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Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee and just as hard to sleep after.
Communication is a process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or
more people. It should include both transference and the understanding of meaning.
Communication is the life blood of social as well as corporate world. We exist because we
communicate. Even our silence communicates a lot. We all have a laymans idea of what
communication is , but let us try to understand the concept fully so that we can use it effectively.
Communication is the process by which we exchange meanings , facts , ideas ,opinions or
emotions with other people. It is an essential condition of our existence and the most important
activity of ours. The word communication has been derived from Latin word
communicare/communis that means to share or participate . Everybody knows that most of
the time , through speech or writing or any other means like exchange of a common set of
symbols , we are sharing information with other human beings. It is , therefore , first and
foremost a social activity. Man as a social animal has to communicate.
Communication is an exchange of facts , ideas , opinions or emotions by two or more persons.
General communication is different from business communication / Administrative
According to William Scott in his book organizational theory Administrative communication is
a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback
for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals
Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. However it is said to be
effective only when the message is understood and when it stimulates action or encourages the
receiver to think in new ways.
Your ability to communicate effectively increases productivity , both yours and your
With good communication skills , you can anticipate problems , make decisions , co-ordinate
work flow , supervise others , develop relationships and promote products and services.
Communication acts as tool for the effective work related flow of information.
You can shape the impressions you and your company make on colleagues , employees
,supervisors , investors ,and customers in addition to perceiving and responding to the needs of
these stakeholders(the various group you interact with ) without effective communication ,
people misunderstand each other and misinterpret information. Ideas misfire or fail to gain
attention and people and companies flounder.
Your organizations need for effective reach of company name and public promotions are based
on effective promotional material such as advertisements , bill boards , online add , posters etc
are all communicated for effective message delivery and meaning.
Giving advice is based on individual-oriented and work-oriented ,advice should not given to the
person for pinpointing his mistakes rather it should be helpful for his improvement. Effective
advice promotes understanding and it can be a two way process if the subordinate staff given
Order is an authoritative communication pattern and it is directive to somebody always a
subordinate to do something. Orders will be written and oral orders , general and specific orders
,procedural and operational orders , mandatory and discretionary order. Order should be clear
and complete ,execution should be possible and given in a friendly way.
Suggestion is supposed to be very mild and subtle form of communication. Suggestions are
welcomed for it is not obligatory to accept them , it can be voluntary and anonymous and
submitted through suggestion boxes.
Persuasion may be defined as an effort to influence the attitudes , feelings ,or beliefs of others ,
or to influence actions based on those attitudes , feelings , or beliefs. Persuasion can be done to
others if you are convinced , you do not impose , you are not rigid are prepared to meet half-way
and you can look at the situation from the other persons angle also.
Education is a very conscious process of communication ,it involves both teaching and learning
by which organizations provide to their employees in the form of training. Education is given for
management , employees and outside public.
If the employees do not abide by the norms of the organization warning is a power
communication tool and it can be general and specific. Specific warning should be administered
in private and after thorough investigation. The aim of the warning should be the organization
Morale stands for mental health and it is a sum of several qualities like courage , resolution ,
confidence .High morale and effective performance go hand to hand. Motivation is a process that
account for an individual intensity, direction , and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.
Communications main idea is to give and receive information because managers need complete
, accurate and precise information to plan and organize employee need it to translate planning in
to reality. Information will cover all aspects of the business.
Counseling is given to solve employees mental stress and improve the employees productivity.
Finally discipline is the foremost part of any business communication. The various disciplinary
codes are effectively communicated to employees through disciplinary codes.
Effective business messages have a common basic characteristics
1. Provide practical information : Business messages usually describe how to do something ,
explain why a procedure was changed , highlight the cause of a problem or a possible solution ,
discuss the status of a project , or explain why a new piece of equipment should be purchased.
2. Give facts rather than impression : Business messages use concrete language and specific
details. Information must be clear , convincing , accurate and ethical. You must present hard
evidence ( not just opinion ) and present all sides of an argument before you commit to a
3. Clarify and condense information : Business messages frequently use tables , charts , photos
, or diagrams to clarify or condense information , to explain a process , or to emphasize
important information.
4. State precise responsibilities : Business messages are directed to a specific audience.
Therefore , you must clearly state what is expected of , or what you can do for, that particular
5. Persuade others and offer recommendations : Business messages frequently persuade
employers , customers , or clients to purchase a product or service or adopt a plan of action. To
be effective , persuasive messages must show readers just how a product , service or idea will
benefit them specifically.


A person has an idea or thought which he wants to communicate to the other person. Now the
sender sends the message with a carefully selected medium and channel. The sender encodes the
idea (i.e) Written or spoken word , facial expression , gesture. The message length,tone, and style
all depends on your audience and your personal style or mood. The sender transmits the message
to the receiver in a form of channel (i.e) Telephone , letter , memo , email , report , face to face

The message will now enter in to the sensory world of the receiver. Sensory world we mean all
the noise that surrounds a person that the senses sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch can detect.

From this sensory world the receiver picks up the messages through his senses. But receiver
senses cannot detect all that exists in the world around him. Just how much they can detect
depends on a number of factors. One is the ability of his senses. As you know not all eyes see
equally well and not all ears hear equally well. And so it is with the other senses. Another factor
is receiver mental alertness. There are times when he is keenly alert to all that his senses can
detect, and there are times when he is dull in a stupor, a daydream, or the like. Then there are
the distractions NOISES that occur around receiver at the moment. They can weaken, perhaps
even eliminate, the stimuli sent. Furthermore, receiver cultural background has sensitized him
more to some stimuli than to others. Yet another limiting factor is the receiver will. In varying
degrees, the mind is able to tune in or tune out events in the sensory world. In a noisy room full
of people for example, the conversation of a single person can be selected and the other voices
When receiver senses pick up sender message, they relay it to his brain-that is, as much or as
little of the message as they detect. But the sender message may not be all that receiver senses
pick up. In addition to sender message, his sensory world may contain outside sounds,
movements of objects, facial expression, and the like. In fact, this senses are continually picking
up messages from the world around him. Sender message is just the primary one at the moment.
The others are there, and they might interfere with senders message.
When sender message gets to receiver brain, it goes through a sort of filtering or decoding
process. Through that process the receiver brain gives meaning to sender message. In other
words, the message is filtered through the contents of receiver mind. Those contents are made up
of all receiver knows. It includes all the cultural influences of his family , his organization
memberships, his social group, and such. In fact, it includes all receiver has learned, experienced
and thought throughout his life. Obviously , no two people have precisely identical filters, for no
two people have minds with precisely the same contents. Because people filters differ, the
meanings they give to comparable message may differ. Thus, the meaning receiver gives sender
message may not be precisely the same as the one that someone else would give it. And it may
not be meaning sender intended.

After his mind has given meaning to sender message, receiver may react to the message. If the
meaning he received is sufficiently strong, he may react by communicating some form of
response called feedback. This response may be through words, gestures, physical actions or
some other means.

