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_______________General Desc ription

The M A X608 low -voltage step-up controller operates


from a 1.8V to 16.5V input voltage range. Pulse-fre-
quency-m odulation (PFM ) control provides high effi-
ciency at heavy loads, w hile using only 85A (typical)
w hen operating w ith no load. In addition, a logic-con-
trolled shutdow n m ode reduces supply current to 2A
typical. The output voltage is factory-set at 5V or can be
adjusted from 3V to 16.5V w ith an external resistor
divider.
The M A X608 is ideal for tw o- and three-cell battery-
pow ered system s. A n operating frequency of up to
300kH z allow s use w ith sm all surface-m ount com po-
nents.
The M A X608 operates in bootstrappedm ode only
(w ith the chip supply, O U T, connected to the D C -D C
output). For a 12V output w ithout external resistors, or
for nonbootstrapped applications (chip supply connect-
ed to inp ut voltag e), refer to the p in-com p atib le
M A X1771. The M A X608 is available in 8-pin D IP and
SO packages.
________________________Applic ations
H igh-Efficiency D C -D C C onverters
B attery-Pow ered A pplications
Positive LC D -B ias G enerators
Portable C om m unicators
____________________________Features
o 1.8V to 16.5V Input Range
o 85% Efficiency for 30mA to 1.5A Load Currents
o Up to 10W Output Power
o 110A Max Supply Current
o 5A Max Shutdown Current
o Preset 5V or Adjustable Output (3V to 16.5V)
o Current-Limited PFM Control Scheme
o Up to 300kHz Switching Frequency
o Evaluation Kit Available
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
CS
GND
AGND
REF SHDN
FB
OUT
EXT
TOP VIEW
MAX608
DI P/ SO
__________________Pin Configuration
FB AGND GND OUT
CS
EXT
N
REF
SHDN ON/ OFF
OUTPUT
5V
INPUT
1. 8V TO VOUT
MAX608
__________Typic al Operating Circ uit
Call toll free 1-800-998-8800 for free samples or literature.
19-0438; R ev 0; 9/95
EVALUATION KIT MANUAL
FOLLOWS DATA SHEET
* C ontact factory for dice specifications.
______________Ordering Information
PART
M A X608C /D
M A X608EPA
M A X608ESA
-40C to + 85C
0C to + 70C
TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
D ice*
8 Plastic D IP
-40C to + 85C 8 SO
Supply C urrent
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
2
_______________________________________________________________________________________
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Supply Voltage
O U T to G N D .............................................................-0.3V, 17V
EXT, C S, R EF, SH D N , FB to G N D ...............-0.3V, (VO U T + 0.3V)
G N D to A G N D .............................................................0.1V, -0.1V
C ontinuous Pow er D issipation (TA = + 70C )
Plastic D IP (derate 9.09m W /C above + 70C )............727m W
SO (derate 5.88m W /C above + 70C ).........................471m W
O perating Tem perature R ange ...........................-40C to + 85C
Junction Tem perature ......................................................+ 150C
Storage Tem perature R ange .............................-65C to + 160C
Lead Tem perature (soldering, 10sec).............................+ 300C
Stresses beyond those listed under A bsolute M axim um R atingsm ay cause perm anent dam age to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not im plied. Exposure to
absolute m axim um rating conditions for extended periods m ay affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VO U T = 5V, ILO A D = 0m A , TA = -40C to + 85C w here indicated. TA = -25C to + 85C for all other lim its. Typical values are at
TA = + 25C .)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
85 110
A
O utput Voltage (N ote 3) V
VIN = 2.0V to 5.0V,
over full load range,
circuit of Figure 2a
4.825 5.0 5.175
7 m V/V
60 m V/A
M axim um Sw itch O n-Tim e tO N (m ax) 12 16 20 s
M inim um Sw itch O ff-Tim e tO FF(m in) 1.8 2.3 2.8 s
%
R eference Voltage IR EF = 0A
TA = -25C to + 85C 1.4625 1.5 1.5375
V
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1) 1.4475 1.5525
O utput Voltage Line
R egulation (N ote 4)
O utput Voltage Load
R egulation (N ote 4)
VO U T = 16.5V,
SH D N 0.4V
M inim um Start-U p Voltage N o load 1.6 1.8 V
TA = -25C to + 85C 1.8 16.5
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1) 1.9 16.5
Input Voltage R ange
(N ote 2)
V
Efficiency 87
R EF Load R egulation -4 10 m V 0A IR EF 100A
3V VO U T 16.5V 40 100
FB Trip Point Voltage
(N ote 5)
VFB
TA = -25C to + 85C 1.4625 1.5 1.5375
V
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1) 1.4475 1.5525
VO U T = 1.8V to 16.5V 1.6
V/V R EF Line R egulation
VIN = 4V, VO U T = 5V, ILO A D = 500m A ,
circuit of Figure 2a
VIN = 2V, VO U T = 5V, ILO AD = 0m A to 500m A,
circuit of Figure 2a
VIN = 2.7V to 4.0V, VO U T = 5V, ILO A D = 500m A ,
circuit of Figure 2a
TA = -25C to + 85C
TA = -25C to + 85C
120 TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1)
VO U T = 10V,
SH D N 1.6V
2 5
A
TA = -25C to + 85C
10 TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1)
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1) 4.800 5.0 5.200
VR EF
VIH SH D N Input H igh Voltage V
VIL SH D N Input Low Voltage V VO U T = 1.8V to 16.5V 0.4
SH D N Input C urrent IIN VO U T = 16.5V, SH D N = 0V or 16.5V 1 A
FB Input C urrent IFB
TA = -25C to + 85C -4 20
nA
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1) 40
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
0
50
100
150
200
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
S
U
P
P
L
Y

