with malice toward patients. (his principle,
however, offers little useful guidance to physicians since many beneficial therapies also
have serious risks. (he pertinent ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the
burdens. Definisi: )on*sifat mencelakakan berarti 4tidak membahayakan.4 !okter harus
menahan diri dari memberikan perawatan efektif atau bertindak dengan kebencian
terhadap pasien. Prinsip ini, bagaimanapun, kecil menawarkan panduan yang berguna
bagi para dokter karena banyak manfaat terapi 1uga mempunyai risiko yang serius. Etis
yang relevan 5asalahnya adalah apakah manfaat lebih besar daripada beban.
Clinical Applications: Physicians should not provide ineffective treatments to patients as
these offer risk with no possibility of benefit and thus have a chance of harming patients.
In addition, physicians must not do anything that would purposely harm patients without
the action being balanced by proportional benefit. Because many medications,
procedures, and interventions cause harm in addition to benefit, the principle of non*
maleficence provides little concrete guidance in the care of patients. -here this principle
is most helpful is when it is balanced against beneficence. Aplikasi klinis: !okter
seharusnya tidak memberikan perawatan kepada pasien yang tidak efektif sebagai risiko
menawarkan ini tanpa kemungkinan manfaat dan dengan demikian memiliki kesempatan
untuk merugikan pasien. 'elain itu, dokter tidak boleh melakukan apa pun yang akan
senga1a membahayakan pasien tanpa tindakan yang diimbangi dengan proporsional
manfaat . 3arena banyak obat*obatan, prosedur, dan intervensi mengakibatkan bahaya
selain menguntungkan, prinsip non*sifat mencelakakan beton sedikit memberikan
bimbingan dalam merawat pasien. !i mana prinsip ini adalah yang paling bermanfaat
adalah bila diseimbangkan dengan kebaikan. In this context non*maleficence posits that
the risks of treatment .harm# must be understood in light of the potential benefits.
/ltimately, the patient must decide whether the potential benefits outweigh the potential
harms. !alam konteks ini non*sifat mencelakakan berpendapat bahwa risiko pengobatan
.bahaya# harus dipahami dalam terang manfaat potensial. Pada akhirnya, pasien harus
memutuskan apakah lebih besar daripada manfaat potensial kerugian potensial.
Examples of non-maleficent actions : 'topping a medication that is shown to be harmful,
refusing to provide a treatment that has not been shown to be effective. Contoh non-
tindakan jahat: 5enghentikan suatu obat yang terbukti berbahaya, menolak untuk
memberikan pengobatan yang belum terbukti efektif.
Balancing Beneficence and Non-maleficence : Menyeimbangkan kebaikan dan Non-
sifat mencelakakan:
0ne of the most common ethical dilemmas arises in the balancing of beneficence and
non*maleficence. (his balance is the one between the benefits and risks of treatment and
plays a role in nearly every medical decision such as whether to order a particular test,
medication, procedure, operation or treatment. By providing informed consent,
physicians give patients the information necessary to understand the scope and nature of
the potential risks and benefits in order to make a decision. /ltimately it is the patient
who assigns weight to the risks and benefits. )onetheless, the potential benefits of any
intervention must outweigh the risks in order for the action to be ethical. 'alah satu
dilema etis paling umum muncul dalam keseimbangan kebaikan dan non*sifat
mencelakakan. Ini adalah salah satu keseimbangan antara manfaat dan risiko pengobatan
dan berperan dalam hampir setiap keputusan medis seperti apakah untuk memesan tes
tertentu, obat*obatan, prosedur, operasi atau pengobatan. !engan memberikan informed
consent, dokter memberikan informasi yang diperlukan pasien untuk memahami ruang
lingkup dan sifat potensi resiko dan manfaat dalam rangka untuk membuat keputusan.
Pada akhirnya ia adalah pasien yang memberikan bobot pada risiko dan manfaat.
5eskipun demikian, potensi manfaat dari setiap intervensi harus lebih besar daripada
risiko agar tindakan yang etis.