When receiver elects to communicate a response, through his mind he determines the general
meaning encoding that the response will take. This process involves the most complex workings
of the mind, and we know little about it. There is evidence, however, that ability, here and
throughout this stage, is related to ones intelligence and the extent that one permits the mind to
react. Receiver ability to evaluate filtered information and formulate meaning also is related to
his stage, is related to ones intelligence and the extent that one permits the mind to react.
Receiver ability to evaluate filtered information and formulate meaning also is related to his
ability with language. Ability with language equips one with a variety of symbols, words and
other ways of expressing meaning. And the greater the number of symbols one possesses, the
better one can be at selecting and using them. Receiver ends this stage of the communication
process by forming a message. That is, he converts meaning in to symbols decodes mainly in to
words, and then he sends these symbols to sender. He may send them in a number of ways: as
spoken words, written words, gestures, movements, facial expression, diagrams on paper etc.
When receiver sends his message to sender, one cycle of the communication process ends. Now
a second cycle begins. Now the sender becomes the receiver and receiver becomes the
sender. The message enters receiver sensory world. Her senses pick it up and send it through her
nervous system to her brain. There her unique mental filter influences the meaning he gives to
sender message. This filtered meaning also may bring about a response. If it does, receiver,
through her mind, selects the symbols for his response. Then he sends them to sender, and
another cycle of communication begins. The process may continue, cycle after cycle, as long as
both sender and receiver want to communicate.
Although our description of the communication process illustrates face to face, oral
communication, it also fits written communication. But there are some differences. Perhaps the
most significant difference is that written communication is more likely to involve creative
effort. It is more likely to be thought out, and it may even begin in the mind rather than as a
reaction to a message received. A second differences is the time between cycles. In face to face
communication, cycles occur fast, often in rapid succession. In written communication, some
delay occurs. How long the delay will be varies. While instant and text messaging may be read
within a few seconds of sending, fax or email messages may be read within few minutes after
they are transmitted, letters in a few days, reports perhaps in days, weeks, or months. Because
they provide a record, written messages may communicate over extremely long time periods. A
third difference is that written communication usually involves a limited number of cycles and
oral communication usually involves many. In fact, some written communication is one cycle
communication. That is a message is sent and received, but none is returned.
Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: Control, motivation,
emotional expression, and information. Communication acts tocontrol member behavior in
several ways. Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are
required to follow. When employees, for instance, are required to first communicate any job
related grievance to their immediate boss, to follow their job description, or to comply with
company policies, communication is performing a control function. But informal communication
also controls behavior. When work groups tease or harass a member who produces too much and
makes the rest of the group look bad, they are informally communicating with, and controlling,
the members behavior. Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to
be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance if its subpar.
We saw this operating in our review of goal setting and reinforcement theories. The formation of
specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reinforcement of desired behavior all
stimulate motivation and require communication. For many employees, their work group is a
primary source for social interaction. The communication that takes place within the group is a
fundamental mechanism by which members show their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction.
Communication, therefore, provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for
fulfillment of social needs. The final function that communication performs relates to its role in
facilitating decision making. It provides theinformation that individuals and groups need to make
decisions by transmitting the data to identify and evaluate alternative choices.
Common myths about communication:
Words contain meaning . Untrue . In fact people attach meaning to words.
Information equals communication. Untrue. What matters is the degree of similarity between
the message sent and the message received.
Communication is a product you can control. Untrue everything said or done conveys a
message. Ex. Facial expression or cloths.
Good speakers are good communicators. Untrue . Effective communicators listen to the
audience and express their thoughts clearly in an understandable way.
Taking steps to establish effective communication :

Increasing the awareness of communication
Using and understanding verbal message
Using and understanding non linguistic cues
Listening and responding to other in a thought fuel way.
Attentive listening is crucial to effective listening :

Remember , Do not jump to conclusions before hearing what the other person has to say.
Do not interrupt
Deep understanding of human interaction is essential.
Since interpersonal communication occurs whenever we interact with other people. We learn
interpersonal skills since birth.
We could enhance them with :

The 10 human relations commands :-

1. Speak to people
2. Smile at people
3. Call people by name
4. Be friendly and helpful
5. Be cordial
6. Be genuinely interested in people
7. Be generous with praise
8. Be considerate
9. Be alert
10. Have a good sense of humor.
Six rules of effective communication:
1) Organize your thoughts
2) Dont think about it, think through it
3) Recognize that actions speak louder than words
4) Be concise
5) Always translate your message in to benefits for the other party
6) Listen carefully to the other party.

Effective communication strategies:

The result of the communication is the responsibility of the communicator
If you are not getting the result you want in communication try something different.
Communicate the message in others view point
Always focus weather your communication is successful in reaching the receiver. No matter
whether the message is right or wrong.
Communication can change reality and it is a effective tool for creating trust.

Whether an organization is large , small or virtual , sharing information among its parts and with
the outside world is the glue that binds the organization together. When you join a company ,
you become a link in its information chain. Whether youre a top manager or an entry-level
employee , you have information that others need in order to perform their jobs, and others have
information that is crucial to you. To succeed organization must share information with people
both inside and outside the company. It includes the internal and external structure through
which messages pass and the way information is presented , as well as the actual content of the
messages themselves. As you exchange information with people inside and outside the
organization you use a variety of formal and informal forms of communication.



Planned communication
among with insiders (
letters , reports , memos ,
e-mail ) that follows the
companys chain of
Planned communication with
outsiders ( letters , reports , memos ,
speeches , websites and news
release )
Casual communication
among employees ( email
, face-to-face
conversations and phone
calls that do not follow the
companys chain of
command )
Casual communication with
suppliers , customers , investors and
other outsiders ( Face- to-face
conversations , email and phone
calls )

I NTERNAL COMMUNI CATI ON : It refers to the exchange of information and ideas within an
organization. As employee, you are in a position to observe things that your supervisors and co-
workers cannot see: a customers first reaction to a product display , a suppliers brief hesitation
before agreeing to a delivery date or a slowdown in the flow of customers. Managers and co-
workers need these little gems of information in order to do their jobs. Internal communication
helps employees do their jobs , develop a clear sense of the organizations mission and identify
and react quickly to potential problems. To maintain a healthy flow of information within the
organization , effective communicators use both formal and informal channels.
Formal internal communication network : The formal flow of information follows the
official chain of command. There are organizational charts in many companys which commands
good communication flow. In organization information flows down , up , and across the formal
Downward flow : Organizational decisions are usually made at the top and then flow down to
the people who will carry them out. Most of what filters downward is geared towards helping
employees do their jobs. From top to bottom , each person must understand each message , apply
it , and pass it along.
Upward Flow : To solve problems and make intelligent decisions , managers must learn whats
going on in the organization. Because they cant be everywhere at once, executives depend on
lower-level employees to furnish them with accurate , timely reports on problems , emerging
trends , opportunities for improvement , grievances , and performance.
Horizontal flow : Communication also flows from one department to another , either laterally or
diagonally. This horizontal communication helps employees share information and coordinate
tasks , and it is especially useful for solving complex and difficult problems.
Formal organization charts illustrate how information is supposed to flow. In actual practice ,
however , lines and boxes on a piece of paper cannot prevent people from talking with one
Informal internal communication : Every organization has an informal communication
network known as grapevine that supplements official channels. As people go about their work ,
they have casual conversations with their friends in the office. Although many of these
conversations deal with personal matters , about 80 percent of the information that travels along
the grapevine pertains to business. The informal communication network carries information
along the organizations unofficial lines of activity and power. The grapevine is an important
source of information in most organizations.
EXTERNAL COMMUNI CATI ON: The external communication network links the organization
with the outside world of customers , suppliers , competitors , and investors , journalists , and
community representatives. Sometimes this external communication is carefully orchestrated
especially during a crisis. At other times it occurs informally as part of routine business
Formal external communication : Companies use external communication to create a
favorable impression. Whether by letter , website , phone , fax , internet , or videotape , good
communication is the first step in creating a favorable impression. Carefully constructed letters ,
reports , memos , oral presentation , and websites convey an important message to outsiders
about the quality of your organization. Messages such as statements to the press , letters to
investors , advertisements , price increase announcements and litigation updates require special
care because of their delicate nature. Therefore , such documents are often drafted by a
marketing or public relations team a group of individuals whose sole job is creating and
managing the flow of formal messages to outsiders. The public relations team is also responsible
for helping management plan for and respond to crises which can range from environmental
accidents or sabotage situations to strikes , massive product failure , major litigation , or even an
abrupt change in management. To minimize the impact of any crisis , expert communicators
advise managers to communicate honestly , openly , and often. If handled improperly , a crises
can destroy a companys reputation.
Informal external communication : Although companies usually communicate with outsiders
in a formal manner , informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning about customer
needs. As a member of an organization , you are an important informal conduit for
communicating with the outside world. Every employee informally accumulates facts and
impressions that contribute to the organizations collective understanding of the outside world. In
the course of your daily activity you unconsciously absorb bits and pieces of information that
add to the collective knowledge of your company. Top managers rely heavily on informal
contacts with outsiders to gather information that might be useful to their companies. Much of
their networking involves interaction with fellow executives. Many top level employees
recognize the fact that keeping constant touch with the external real world , front line employees
, customers by making a opportunity to talk to them and getting feedback helps in organizational
improvement. Receiving feedback is considered to be the most important aspect of



The study of clear business writing logically begins with adaptation. By adaptation we mean
fitting the message to the specific reader. You should form your message to fit that persons
mind. This process of adaptation begins with visualizing what the reader imagine, what he feels,
thinks and such. In many business situations, adapting to your reader means writing on a level
lower than the one you would normally use. In writing to less educated workers, for example you
may need to simplification, for highly educated people you may write differently. At times
adapting to multiple reader, if you write for one person in the group, you may miss the others. To
communicate with all of them, write for the lowest member of the group. There fore adaptation is
a basic rule which underlines all writing aspects.
Selecting the write word is a part of a adaptation. Following are some suggestions to help you
select words. These suggestions stress simplicity for three reasons (1) Many people tend to write
at a difficult level (2) The writer usually knows the subject better than the readers and (3) The
results of research based on writing skills support simplicity.
Using familiar words to communicate related to the language that most of us use in everyday
conversation. Example Instead of using the terminate, use end. Instead of using endeavor use try.
At the same time the suggestion to use familiar words does not rule out some use of more
difficult words. Difficult words are not all bad. Use them when they fit your needs and are
At any given time in any society same slang words and clichs are in vogue. Use popular slang
and clichs when meaningful. Thus you should use such expressions always only in informal
communication with people who know and appreciate them.