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(

A
)
0 1 2 3 4 5
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
6
60
1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(VOUT = 12V)
70
80
90
100
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
2
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
VIN =6.0V
VIN =5.0V
VIN =3.0V
VIN =9.0V
VIN =2.0V
60
1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(VOUT = 3. 3V)
70
80
90
100
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
3
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
VIN =2.0V
VIN =3.0V
60
1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(VOUT = 5V)
70
80
90
100
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
1
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
VIN =4.0V
VIN =3.5V
VIN =3.0V
VIN =2.0V
0
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
LOAD CURRENT vs.
MINIMUM START-UP
INPUT VOLTAGE
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
4
MINIMUM START-UP VOLTAGE (V)
L
O
A
D

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
m
A
)
1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.0
VOUT =5V
CIRCUIT OF FIGURE 2a
EXTERNAL FET THRESHOLD LIMITS
FULL-LOAD START-UP BELOW 3.7V
0
500
400
300
200
100
LOAD CURRENT vs.
MINIMUM START-UP
INPUT VOLTAGE
MINIMUM START-UP VOLTAGE (V)
L
O
A
D

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
m
A
)
M
A
X
6
0
8
-0
5
VOUT =12V
CIRCUIT OF FIGURE 2b
EXTERNAL FET THRESHOLD LIMITS
FULL-LOAD START-UP BELOW 3.6V
1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VO U T = 5V, ILO A D = 0m A , TA = -40C to + 85C w here indicated. TA = -25C to + 85C for all other lim its. Typical values are at
TA = + 25C .)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
C urrent-Lim it Trip Level VC S VO U T = 3V to 16.5V
85 100 115
m V
C S Input C urrent IC S 0.01 1 A
EXT R ise Tim e VO U T = 5V, 1nF from EXT to G N D 50
ns
EXT Fall Tim e VO U T = 5V, 1nF from EXT to G N D 50
Note 1: Lim its over this tem perature range are guaranteed by design.
Note 2: The M A X608 m ust be operated in bootstrapped m ode w ith O U T connected to the D C -D C circuit output. The m inim um output
voltage set point is + 3V.
Note 3: O utput voltage guaranteed using preset voltages. See Figures 4a4d for output current capability versus input voltage.
Note 4: O utput voltage line and load regulation depend on external circuit com ponents.
Note 5: O peration in the external-feedback m ode is guaranteed to be accurate to the VFB trip level, and does not include resistor tolerance.
80 120
__________________________________________Typic al Operating Charac teristic s
(TA = + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
TA = -40C to + 85C (N ote 1)
EXT O n-R esistance EXT = high or low 15 30
TA = -25C to + 85C
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
4
_______________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________Typic al Operating Charac teristic s (c ontinued)
(TA = + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
0
100
150
200
250
50
2 4 6 8 10 12
EXT RISE/FALL TIME vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
E
X
T