CHOOSE SHORT WORDS: Generally short words communicate better than long words. Some
times exceptions exist. You should concentrate on short words and use long words with caution.
Use a long word only when you think you reader knows it.
Every field of business, accounting, information systems, and finance has its technical language.
This language can be so complex that is some cases specialized dictionaries are compiled. These
words are useful when you communicate with people inn your field. But they do not
communicate with outsiders. Use them with caution. Some examples covered employment,
cerebral vascular accident, annuity, bob tail etc. These words are all well known to people in
special fields, but not to most outsiders. Initials including acronyms should be used with caution
too. Spell out and define as needed.
In a way, words are like people, they have personalities some words are strong and vigorous.
Some are weak and dull and some fall between these extremes. Good writers know these
differences and they consider them carefully. They use the words that do the best job of carrying
the intended meaning. As a rule, they make the stronger words stand out. To select words wisely,
you should consider shades of difference in meanings. Example bear market is stronger than
generally declining market; mother is stronger than female parent. Sometimes weaker words
serve your purpose best. Verbs are the strongest words. Verbs are action words. Nouns are
second which are the doers of the action, heroes of the sentence. Adjectives and adverbs are
weak words. They involve judgment. Use them sparingly.
Good communication is marked by words that form sharp and clear meaning in the mind. These
are concrete words and you should prefer them in your writing. They stand for things that exist in
the real world: deck, chair, and road. Abstract nouns on the other hand cover broad meanings
concepts, ideas and the like. Their meaning is general, as in their example administration,
communication etc. Concreteness also involves how we put words to gather. Exact or specific
wordings are concrete, vague and general wordings are abstract.
While writing prefer the active voice than passive voice. In active the subject does the action, in
passive voice it receives the action. Active voice is stronger and shorter.
Example: Passive voice: The result were reported in our JULY 9 letter
Active voice: we reported the result in our JULY 9 letter.
At times passive voice is better when the doer of the action is not important. Passive voice helps
avoid accusing the reader and passive voice is better when the performer is not known. Your
decision on whether to use active or passive voice is not simply a matter of choice. It is also
better when the writer prefer not to name the performer.
Writing requires some knowledge of language. In fact, the greater your knowledge of language,
the better you are likely to write. You should study language and learn the shades of the
difference in meanings of other words. Use correct idiom. By idiom we mean the ways things are
said in a language you can use idioms for certain reasons but violations of idiom rule affect the
By discrimination (or) discriminatory words we mean words that do not treat all people equally
and with respect. Avoid words that discriminate against sex, race, nationality, age, sexual
orientation or disability. We often use discriminatory words without bad intent.
a) Use gender neutral words : Avoid using masculine pronouns for both sexes (he, his,him)
b) You can make the reference plural (their, them , they)
c) You can express neutral by ( he or she , he/she , you, they etc)
d) Avoid words suggesting male dominance ( Man-made to manufactured, Businessman to
business executive, salesman to sales executive)
e) Dont use words which lower the status of women
f) Avoid words that stereotype by race, nationality, sexual orientation, old age, disability.
How to Write a Letter
The art of writing a letter takes practice, knowledge about proper form and the ability to put into
words the thoughts and feelings which are associated with the letter. Learning to write a letter
can be difficult, as there are multiple types of letters which can written. To avoid the time that it
may take to learn to write each one of these letters, if you are able to learn to write a basic letter
that will help you to create letters for a variety of occasions.
Parts of the Letter:
Your address
At the top of your letter, you will put your address, so the reader will know where to send their
reply to.
Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. June, 15, 2009.
Inside Address
The inside address is only required for a business letter and will include the address of the person
you are writing to along with the name of the recipient, their title and company name. If you are
not sure who the letter should be addressed to either leave it blank or try to put in a title, i.e.
Director of Human Resources.
The Greeting
The greeting will address the individual that the letter is being sent to. This is usually completed
in the form of Dear Anne or Hey Anne, for less formal letters.
The Introductory Paragraph
The first paragraph and will generally outline the purpose for the letter and the reason that the
letter is being sent. This can address any issues that are outstanding and is used to set the tone for
the entire rest of the letter. In this first paragraph, the summary of the letter can be found and the
intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined. From the first
paragraph of the letter, the introductory paragraph, the individual should be able to note the tone
of the letter.
The Body
The body of the letter will expand upon the introductory paragraph and the individual can extend
their thoughts and feelings further when it comes to the letter. The body of the letter can be
anywhere from multiple pages for personal letters, to one page or two pages for most business
letters and other types of proposals.
The Closing
In the closing of the letter, the individual will close the letter and finish any thoughts that have
been mentioned. The closing of the letter comes in various forms from yours truly, for those
individuals that are familiar with one another, to a traditional sincerely which is a versatile
closing that can be used in a variety of letters detailing many situations.
The Presentation of the Letter
The presentation of the letter can be hand-written for less formal letters that are addressed to
friends and family members, especially thank-you letters. In the case that you have illegible
handwriting, you may want to consider typing the letter in these cases, although proper etiquette
dictates against this type of behavior.
Formal letters which are written on behalf of businesses to or professional contacts should
remain typewritten and grammatical and spelling error free. These types of letters should be
legible and professional and therefore typing the letter is one of the most effective ways to ensure
that the letter demonstrates a professional appearance through the entire course of the letter,
thereby creating a positive impression on the recipient of the letter.
As well as outward presentation, it is important to determine the tone which will be written in the
letter, including a professional tone or a tone that will be taken with friends or family members in
a more informal setting. The tone should be established from the greeting of the letter, into the
introductory paragraph, throughout the entire body of the letter and even into the closing
statement and closing greeting of the letter. Read through the letter once it has been completed to
ensure that the tone remains the same. The tone can be adjusted based on the language which is
used through the letter, as well as the greetings (familiar as opposed to formal).