R
I
S
E
/
F
A
L
L

T
I
M
E

(
n
s
)
CEXT =2200pF
CEXT =1000pF
CEXT =470pF
CEXT =100pF
M
A
X
6
0
8
-
0
7250
0
-60 -20 60 140
REFERENCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE vs.
TEMPERATURE
50
M
A
X
6
0
8
-
0
8
TEMPERATURE (C)
R
E
F
E
R
E
N
C
E

O
U
T
P
U
T

R
E
S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E

(

)
20 100
150
-40 0 80 40 120
100
200
100A
50A
10A
1.502
-60 -20 60 140

REFERENCE vs. TEMPERATURE


M
A
X
6
0
8
-
0
9
TEMPERATURE (C)
R
E
F
E
R
E
N
C
E

(
V
)
20 100 -40 0 80 40 120
1.500
1.498
1.496
1.494
1.492
1.504
1.506
VIN = 3V, IOUT = 490mA, VOUT = 5V
A = EXT VOLTAGE, 5V/ di v
B = INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/ di v
C = VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
MEDIUM-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
(V
OUT
= 5V)
A
B
C
VOUT
0V
ILIM
0A
20s/div
4.0
-60 -20 60 140
SHUTDOWN CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE
M
A
X
6
0
8
-
1
1
TEMPERATURE (C)
S
H
U
T
D
O
W
N

C
U
R
R
E
N
T


(

A
)
20 100 -40 0 80 40 120
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
V+ = 15V
V+ = 4V
V+ = 8V
2.20

2.25

2.30
-60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150
MINIMUM SWITCH OFF-TIME vs.
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE (C)
t
O
F
F
(
m
i
n
)

(

s
)

M
A
X
6
0
8
-
1
2
15.5

16.0

16.5
-60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150
MAXIMUM SWITCH ON-TIME vs.
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE (C)
t
O
N
(
m
a
x
)

(

s
)

M
A
X
6
0
8
-
1
0
VIN = 3V, IOUT = 930mA, VOUT = 5V
A = EXT VOLTAGE, 5V/ di v
B = INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/ di v
C = VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
HEAVY-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
(V
OUT
= 5V)
A
B
C
VOUT
0V
ILIM
0A
2s/div
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 5
____________________________Typic al Operating Charac teristic s (c ontinued)
(TA = + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
VIN = 4V, IOUT = 490mA, VOUT = 12V
A = EXT VOLTAGE, 10V/ di v
B = INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/ di v
C = VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
HEAVY-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
(V
OUT
= 12V)
A
B
C
VOUT
0V
ILIM
0A
2s/div
VIN = 4V, IOUT = 300mA, VOUT = 12V
A = EXT VOLTAGE, 10V/ di v
B = INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/ di v
C = VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
MEDIUM-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
(V
OUT
= 12V)
A
B
C
VOUT
0V
ILIM
0A
10s/div
VIN = 2V, VOUT = 5V
A = LOAD CURRENT, 0mA TO 500mA, 500mA/ di v
B = VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
(V
OUT
= 5V)
A
B
500mA
0A
2ms/div
IOUT = 500mA, VOUT = 5V
A = VIN, 2.7V TO 4.0V, 1V/ di v
B = VOUT RIPPLE, 100mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
(V
OUT
= 5V)
A
B
4.0V
2.7V
5ms/div
IOUT = 500mA, VIN = 3.5V
A = SHDN, 2V/ di v
B = VOUT, 2V/ di v

EXITING SHUTDOWN
A
B
0V
0V
5V
200s/div
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
6
_______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________Pin Desc ription
PIN NAME FUNCTION
1 EXT G ate D rive for External N -C hannel Pow er Transistor
2 O U T
3 FB
4 SH D N
5 R EF
6 A G N D A nalog G round
7 G N D H igh-C urrent G round R eturn for the O utput D river
8 C S
Pow er-Supply and Voltage-Sense Input. A lw ays connect O U T to circuit output.
Feedback Input for A djustable-O utput O peration. C onnect to ground for fixed-output operation.
U se a resistor divider netw ork to adjust the output voltage. See Setting the O utput Voltage section.
A ctive-H igh TTL/C M O S Logic-Level Shutdow n Input. In shutdow n m ode, VO U T is a diode drop
below the input voltage (due to the D C path from the input voltage to the output). C onnect to
ground for norm al operation.
1.5V R eference O utput that can source 100A for external loads. B ypass to G N D w ith 0.1F.
The reference is disabled in shutdow n.
Positive Input to the C urrent-Sense A m plifier. C onnect the current-sense resistor betw een C S
and A G N D .
1.5V
REFERENCE
Q TRIG
Q S
F/ F
R
Q TRIG
LOW- VOLTAGE
OSCILLATOR
2.5V
0.1V
MAX ON- TIME
ONE- SHOT
MIN OFF- TIME
ONE- SHOT
CURRENT- SENSE
AMPLIFIER
DUAL- MODE
COMPARATOR
FB REF
50mV
ERROR
COMPARATOR
SHDN
OUT
LOW- VOLTAGE
START- UP
COMPARATOR
EXT
CS
BIAS
CIRCUITRY
N
MAX608
2.3s
16s

Figure 1. Functional D iagram


M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
_______________Detailed Desc ription
The M A X608 is a B iC M O S, step-up, sw itch-m ode pow -
er-supply controller that provides a preset 5V output, in
addition to adjustable-output operation. Its unique con-
trol schem e com bines the advantages of pulse-frequen-
cy m odulation (low supply current) and pulse-w idth
m odulation (high efficiency w ith heavy loads), providing
high efficiency over a w ide output current range, as w ell
as increased output current capability over previous
PFM devices. In addition, the external sense resistor
and pow er transistor allow the user to tailor the output
current capability for each application. Figure 1 show s
the M A X608 functional diagram . The device has a shut-
dow n m ode that reduces the supply current to 5A
m ax.
Figure 2 show s the standard application circuits. The
IC is pow ered from the output, and the input voltage
range is 1.8V to VO U T (this configuration is com m only
know n as bootstrap operation). The voltage applied to
the gate of the external pow er transistor is sw itched
from VO U T to ground.
The M A X608s output voltage can be set to 5V by con-
necting FB to ground; it can also be adjusted from 3V
to 16.5V using external resistors. U se 1% external feed-
back resistors w hen operating in adjustable-output
m ode (Figures 2b, 2c) to achieve an overall output volt-
age accuracy of 5% .
PFM Control Sc heme
The M A X608 uses a proprietary current-lim ited PFM con-
trol schem e to provide high efficiency over a w ide range
of load currents. This control schem e com bines the ultra-
low supply current of PFM converters (or pulse skippers)
w ith the high full-load efficiency of PW M converters.
Figure 2a. 5V Preset O utput Figure 2b. 12V O utput
Figure 2c. 3.3V O utput
MAX608
REF
SHDN
AGND
GND
N
7

EXT
CS
FB
C1
150F L1
22H
D1
1N5817
R1
58k
C4
200F
C3
0.1F
5
4
6

1
8
3
2
OUT
VOUT = 12V
@ 0. 3A
R2
402k
R
SENSE
50m
C2
0.1F
VOUT
VREF
R2 = (R1) ( - 1)
V
REF = 1.5V
MMFT3055EL
VIN = 2V
MAX608
REF
SHDN
AGND
GND
N
7

EXT
CS
FB
C1
150F L1
22H
D1
1N5817
R1
50k
C4
200F
C5
47pF
C3
0.1F
5
4
6

1
8
3
2
OUT
VOUT = 3. 3V
@ 0. 6A
R2
60k
R
SENSE
50m
C2
0.1F
VOUT
VREF
R2 = (R1) ( - 1)
V
REF = 1.5V
SI6426
VIN = 2V
MAX608
VIN = 2V
REF
SHDN
FB
AGND
GND
N
7