Letter Writing Tips
Always proofread your letter after writing it, check for sentence structure, grammar,
spelling mistakes
Proof read your letter again (and again) after you have revised it.
Keep the recipient in mind, and write in a way that he/she can easily understand the
Dont use abbreviated dates, i.e. use November 19, 2004, and not 11/19/04
Be respectful when you write, even if you are writing a letter of complaint.
Business letter writing tips
Be concise and keep to the point, but dont leave out any important information.
Try to keep your letter short enough so that it fits on one page.
If your letter is more than a page long, use another page, dont use the back of the page.
If you have access to company (or personal) stationary with a letterhead on it, use that
instead of regular paper.
Business Letter Writing
Purpose of a Business Letter
A business letter (or formal letter) is a formal way of communicating between two or more
parties. There are many different uses and business letters. Business letters can be informational,
persuasive, motivational, or promotional. Business letters should be typed and printed out on
standard 8.5 x 11 white paper.
Elements of a Good Letter
The most important element of writing a good letter is your ability to identify and write to your
audience. If you are addressing your letter to the department of human resources, avoid using
highly technical terms that only engineers would understand, even if your letter is addressed to
an engineering company, chances are that the personnel in human resources does not have an
engineering background.
The next element is that you make sure your present your objective in a clear and concise
manner. Dont be vague about your objective, most people will not have the patience to sit there
and guess at the meaning of your letter or the time to read a long-winded letter, just get to the
point without going into unnecessary details.
Another important element to remember is to remain professional. Even if you are writing a
complaint letter, remain polite and courteous, simply state the problem(s) along with any other
relevant information and be sure to avoid threats and slander.
Business Email Writing
The following are some tips to help you when you are writing business letters through email.
A heading is not necessary in an email (your return address, their address, and the date).
Use a descriptive subject line.
Avoid using an inappropriate or silly email, register a professional sounding address if
you dont have one.
Use simple formatting, keep everything flush with the left margin; avoid special
formatting and tabs.
Keep your letter formal, just because its an email instead of a hard copy is no excuse for
informality (dont forget to use spell check and proper grammar).
Try to keep your letter less than 80 characters wide, some email readers will create line
breaks on anything longer and ruin the formatting.
If possible avoid attachments unless the recipient has requested or is expecting an
attachment. If it is a text document, simply cut and paste the text below your letter and
strip off any special formatting.
If the persons name is unknown, address the persons title i.e. Dear Director of Human
Business and Workplace Email Etiquette
Email etiquette is often a commonly overlooked part of the business and professional world
despite being an important part of conveying a professional image. Emails written to friends and
family will be less formal and will not need to follow any particular guidelines or rules, but when
writing to someone at a professional level the following guidelines and rules should be taken into
Guidelines and Rules of Email Etiquette
Use a descriptive subject line, avoid leaving it blank or putting an irrelevant or general
Address the recipient by name to add a personal touch to your letter.
Avoid over using punctuation marks!!!!!!!!!!!!
Avoid using abbreviations, such as IMHO (in my humble opinion) or TTYL (talk to you
later), not everyone is familiar with them.
Skip a line when starting a new paragraph, avoid using tabs to signify a new paragraph,
different email programs read tabs in different ways.
Avoid using HTML in your e-mails, not everyone can view it and it takes away from the
professional image of the letter.
If you are sending an attachment, make note of it and describe what the attachment is for
in the body, some people are very wary of attachments due to the threat of computer
Keep your emails as concise as possible without leaving out any important information.
Keep usage of quoted text to a minimum.
Always leave a signature line, dont assume the person already knows who you are.
Do not keep on sending the same message to the same person over and over again, if they
dont respond after a few days, send them an e-mail enquiring if they received your first
Use spell check and proof read and revise your letter after its done.
Use threads, if you get a message from someone and you are going to respond, dont send
a new message, simply hit the reply option on your email, this keeps the original subject
line with Re: in front of it.
If you are sending out an email to a large private list dont use CC: (carbon copy) use
BCC: (blind carbon copy) to protect the addresses of the recipients.
Remember most emails are never completely private, there is always a chance of someone
else besides the intended recipient reading it, so avoid writing any personal attacks which
are unprofesional to begin with.
When reading emails treat them as if they are private messages (unless you know you are
allowed to share it with others).
When you receive a message reply to it as soon as you have time to
Business Letter Format
Block Format: Business Letter
Return Address Line 1 1
Return Address Line 2Date (Month Day, Year) 2
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient. 3
Title/Position of Recipient.
Company Name
Address Line 1
Address Line 2
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name: 4
Subject: Title of Subject 5
Body Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Body Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Body Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Closing (Sincerely), 7
Signature 8
Your Name (Printed) 9
Your Title
Enclosures (2) 10
Typist Initials. 11
The block format is the simplest format; all of the writing is flush against the left margin.
Your Address 1
The return address of the sender of the letter so the recipient can easily find out where to send a
reply to. Skip a line between your address and the date. (Not needed if the letter is printed on
paper with the company letterhead already on it.)
Date 2
Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. August 30, 2003.
Skip a line between the date and the inside address (some people skip 3 or 4 lines after the date).
Inside Address 3
The address of the person you are writing to along with the name of the recipient, their title and
company name, if you are not sure who the letter should be addressed to either leave it blank, but
try to put in a title, i.e. Director of Human Resources. Skip a line between the date and the
Salutation 4
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name:, Dear Director of Department Name: or To Whom It May
Concern: if recipients name is unknown. Note that there is a colon after the salutation. Skip a
line between the salutation and the subject line or body.
Subject Line (optional) 5
Makes it easier for the recipient to find out what the letter is about. Skip a line between the
subject line and the body.
Body 6
The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced
with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip a line between the end of the body and the
Closing 7
Lets the reader know that you are finished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely,
Sincerely yours, Thank you, and so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing
and only the first word in the closing is capitalized. Skip 3-4 lines between the closing and the
printed name, so that there is room for the signature.
Signature 8
Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen.
Printed Name 9
The printed version of your name, and if desired you can put your title or position on the line
underneath it. Skip a line between the printed name and the enclosure.
Enclosure 10
If letter contains other document other than the letter itself your letter will include the word
Enclosure. If there is more than one you would type, Enclosures (#) with the # being the
number of other documents enclosed that doesnt include the letter itself.Reference Initials 11
If someone other than yourself typed the letter you will include your initials in capital letters
followed by the typists initials in lower case in the following format; AG/gs or AG:gs.
Modified Block Format: Business Letter
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient. 3
Title/Position of Recipient.
Company Name
Address Line 1
Address Line 2
Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name: 4
Subject: Title of Subject 5
Body Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Body Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Body Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Enclosures (2) 10
Typist Initials. 11
Return Address Line 1 1
Return Address Line 2Date (Month Day, Year) 2
Closing (Sincerely), 7Signature 8
Your Name (Printed) 9
Your Title
In the modified block format, your address, date (the date can actually go on either the left or the
right side), the closing, signature, and printed name are all indented to the right half of the page
(how far you indent in is up to you as long as the heading and closing is lined up, use your own
discretion and make sure it looks presentable).
Addressing an Envelope

Addressing an envelope should be fairly simple.
In the upper-left hand corner should be your name, and underneath that should be your
return address.
In the upper-right hand corner should be the postage stamp (with the correct postage
In the middle-center should be the recipients name and recipients address.
Envelope Format
Your Name
Return Address Line 1
Return Address Line 2

Recipient Name
Recipient Address Line 1
Recipient Address Line 2

Helpful Tips
Print/write all the information on the envelope before stuffing and sealing it so it will be
written/printed on a flat surface. If you are writing to a different country, make sure you
put it at on the last line of your return address and the recipients address. If you are
writing a friendly letter with a small envelope, you can write the return address on the flap
of the envelope if there is no room on the top-left hand corner.

Writing a Complaint Letter

The complaint letter should be written in the business letter format. When writing a complaint
letter you want to keep it short and to the point to help ensure that your letter will be read in its
entirety, if you write a seven page complaint letter, its highly unlikely that someone will sit
down and read all seven pages.
The complaint letter should be addressed to the customer service/consumer affairs department or
the head office if there is no customer service department. The address and contact information
of the customer service department should be available on the companys products or website.
Complaint Letter Writing
In the first paragraph you should identify what the issue is and any relevant information that you
believe is important. Be sure to include the following information if its applicable to the
situation: the date/time of the issue, location, name of person on duty, name of product, what the
problem was, your account number, model number, price, warranty information and reference
number. Be sure to stick with the facts and avoid putting emotions into your letter.
The next paragraph should state what you would like done to resolve the situation. If you
received poor service, you could request an apology or a coupon. If a product malfunctioned, you
could request that you could exchange the product for a new one or request a refund.
The last paragraph should thank the reader for the time. You can also throw in some
compliments about something you liked about their companys product or service.
You should include your telephone number/e-mail address after your printed name so that they
can contact you ASAP if necessary.
Be sure to keep a copy of the letter for yourself and include photocopies of any relevant
documents and enclose them with your letter.