EXT
CS
C2
0.1F
C1
150F
L1
22H
D1
1N5817
MMFT3055EL
RSENSE
50m
C4
200F
C3
0.1F
5
4
3
6

1
8
2
OUT
VOUT = 5V
@ 0. 5A
M
A
X
6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
8
_______________________________________________________________________________________
U nlike traditional PFM converters, the M A X608 uses a
sense resistor to control the peak inductor current. The
device also operates w ith high sw itching frequencies
(up to 300kH z), allow ing the use of m iniature external
com ponents.
A s w ith traditional PFM converters, the pow er transistor
is not turned on until the voltage com parator senses
the output is out of regulation. H ow ever, unlike tradition-
al PFM converters, the M A X608 sw itch uses the com bi-
nation of a peak current lim it and a pair of one-shots
that set the m axim um on-tim e (16s) and m inim um off-
tim e (2.3s); there is no oscillator. O nce off, the m ini-
m um off-tim e one-shot holds the sw itch off for 2.3s.
A fter this m inim um tim e, the sw itch either 1) stays off if
the output is in regulation, or 2) turns on again if the
output is out of regulation.
The control circuitry allow s the IC to operate in continu-
ous-conduction m ode (C C M ) w hile m aintaining high
efficiency w ith heavy loads. W hen the pow er sw itch is
turned on, it stays on until either 1) the m axim um on-
tim e one-shot turns it off (typically 16s later), or 2) the
sw itch current reaches the peak current lim it set by the
current-sense resistor.
The M A X608 sw itching frequency is variable (depend-
ing on load current and input voltage), causing variable
sw itching noise. H ow ever, the subharm onic noise gen-
erated does not exceed the peak current lim it tim es the
filter capacitor equivalent series resistance (ESR ). For
exam ple, w hen generating a 5V output at 500m A from
a 2V input, only 75m V of output ripple occurs, using the
circuit of Figure 2a.
Low-Voltage Start-Up Osc illator
The M A X608 features a low input voltage start-up oscil-
lator that guarantees start-up w ith no load for input volt-
ages dow n to 1.8V. A t these low voltages, the output
voltage is not large enough for proper error-com parator
operation and internal biasing. The start-up oscillator
has a fixed 50% duty cycle and the M A X608 disregards
the error-com parator output w hen the output voltage is
less than 2.5V. A bove 2.5V, the error-com parator and
norm al one-shot tim ing circuitry are used.
Shutdown Mode
W hen S H D N is hig h, the M A X 608 enters shutd ow n
m od e. In this m od e, the internal b iasing circuitry is
turned off (including the reference), and VO U T falls to
a diode drop below VIN (due to the D C path from the
inp ut to the outp ut). In shutd ow n m od e, the sup p ly
current drops to less than 5A . SH D N is a TTL/C M O S
log ic-level inp ut. C onnect S H D N to G N D for norm al
operation.
__________________Design Proc edure
Setting the Output Voltage
The M A X608s output voltage is preset to 5V (FB = 0V),
or it can be adjusted from 16.5V dow n to 3V using exter-
nal resistors R 1 and R 2, configured as show n in Figure 3.
For adjustable-output operation, select feedback resistor
R 1 in the 10k to 500k range. R 2 is given by:
VO U T
R 2 = (R 1)
(
-1
)
VR EF
w here VR EF equals 1.5V.
O U T m ust alw ays be connected to the circuit output.
Figure 2 show s various circuit configurations for preset/
adjustable operation.
Determining RSENSE
U se the theoretical output current curves show n in
Fig ures 4a4d to select R S E N S E . They are d erived
using the m inim um (w orst-case) current-lim it com para-
tor threshold value over the extend ed tem p erature
range (-40C to + 85C ). N o tolerance w as included for
R SEN SE. The voltage drop across the diode is assum ed
to b e 0.5V , and the d rop across the p ow er sw itch
rD S(O N )and coil resistance is assum ed to be 0.3V.
Determining the Induc tor (L)
Practical inductor values range from 10H to 300H .
22H is a good choice for m ost applications. In appli-
cations w ith large input/output differentials, the IC s out-
put-current capability w ill be m uch less w hen the induc-
tance value is too low , because the IC w ill alw ays operate
in discontinuous m ode. If the inductor value is too low , the
MAX608
R1
R2
C5*
GND
FB V
OUT
R1 = 10k TO 500k
* OPTIONAL, SEE TEXT FOR VALUE
VOUT
VREF
R2 = R1 ( - 1)
VREF = 1.5V
Figure 3. A djustable O utput C ircuit
current w ill ram p up to a high level before the current-lim -
it com parator can turn off the sw itch. The m inim um on-tim e
for the sw itch (tO N (m in)) is approxim ately 2s; select an
inductor that allow s the current to ram p up to ILIM .
The standard operating circuits use a 22H inductor.
If a different inductance value is desired, select L such
that:
VIN (m ax) x 2s
L ------
I
LIM
Larger inductance values tend to increase the start-up
tim e slightly, w hile sm aller inductance values allow the
coil current to ram p up to hig her levels b efore the
sw itch turns off, increasing the ripple at light loads.
Inductors w ith a ferrite core or equivalent are recom -
m ended; pow der iron cores are not recom m ended for
use w ith high sw itching frequencies. M ake sure the
inductors saturation current rating (the current at w hich
the core begins to saturate and the inductance starts to
fall) exceeds the peak current rating set by R SEN SE.
H ow ever, it is generally acceptable to bias the inductor
into saturation by approxim ately 20% (the point w here
the inductance is 20% below the nom inal value). For
highest efficiency, use a coil w ith low D C resistance,
preferably under 20m . To m inim ize radiated noise,
use a toroid, a pot core, or a shielded coil.
Table 1 lists inductor suppliers and specific recom -
m ended inductors.
M
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6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
M
A
X
I
M
U
M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
)
0
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2 3 4 5
RSENSE = 20m
RSENSE = 25m
RSENSE = 35m
RSENSE = 100m
RSENSE = 50m
VOUT = 5V
L = 22H
M
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I
M
U
M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
)
0
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2 4 6 8 10 12
RSENSE = 100m
RSENSE = 50m
RSENSE = 20m
RSENSE = 25m
RSENSE = 35m
VOUT = 12V
L = 22H
Figure 4b. M axim um O utput C urrent vs. Input Voltage
(VO U T = 5V)
Figure 4c. M axim um O utput C urrent vs. Input Voltage
(VO U T = 12V)
Figure 4d. M axim um O utput C urrent vs. Input Voltage
(VO U T = 15V)
Figure 4a. M axim um O utput C urrent vs. Input Voltage
(VO U T = 3.3V)
M
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I
M
U
M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
)
0
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
RSENSE = 100m
RSENSE = 50m
VOUT = 15V
L = 22H
RSENSE = 20m
RSENSE = 25m
RSENSE = 35m
M
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I
M
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M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
)
0
2.0
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
2.0
2.5 3.0 3.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
VOUT = 3.3V
L = 22H
RSENSE = 100m
RSENSE = 50m
RSENSE = 25m
RSENSE = 35m
M
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8
Power Transistor Selec tion
U se an N -channel M O SFET pow er transistor w ith the
M A X608.
U se logic-level or low -threshold N -FETs to ensure the
external N -channel M O SFET (N -FET) is turned on com -
pletely and that start-up occurs. N -FETs provide the
highest efficiency because they do not draw any D C
gate-drive current.
W hen selecting an N -FET, som e im portant param eters
to consider are the total gate charge (Q g), on-resis-
tance (rD S(O N )), reverse transfer capacitance (C R SS),
m axim um drain to source voltage (VD S m ax), m axim um
gate to source voltage (VG S m ax), and m inim um thresh-
old voltage (VTH m in).
Q g takes into account all capacitances associated w ith
charging the gate. U se the typical Q g value for best