Writing a Letter of Interest
The letter of interest is also called a prospecting letter and with good reason. Its a type of
cover letter you write when youre searching for a golden job opportunity. The letter of interest
is your first chance to make a good impression on a prospective employer.
Letters of interest are written to express your interest in working for a particular company in a
specific field. Your letter may be written either in response to a job opening or just to investigate
possible employment.
Human resource departments receive dozens of letters of interest each week. However, make
your letter stand out from the crowd using the following tips:
1. Before you write, do your homework. Research the background of the company and
familiarize yourself with their products and/or services.
2. Be sure to find out the name of the individual who does the hiring. Address your letter to
his/her attention and use her/his name in the salutation. To Whom It May Concern and
Dear Sir or Madam are both outdated and considered to be lazy or even rude.
3. Start your introductory paragraph with the reason you are interested in pursuing
employment with this company. Try not to start the first sentence with I. (See sample
letter of interest.) Also, explain what prompted your inquiry, such as a classified
advertisement, a media article or interview, or a referral from an employee.
4. In the next paragraph(s), give specific examples of your qualifications. Dont hesitate to
indicate the reasons why you would be an asset to the company. Illustrate your skills,
strengths, and achievements in a professional, yet personable way. Stay away from strings
of abbreviated credentials. These, if you have them, should be on the resume youll
enclose with the letter. Direct the reader to your resume and any other enclosures.
5. In your final paragraph, thank the individual for his/her time in considering you as a new
employee. Indicate a precise time when you will contact him/her by phone to follow up on
your letter. Also, be sure to let the individual know how to contact you.
Like any business letter, use 8.5 x 11 paper and follow a business letter format. Keep your
letter short, no more than a single page. Remember to check it thoroughly for errors in spelling,
grammar and to be sure it addresses each point you wanted to make.

Cover Letter Writing

What is a cover letter?
A cover letter is a brief one page letter sent along with the resume to potential employers. The
purpose of the cover letter is to present yourself to potential employers and to let them know
what position you are interested in and why youd be a good fit for their company.
Cover Letter Format
The cover letter format should be almost identical to the regular business letter format.
Cover Letter Writing
Generally the cover letter will consist of three paragraphs. The first paragraph is an introductory
one which introduces yourself. You want to include information on the position you are looking
for and how you heard about and why you are interested in the position and/or company.
The second paragraph should provide information on your skill, strengths, education,
qualifications and/or experience. This paragraph should be concise and give specific examples of
why you are the ideal candidate and not simply restate your resume.
The final paragraph should close up the letter by requesting an interview and possibly suggestion
times that are convenient for you or stating that you can come in at a time thats convenient for
the employer. Also you should let the recipient know what the best way and/or time to contact
you is (you should let them know both your contact email and phone number so that they can
contact you in their preferred method). Or you can let them that youll follow up on this letter
with a phone call in several days. You should thank them for their time to close up the letter.
Each cover letter that you send out should be unique and tailored to the specific company and
position you are applying to. Using one cookie cutter cover letter will lessen your chances for
landing an interview. Also be sure to check for grammar and spelling and keep the letter to one
page in length.

Writing an Apology Letter
An apology letter shows that you are sorry and says that you value your relationship with the
other party. The sooner an apology letter is written and sent out the better it is for the
relationship. Depending on the nature of the letter, it can either be written in the friendlyor
the business letter format.
Friendly/Personal Apology Letter
If this is a personal letter you should start the letter by saying that you are sorry to the recipient.
Next you should admit your fault and take responsibility for your actions. Next you should
volunteer or ask if there is any way that you can help out to resolve the situation. Then you
should let the recipient that you will try to make sure that the situation will not happen again. To
close off the letter you should apologize again. When writing a personal apology letter it should
come from the heart and be sincere.
Formal/Business Apology Letter
If this is a business letter you should start the letter by saying that you are sorry to the recipient.
Next you should give an explanation as to what went wrong. Then you should try to rectify the
problem. To close off the letter you should apologize again.
Writing a Letter of Appeal
In cases where unfair treatment was committed, a letter of appeal can help to rectify the situation.
An appeal letter allows you to state your side of the story using facts to support your cause to
convince the reader(s) to reconsider your case. The letter should be written in the business letter
Appeal Letter Writing
The first paragraph should introduce yourself and explain why you are writing the letter.
Although it may be difficult, be sure to keep your tone and emotions in check so that you can
show that you can present an objective viewpoint. Keep the first paragraph as concise and clear
as possible so that the reader can immediately understand its urgency.
The next paragraph(s) should narrate the account of what happened, and why your appeal should
be granted. Include all the necessary facts in order to legitimize your case. You can start by
referring to your handbook or guidelines as member of that particular group or institution. Also,
provide specific times and date when particular events occurred. To make your letter more
reader-friendly, use bullet-points every time you need to enumerate. After doing this, refer to
testimonials from people related to your work, transcript of records, and medical certificate, if
necessary. Be certain to cover all the bases necessary to
The last part should summarize everything you have stated above. Repeat the necessary points
that need to be elucidated. Also include the contact details and where you can be reached. Close
out the letter by thanking the reader for their time.

Writing an Invitation Letter
An invitation letter serves the purpose of inviting a guest to a party, an event or a celebration
while conveying more information than a traditional invitations card. It serves two purposes;
one, to invite the individual to the event and two, to ensure that the person receiving the letter is
going to attend.
There are two tenses used within the invitation letter, the present and the future. The present
tense conveys information about the event and the future tense ensures the guest is going to
Business Invitation Letter
An invitation letter is a formal way to invite peers and clients to events which are being hosted
by the company and are one of the most popular ways of inviting guests to functions. The
professional invitation should be written in a formal tone, even when being sent to friends and
family members, if the letter is also being sent to professional contacts.
The introduction allows the host and sender to introduce themselves, as well as the organization
in which they have chosen to represent. A simple background of the individual or company will
suffice in this section of the letter.
Next, in the body of the letter it is important to outline all of the information about the event. The
date and time should be included as well as the theme and purpose for the event. At this point, a
date should be mentioned in which guests should provide their reply by, and it may also contain
any information regarding special roles played at the event, attire and items required for the guest
to bring.
Be sure to mention any specifications about dress code in the invitation letter.
Next, in one sentence, the appreciation for the guest to attend the party should be shown. This
can be completed with a formal note, stating that you look forward to seeing the individual at the
event. Remember, this needs to keep in tone with the rest of the letter.
The conclusion should contain the sign off and a line that ties the complete letter together,
drawing the end of the invitation, with a salutation and a signature.
Friendly Invitation Letter
A friendly invitation letter is similar to a business letter but contains less formal speech and can
make nuances with memories that may be shared with the guests whom are being invited to the
Friendly invitation letters are used for a variety of reasons from engagement parties and showers
to wedding invitations. They can also be used for personal parties and showers as well as
housewarming get together. Personal invitation letters should be signed with a less formal sign
off, such as; yours sincerely, best, or sincerely.
Invitation letters are used as an alternative to traditional invitations. They allow the host to
convey different messages through the tone of the letter. Invitation letters allow the host to
convey additional information that what is traditionally shared in an invitation card. Memories
can be shared with close friends and family members that bring about memories of past events.
When sending an invitation letter, be sure to edit it completely, ensuring there are no
punctuation, grammatical or spelling errors before the letter is sent to potential guests. Using
these techniques, you should be able to create personal and professional invitation letters with
Writing a Resignation Letter
Before sitting down and writing a resignation letter, you should be almost 100% certain that you
want to leave your current job, if not many complications can arise.
The resignation letter should be written in the business letter format and be directed towards your
supervisor or manager.
At a minimum the letter should state that you are leaving, when you are leaving, and thank them
for the time that they have employed you. It is common courtesy to give at least two weeks
notice before you leave your job, but sometimes youll have no control over it.
It is important that you keep your letter positive, you want to maintain a good relationship with
your employer and co-workers, and they can be potential future references or business
associates. If you feel like your reason for leaving is honorable, you can include the reason for
leaving in your letter, but if you think your reason for leaving may rub your employer the wrong
way, there is no need to put the reason in your letter.

Resignation Letter Writing
The first paragraph of your letter should state that you are leaving and when you are leaving.
The second paragraph should explain your reason for leaving the company. (This paragraph is
In the third paragraph you can offer to make your resignation go smoothly for the company. For
example, you can offer to help train a replacement with the time you still have left. (This
paragraph is also optional.)
The last paragraph should thank the employer for the opportunity to work for, wish them well
and/or express interest in maintaning your professional relationship.
Requesting a Letter of Recommendation
Getting a good recommendation letter can significantly help you out in your application process
so it is important to ask someone who you are in good terms with for a letter. It is also important
to ask someone that knows you well for a recommendation and ask them for it in person. If you
are seeking a letter for college or graduate schools, then it is recommended that you request
letters from your teachers/professors. If you are seeking a letter for a job, business or
professional school then it would be ideal if you got one from your current company. If you have
not been at your current company long or if you are not currently employed then asking a
previous employer is recommended. If that is not possible seek recommendations from respected
professionals that you may know, such as doctors, lawyers, politicians, ministers and so on.
Ask for the letters early on, dont wait until the day before the letter is supposed to be sent in to
request the letters of recommendation. Instead ask ahead of time. If you are going to apply to
school ask your professor at least a month ahead of time. If you are seeking a professional letter,
ask for a letter of recommendation whenever you leave a job.
Assist the writer with as much material as necessary, providing the writer with your resume and
a list of achievements will make it easier on the writer. You may also want to give him/her any
information that will help with the letter including your plans for the future, your strengths,
experiences and other qualities you want to be presented in the letter. Be honest about the
information you give, if you embellish itll catch up with you later.
You should provide the writer with a stamped and addressed envelope. Also if there is a
guideline that needs to be followed or any other material that needs to be filled out, you should
provide that to him/her.
After the letter is sent out, you should send a thank you note to the writer. You can also thank
them in person or over the phone as well.

Job Interview Thank You Letters
You should write a thank you letter as soon as possible (within 24 hours is recommended) after
the job interview, at a minimum this should be done through email but is recommended that you
do this through a hard-copy of a letter printed out of your computer which can be sent in through
the postal mail or faxed in. Hand written notes on thank you cards are also acceptable and good
for short thank you notes.
A hard-copy thank you letter should be written in the business letter format, while an email
should be sent in the same format but without the heading (your return address, their address, and
the date).
Thank you letter writing
The first paragraph should consist of thanking the interviewer for the interviewing you (remind
him/her about the position you interviewed for and the date of your interview). You can also
include information about your impressions about the company.
The second paragraph should state your interests in the company and include any additional
information about yourself that was not brought up in the interview which would make you a
good candidate for the position. You can also emphasize your qualifications that were already
discussed during the interview (dont make this paragraph too long, try to keep it between 3-5
sentences, pick the traits that you think were most important to the interviewer and emphasize
The last paragraph should let the recruiter know that you expect to hear from them soon. Also let
them know that you are available to come in again and are willing to discuss the job further.
Write down your contact information again and what the best method and/or time to contact you
is. To finish up the letter, thank them again for the interview.
A thank you letter shows that you have good business etiquette, your interest in the
company and the position, and reiterates your positive qualifications to the interviewer so
it should not be put off.
If there was more than one interviewer; write individual thank you letters to each of the
interviewers (make sure each letter is unique). If it was a panel of interviewers
interviewing you at the same time, you can send out one letter and address it to the head
interviewer and the interview panel and thank them as one group.
If you forget the spelling or the names of the interviewers, simply call the company and
request the proper spelling and title.
Keep the thank you letter brief; make sure the letter does not go past one page in length.
Check for proper grammar usage and spelling.
Friendly Letter Writing
Purpose of a Friendly Letter
A friendly letter (or informal letter) is a way of communicating between two people (sometimes
more) who are usually well acquainted. There are many uses and reasons for writing a friendly
letter, but usually friendly letters will consist of topics on a personal level. Friendly letters can
either be printed or hand-written.
Friendly Letter Writing
The friendly letter is typically less formal than that of a business letter. Usually the first
paragraph of the body will consist of an introduction which will give the recipient an idea about
youre writing to them with a short summary of the main topic of your letter. If you dont know
the person you are writing to, you may want to introduce yourself in this introductory paragraph
as well.
The next few paragraphs will usually consist of the message you want to get across along with
any details you may want to convey.
The last paragraph will usually be the conclusion where you wrap everything up. You can sum
up your main idea in this paragraph, thank the recipient for their time, wish the recipient well,
and/or ask any questions.
Since friendly letters are less formal, you can feel free to write it however you like, but the above
format is fairly common.