results; the m axim um value is usually grossly over-
specified since it is a guaranteed lim it and not the m ea-
sured value. The typical total gate charge should be
50nC or less. W ith larger num bers, the EXT pins m ay
not b e able to adequately drive the gate. The EXT
rise/fall tim e varies w ith different capacitive loads as
show n in the Typical O perating C haracteristics.
The tw o m ost significant losses contributing to the
N -FETs pow er dissipation are I
2
R losses and sw itching
losses. Select a transistor w ith low rD S(O N ) and low
C R SS to m inim ize these losses.
D eterm ine the m axim um required gate-drive current
from the Q g specification in the N -FET data sheet.
Select an N -FET w ith a B VD SS > VO U T, B VG SS > VO U T,
and a m inim um VTH of 0.5V below the m inim um input
voltage.
W hen using a p ow er sup p ly that d ecays w ith tim e
(such as a battery), the N -FET transistor w ill operate in
its linear region w hen the voltage at EXT approaches
the threshold voltage of the FET, dissipating excessive
pow er. Prolonged operation in this m ode m ay dam age
the FET. To avoid this condition, m ake sure VEXT is
above the VTH of the FET, or use a voltage detector
(such as the M A X8211) to put the IC in shutdow n m ode
once the input supply voltage falls below a predeter-
m ined m inim um value. Excessive loads w ith low input
voltages can also cause this condition.
The M A X608s m axim um allow ed sw itching frequency
during norm al operation is 300kH z. H ow ever, at start-
up, the m axim um frequency can be 500kH z, so the
m axim um current required to charge the N -FETs gate
is f(m ax) x Q g(typ). U se the typical Q g num ber from the
transistor data sheet. For exam ple, the M M FT3055EL
has a Q g(typ) of 7nC (at VG S = 5V), therefore the cur-
rent required to charge the gate is:
IG A TE (m ax)= (500kH z) (7nC ) = 3.5m A .
Figure 2as application circuit uses a 4-pin M M FT3055EL
surface-m ount N -FET that has 150m on-resistance w ith
4.5V VG S, and a guaranteed VTH of less than 2V. Figure
2cs application circuit uses an Si6426D Q logic-level N -
FET w ith a threshold voltage (VTH ) of 1V.
Diode Selec tion
The M A X608s high sw itching frequency dem ands a
hig h-sp eed rectifier. S chottky d iod es such as the
1N 58171N 5822 are recom m ended. M ake sure the
Schottky diodes average current rating exceeds the
peak current lim it set by R SEN SE, and that its break-
dow n voltage exceeds V O U T. For high-tem perature
applications, Schottky diodes m ay be inadequate due
to their hig h leakag e currents; hig h-sp eed silicon
diodes such as the M U R 105 or EC 11FS1 can be used
instead. A t heavy loads and high tem peratures, the
benefits of a Schottky diodes low forw ard voltage m ay
outw eigh the disadvantage of high leakage current.
Capac itor Selec tion
Output Filter Capacitor
The prim ary criterion for selecting the output filter capac-
itor (C 4) is low effective series resistance (ESR ). The
product of the peak inductor current and the output filter
capacitors ESR determ ines the am plitude of the ripple
seen on the output voltage. Tw o O S-C O N 100F, 16V
output filter capacitors in parallel w ith 35m of ESR each
typically provide 75m V ripple w hen stepping up from 2V
to 5V at 500m A (Figure 2a). Sm aller-value and/or higher-
ESR capacitors are acceptable for light loads or in appli-
cations that can tolerate higher output ripple.
Since the output filter capacitors ESR affects efficien-
cy, use low -ESR capacitors for best perform ance. See
Table 1 for com ponent selection.
Input Bypass Capacitors
The input bypass capacitor (C 1) reduces peak currents
draw n from the voltage source and also reduces noise
caused by the sw itching action of the M A X608 at the
voltage source. The input voltage source im pedance
determ ines the size of the capacitor required at the
O U T input. A s w ith the output filter capacitor, a low -ESR
capacitor is recom m ended. For output currents up to
1A , 150F (C 1) is adequate, although sm aller bypass
capacitors m ay also be acceptable.