Writing a Condolence Letter
Writing a letter of condolence is one of the most difficult tasks we undertake because its always
hard to know just what to say. Of course, what you say depends on how close you were to the
deceased and/or the recipient of the letter.
Condolence Letter Writing
A condolence letter should be written in a friendly format. Unless you are a close friend or
relative, start the letter by introducing yourself. In the next paragraph, offer your sympathy. The
third (and final) paragraph is the place to offer assistance (if you are sincere in your desire to
help) and to try to say something that genuinely helps the bereaved work through their grief.
What you dont say in a condolence letter is almost more important than what you do say. All the
same, even if you only write a line or two, youll show the family your support.
Condolence Letter Tips/Notes
1. Keep condolence letters short. The family may have a mountain of cards and letters to read
and answer. Dont add to their burden.
2. Never say you know how they feel. Simply put, you dont. Even if you have endured a similar
situation, grief is a very intimate series of feelings that are unique to each individual. Dont
intrude on them.
3. When my son passed away, a well-meaning friend said, At least he didnt leave any children
behind. Her well-meaning words rattled me to the bone. I would have gladly given my life to
hold his son in my arms just one time. Especially in cases where death was a long-suffering
ordeal, you may be tempted to write that it was a blessing or relief. Dont. Some words are
best left unsaid.
4. Do share a fond memory of the departed in the body (second paragraph) of your letter. The
passing of a loved one leaves a big hole in our lives. A well-written condolence letter helps fill
the hole with friendship and love.
Business reports are vital to larger organization. You will probably write complex &formal
reports when you work for large organization. A business report is an orderly and objective &
communication of factual information that serves a business purpose. As key words orderly
communication a report is prepared carefully. The objective quality of a report is its unbiased
approach. Reports seeks truth. They avoid human bias. The word communication is broad in
meaning. It covers all ways of transmitting meaning: Speaking, writing, drawing & such factual
information is based on events, records, data and the like. Not all reports are business reports. To
be classified as a business report must serve a business purpose.
Getting your problem clearly in mind is largely a matter of gathering all the information needed
to understand it and then applying your best logic to it. It includes collecting data from company
files, talking over the problem with experts, searching through print and electronic sources and
discussing the problem those who authorized the report.
The next step is writing the problem statement clearly is a good practice. A writing statement of
the problem normally takes one of the three forms: Infinitive phrase, question or declarative
(i) Infinitive Phrase : To determine the causes of decreasing sales at store X
(ii) Question :What are the causes of decreasing sales at store X
(iii) Declarative statement : store X sales decreasing and management wants to know
You may describe the statement of the problem in many ways but meaning should be same.
Next step after stating the problem, you should determine what need to be done to solve it.
Specifically you look for the factors of the problem. That is you determine what subject area you
must look into solve the problem. The problem factors may be three types
(i) they may be subtopics of the overall topic about which the report is concerned.
(ii) They may be hypothesis that must be tested.
iii) In problems that involve comparisons, they may be the bases on which the comparisons are
If the problem concerns a need for information, your mental effort should produce the main areas
about which information is needed. This is an informational report problem-that is, it requires no
analysis, no conclusion, no recommendation. It only requires that information be presented. The
mental effort in this case is concerned simply with determining which sub-division of the overall
topic should be covered. After thoroughly evaluating the possibilities, you might come up with
this analysis:
Problem statement: To review operations of company X from January 1 through March 31
Sub topics:
1) Production
2) Sales & Promotions
3) Financial Status
4) Computer Systems
5) Product Development
6) Human Resources
Some problems concern why something bad is happening and perhaps how to correct it in
analyzing problems of this kind, you should seek explanations or solutions. Such explanations or
solutions are termed hypothesis once formulated, hypothesis are tested and their applicability to
the problem is either proved or disproved.
Problem Statement: Sales at the spring field store have declined and management wants to know
1) Activities of the competition have caused the decline.
2) Changes in the economy of the area have caused the decline
3) Merchandising deficiencies have caused the decline
4) Changes in the environment (population shifts, political actions etc) have caused the
In the investigation that follows, you would test there hypothesis. You might find that one, two
or all apply or you might find that none is valid. If so, you would have to test advance additional
hypothesis for further evaluation.
When the problem concerns evaluating something, either singularly or in comparison with other
thing you should look for the basis for the evaluation that is you should determine what
characteristics you will evaluate. In some causes, the procedure may concern more than naming
the characteristics.
(EX) To determine the location of ABC company at three different places
City A City B City C
Comparison basis:
1) Availability of skilled workers
2) Tax structure
3) Community attitude
4) Transportation facilities
5) Nearness to market
The factors sometimes have factors of their own. For Example: The Comparison of
transportation facilities can be further subdivided into water, rail, truck and air. So they also may
be broken down into sub-factors.
The next step is to conduct the research needed. For most business problems, you will need to
investigate personally. Some business problems require analysis of primary data based on
experiments or surveys and few of them require secondary data on library research is used. Most
of the data can be gathered from internet & quality materials. In any event your task is to apply
whatever research techniques are required to get the information you need for your problem.
The next step after collecting the information is interpreting the findings. Applying and
interpreting your findings is obviously a mental process. When interpreting the findings avoid
human errors by remembering these fundamentals
1) Maintain a judicial attitude
2) Consult with others
3) Test your interpretations
The information you gather is quantitative that is expressed in numbers. Such data in their law
form usually are voluminous, consisting of tens, hundreds, even thousands of figures. To use
these figures intelligently you must find ways to simplifying these data so that you can present
these data to your reader. Various statistical tools are available for calculation and interpreting
the data.
After finishing the interpreting the results you know the message of your report. Now your
information are presented in a form of outline. Outlines should usually be written. They serve as
tables of contents and captions. In constructing your outline, you probably will use either the
conventional as the decimal symbol system to mark the levels.
Conventional system & decimal system:
(EX) I.
A. 1.0
B. 1.1
2. (Conventional System) 1.2 (Decimal system)
a. 1.2.1
(1) 1.2.2
(a) etc
The outline is designed to meet the objective of the report. You should build the outline around
the objective of the report and the information you have gathered to meet that objective with the
and your information in mind, you build the structure of the report mentally. In this process, you
shift facts and ideas about until the most workable order becomes clear. That order is that
presents the findings in the clearest and meaningful way. When you reach the outlining stage,
you have probably done some of the work.
Outlining is concerned mainly with the part of the report commonly called the body. The
body is the part of the report that analysis and interpretations where needed. It is usually
preceded by an introduction, and an ending section of conclusion, and recommendation.
You may view organizing as a process of division. First you divide the whole into parts, then you
divide the parts into subparts. You may subdivide further.
In dividing your information into subparts, you have to find a way of dividing that will produce
approximately equal parts. Time, place, quantity and factor are the general bases for these
divisions. Time, place, quantity and factor are the bases for the process of division. When the
interpretation has a time basis division by time is possible. When the information is related to
geographic location, a place division is possible. Division based on the quantity is possible when
the information has a number base. (For Example).Rs.10000to 20000 (on) age 18-30 etc.,
Factors are areas to be investigated are the fourth basis for dividing information (For Example)
The following organizational problem should be treated on the basis of location accessibilities,
rent, parking, facilities sometimes combinations of time (For Example) The period orientation
from May-July, Place Place of Sales: North, South, East, West., quantity and factor are
sometimes logical.
The outline in its finished form is the table of contents. Its part serve has headings to the sections
of the report (which is why we refer to three parts has headings in the following discussion)
because the outline is an important part of the report, you should construct the final wording
carefully. When outlining you may use topic or talking headings give only the subject of
discussion. For example present armar unit a) description & output, b) Cost, c) Deficiencies.
Talking headings identify the subject and tell what is said about it (For example) Operation
analysis of armor unit a) Recent log in overall output, b) Increase in cost of operations. Then
every heading making up a level of division should be parallel grammatically (i.e) Parallelism of
construction. Then whenever you are using headings see to that you are maintaining the
conciseness in wording. Finally you want to use variety of expressions. Repeating words in
headings can be monotonous. So you should not overwork works.
In writing the report, communicate clearly and quickly, when you write your report see that you
follow these guidelines.
Good report writing is objective. They dont include subjective data for analysis by objective
report we mean keep out of all prejudices & biases and your report should seek the truth.
Another thing your objective writing should be believable. Second historically objective writing
has meant for writing has meant for writing impersonally, they dont include I, we, you etc.,
Recently, some writers have argued that personal writing is more interesting than impersonal
writing and just as objective. Good advice is to use personal style for routine reports and
impersonal style for more formal reports.


Presenting information in the right place in time is a major problem in keeping order in a report.
Keep a consistent time view point throughout the report. There are two time viewpoints past and
present. Select any one and do not change. The past time view point views the research and the
findings as past, and prevailing concepts and proven conclusions as present. The present time
view point presents as current all information that can be assumed to be current at the time of

A well written report reads as one continuous story. The parts connect smoothly. You should use
transition to connect the parts of the report. Transition means bridging across. Transitional are
words or sentences that show the relationships of succeeding parts. Transitions should be used
where there is or need to connect the parts of the report. They should be made naturally, not
mechanically. For connecting large parts, transition sentences may be used and also use of topic
sentences also helps improve thought flow. Transitional words show relationships between lesser
Report writing should be interesting. Interesting writing is necessary for good communication.
Interesting writing is the result of careful words choice, rhythm, concreteness- in fact, all the
good writing techniques. But efforts to make writing interesting can be overdone. The writing
style should be never draw attention away from the information.
Collaborative report preparation is common for good reasons. Group involvement in report
preparation is becoming increasingly significant for a number of reasons. They are :-
Groups should have five as fewer members and include all pertinent specialization areas.
Preferably, the group has a leader, but there are exceptions.
Headers and participants have clear duties to make the procedure work. Groups often experience
results that are less than ideal. Consult references on effective group.
At least two meetings and a work period are needed. The following activities activities normally
occur, usually in this sequence
1) First, determine the report purpose
2) Derive the factors involved for analysis
3) Gather the information needed
4) Interpret the information
5) Organize the material
6) Plan the writing
7) Assign the parts to be written
8) Write parts assigned
9) Revise the writing collaboratively
10) Edit the final draft as a synergistic final outcome.