B ypass the IC w ith a 0.1F ceram ic capacitor (C 2)
placed as close as possible to the O U T and G N D pins.
Reference Capacitor
B yp ass R E F w ith a 0.1F cap acitor (C 3). R E F can
source up to 100A of current for external loads.
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
10
______________________________________________________________________________________
Feed-Forward Capacitor
W hen adjusting the output voltage, it m ay be necessary
to parallel a 47pF to 220pF capacitor across R 2, as
show n in Figures 2 and 3. C hoose the low est capacitor
value that insures stability; high capacitance values
m ay degrade line regulation.
__________Applic ations Information
Starting Up Under Load
The Typical O perating C haracteristics show the Start-U p
Voltage vs. Load C urrent graphs for 5V and 12V output
voltages. These graphs depend on the type of pow er
sw itch used. The M A X608 is not designed to start up
under full load w ith low input voltages.
Layout Considerations
D ue to high current levels and fast sw itching w ave-
form s, w hich radiate noise, proper PC board layout is
essential. Protect sensitive analog grounds by using a
star ground configuration. M inim ize ground noise by
connecting G N D , the input bypass capacitor ground
lead, and the output filter capacitor ground lead to a
single point (star ground configuration). A lso, m inim ize
lead lengths to reduce stray capacitance, trace resis-
tance, and radiated noise. Place input bypass capaci-
tor C 2 as close as possible to O U T and G N D .
If an external resistor divider is used (Figures 2 and
3), the trace from FB to the resistors must be
extremely short.
M
A
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6
0
8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
PRODUCTION INDUCTORS CAPACITORS TRANSISTORS
Surface M ount
Sum ida
C D 54 series
C D R 125 series
C oiltronics
C TX20 series
C oilcraft
D O 3316 series
D O 3340 series
M atsuo
267 series
Sprague
595D series
A VX
TPS series
Sanyo
O S-C O N series
Siliconix
Si9410D Y
Si4410D Y
Si6426D Q
Si6946D Q
M otorola
M TP3055EL
M TD 20N 03H D L
M M FT3055ELT1
Through H ole
Sum ida
R C H 855 series
R C H 110 series
Sanyo
O S-C O N series
N ichicon
PL series
M otorola
1N 58171N 5822
M U R 105 (high-speed
silicon)
C entral Sem iconductor
C M PSH -3
C M PZ5240
N ihon
EC 11 FS1 series (high-
speed silicon)
M otorola
M B R S1100T3
M M B Z5240B L
DIODES
U SA : (603) 224-1961 (603) 224-1430 Sprague
U SA : (800) 554-5565 (408) 970-3950 Siliconix
U SA : (619) 661-6835 (619) 661-1055
Japan: 81-7-2070-1005 81-7-2070-1174
Sanyo
U SA : (708) 843-7500 (708) 843-2798
U SA : (805) 867-2555 (805) 867-2556 N ihon
U SA : (708) 956-0666 (708) 956-0702
Japan: 81-3-3607-5111 81-3-3607-5144
Sum ida
U SA : (516) 435-1110 (516) 435-1824
C entral
Sem iconductor
U SA : (800) 521-6274 (602) 952-4190 M otorola
U SA : (708) 639-6400 (708) 639-1469 C oilcraft
U SA : (714) 969-2491 (714) 960-6492
Japan: 81-6-337-6450 81-6-337-6456
U SA : (407) 241-7876 (407) 241-9339 C oiltronics
PHONE FAX SUPPLIER
U SA : (803) 448-9411 (803) 448-1943 A VX
M atsuo
N ichicon
M
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8
5V or Adjustable, Low-Voltage,
Step-Up DC-DC Controller
12
______________________________________________________________________________________
___________________Chip Topography
________________________________________________________Pac kage Information
OUT
FB
0 . 1 2 6 "
( 3 . 2 0 0 mm)
0 . 0 8 0 "
( 2 . 0 3 2 mm)
EXT
CS
GND
AGND
SHDN REF
TR A N SISTO R C O U N T: 501
SU B STR A TE C O N N EC TED TO O U T
DIM

A
A1
B
C
E
e
H
L
MIN
0.053
0.004
0.014
0.007
0.150

0.228
0.016
MAX
0.069
0.010
0.019
0.010
0.157

0.244
0.050
MIN
1.35
0.10
0.35
0.19
3.80

5.80
0.40
MAX
1.75
0.25
0.49
0.25
4.00

6.20
1.27
INCHES MILLIMETERS
21-0041A
Narrow SO
SMALL-OUTLINE
PACKAGE
(0.150 in.)
DIM

D
D
D
MIN
0.189
0.337
0.386
MAX
0.197
0.344
0.394
MIN
4.80
8.55
9.80
MAX
5.00
8.75
10.00
INCHES MILLIMETERS
PINS
8
14
16
1.27 0.050
L
0-8
H E
D
e
A
A1
C
0.101mm
0.004in.
B