Your decision about report structure will be based on the needs of your situation. Those needs
are related to report length and formality of the situation. The longer the problem and the more
formal the situation, the more involved the report structure is likely to be. The shorter the
problem and the more informal the situation, the less involved the report structure is likely to be.
Such adjustments of report structure to length and formality help meet the readers needs in each
Generally the reports are classified based on their length and formality with high end reports to
the low end reports. At the top of the stairway are the most formal , full-dress reports. Such
reports have a number of pages that come before the first chapter. These pages serve useful
purposes, but they also dress up the report. Typically, these prefatory pages as they are called,
are included when the problem situation is formal and the report is long. The exact makeup of
the prefatory pages may vary, but the most common arrangement includes these parts: title fly,
title page, letter of transmittal, table of contents, and executive summary. Flyleaves blank
pages at the beginning and end that protect the report also may be included. The first two pages
title fly and title page contain identification information. The title fly carries only the report title.
The title page typically contains the title, identification of the writer and reader, and usually the
date. As the words imply, the letter of transmittal is a letter that transmits the report. It is a
personal message from the writer to the reader. The table of contents, of course, is a listing of the
report contents. It is the report outline in finished form, with page numbers to indicate where the
parts begin. It also may include a list of illustrations ( tables, figures, diagrams ), which may be
a separate part. The executive summary summarizes whatever is important in the report the
major facts and analyses, conclusions and recommendations.
As the need for the formality decreases and the problem becomes smaller, the makeup of the
report changes. The changes primarily occur in the prefatory pages. As we have noted, these
pages give the report a formal appearance. So it is not surprising that they change as the report
situation becomes less formal. Usually, such reports are shorter. Although the changes that occur
are far from standardized, they follow a general order. First, the title fly drops out . This page
contains only the report title, which also appears on the next page. Obviously, the title fly is used
primarily for reasons of formality. Next in the progression, the executive summary and the letter
of transmittal are combined. When this stage is reached, the report problem is short enough to be
summarized in a short space. The report at this stage has three prefatory parts: title page , table of
contents, and combination transmittal letter and executive summary.
At the fourth step, the table of contents drops out. The table of contents is a guide to the report
text, and a guide has limited value in a short report. Certainly, a guide to a 100 page report is
necessary. But the guide to a one-page report is not. Somewhere between these extremes a
dividing points exists. You should follow the general guide of including a table of contents
whenever it appears to be of some value to the reader. Another step down, as formality and
length requirements continue to decrease, the combined letter of transmittal and executive
summary drops out. Thus, the report commonly called the short report now has only a title page
and the report text. The title page remains to the last because it serves as a very useful cover
page. In addition, it contains the most important identifying information.
The short report is a popular form in business. Below the short-reports form is a form that
reinstates the letter of transmittal and summary and presents the entire report as a letter thus,
the letter report. And finally, for short problems of more informality, the email form is used.
Knowledge of the general relationship of formality and length to report makeup should help you
understand and plan reports.
The shorter report forms are the most common in business. These are the everyday working
reports those used for the routine information reporting that is vital to an organizations
a.) Little need for introductory information
Most of the shorter, more informal reports require little sometimes no introductory material.
These reports typically concern day-to-day problems. Their lives are short that is , they are not
likely to be kept on file for future readers. They are intended for only a few readers, and these
readers know the problem. They are likely to need little introduction to it. Determining what
introductory material is needed is by analyzing what does the reader need to know before
receiving this report. Some shorter reports need introductory material in extreme cases you may
need a detailed introduction comparable to that of the more formal reports.
b.) Predominance of the direct order
Shorter reports are written in direct order which means the report begins with its most important
information usually the conclusion and perhaps a recommendation. Business writers use this
order because they know that their readers main concern is to get the information needed to make
a decision. Deciding whether to use the direct order is best based on a consideration of your
readers likely use of the report. If your readers need the report conclusion or recommendation as
a basis for an action that they must take, directness will speed their effort by enabling them to
quickly receive the most important information. The indirect order makes presentations in a
formal introduction, analysis , conclusion. But the direct order gives the main message first then
depending on the problem the direct beginning could consist of a summary of facts , a
conclusion, a recommendation, or some combination of summary, conclusion and
recommendation. The indirect order has this sequence , introduction, facts and analysis,
conclusions and recommendations.
c.) More personal writing style :
Although the writing for all reports is much the same, writing in shorter reports tends to be more
personal. That is, the shorter reports are likely to use the personal pronouns I, WE, YOU rather
than only the third person. Shorter report situation usually involve personal relationship because
these reports tend to be from and to people who know each other and who normally address each
other informally when they meet. Then they involve personal investigation of analysis in their
writer needs and finally shorter reports tend to deal with day to day routine problems. The
problems are by very nature informal and it is logical to report them informally and personal
writing tends to produce this informal effect. The decision of whether to write a report in
personal or impersonal style should be based on the situation. Write impersonally when your
reader prefers it. It should be clear that either personal or impersonal writing can be appropriate
for reports ranging from the shortest to the longest types.
d.) Less need of structured coherence plan :
Long and formal usually require a structured coherence plan. Shorter reports do not. This is not
to say that coherence is not essential to short reports. The point is that a structured plan is not
needed. By structured coherence plan we mean an arrangement of summarizing, forward
looking, and backward looking parts that tie together the report presentation. Therefore in
shorter reports this plan is not needed since they directly move to main information or
a.) The short report :
One of the more popular of the less formal reports forms is the short report. The short report
consists of a title page and the report text. These reports are in the direct order , beginning with
the conclusion. Then based on the need the introduction comes next, then the findings and
analyses, and finally conclusions.
b.) Letter report:
The second of the more common shorter report forms is the letter report, that is, a report in letter
form. They are used primarily to present information to persons outside the organization
especially when the information is to be sent by mail or fax. They are usually written in personal
style and cover short problems. If a letter report is begun in the direct order, a subject line is
appropriate. It may written in a capital letters or written by giving a sub topic subject and
writing the text. Theorganizational plans of the letter report are much like longer report which
has a direct order and indirect order.
c.) Email Reports :
Email is most widely used form of written communication in business. Although heavily used
for communicating with outside parties, email dominates internal written communication. That
is, email is written by and to people in an organization. Because email is primarily
communication between people who know each other it is usually informal. In fact many are
hurried and casual messages , some are usually formal for high profile audience. Some are more
formal, factual and problem related.
a.) Staff Report :
One of the more popular forms of reports used in business is the staff report. Usually written in
memorandum form, it can be adapted to any structural type, including the long , formal report.
The staff report differs from other forms of report primarily in the organization of its contents. It
arranges contents in a fixed plan. The plan remains the same for all problems. Because this
arrangement leads systematically to conclusions and recommendations, it is especially useful for
business problems. The basic course of plan is summary , problem objective , facts , discussion
, conclusions , recommendation. One of the major uses of staff reports is the armed forces , all
branches of which use a standardized form. But military version of plan is somewhat different
from the above plan.
b.) Meeting Minutes :
Minutes provide a written record of a groups activities and decisions , a history that includes
announcements reports, significant discussion and decisions. Minutes include objective data
because they will highlight who will do what and when. Accurate minutes are important because
they can have some legal significance as to whether decisions are binding. The physical form is
typically a memo or email, but the layout varies among organizations. Basically, it should enable
the reader to easily focus on the content as well as easily retrieve it. Typical minutes include
common preliminary body, such as name of the group, name of the document , type of meeting ,
place date and time called to order , names of those attending the meeting , names of those absent
and reasons for absence. The body items include approval of minutes of previous meeting ,
meeting announcements , old business reports on the matter previously presented and new
business- reports on matters presented to the group. The closing item include place and time of
next meeting , notation of the meetings ending time , name and signature of the person
responsible for preparing the minutes. Preparing ahead of time makes the job easier and
encourages more complete notes.
c.) Progress report :
A progress report presents a review of progress made on an activity. Most of the reports are
informal send through mail, as a worker reporting the duty of the particular work done to his
superior. Certain formal reports include reporting the progress made for huge projects.
d.) Audit Report:
Short form and long form audit reports are well known in business. The short form audit report is
perhaps the most standardized of all reports. The standardized statement verifying an
accountants inspection of a firms financial records. Long form of audit reports vary in their
A proposals is a persuasive presentation for consideration of something.
Proposals are usually written, but they can be oral presentations or a combination of both. They
may be made by individuals or organizations, including business organizations, and they may be
made to any of a variety of individuals or organizations such as government agencies,
foundations, businesses. They can even be made internally by one part of a business to another
part or to the management of the business
Proposals may be Invited or Prospecting
By invited we mean that the awarding organizations announces to interested parties that it will
make an award and that it is soliciting proposals. A government agency might have funds to
award for research projects. In their announcements, the awarding organizations typically
describe their needs and specify the unique requirements that the proposals should cover. In
business situations , invited proposals usually follow preliminary meetings between the parties
involved. At the meeting the representatives would discuss the need with suppliers.
Prospecting proposals are much like rational sales letter , they amount to descriptions of what the
writers organization could do if given an award by the readers organization. A person
,institution can write a proposals to a philanthropic foundation to avail funds.
Format and organization
The physical arrangement and organization of proposals vary widely. The simplest proposals
resemble formal email report s. Internal proposals those written for and by people in the same
organization usually fall in to this category, though exceptions exist. The more complex
proposals may take the form of full-dress , long reports, including prefatory pages. Select the
format appropriate for your one case. Your design should be the one that you think is best for the
one situation.
Formality Requirements
The formality requirements of proposals vary. In some cases ( a university proposal for research
grant), strict formality is expected. In other cases informality is in order. The decision should be
based primarily on the relationship between the parties involved. The degree of formality or
informality is expected regardless of the relationship of the parties.
Determine the content of a proposal by reviewing the needs of the case. If the proposal has been
invited, review the invitation. If the proposal is uninvited, use judgment in determining the
readers needs. As a general guideline follow these rules in writing the content of a proposal
Writers purpose and the readers need
An appropriate beginning is a statement of the writers purpose to present a proposal and the
readers need to reduce turnover of field representatives. If the report is in response to an
invitation, that statement should tie in with the invitation. If a proposal is submitted without
invitation, its beginning has an additional requirement it must gain attention. As noted
previously, uninvited proposals are much like sales messages. Their intended readers are not
likely to be eager to read them. Thus, their beginnings must overcome the readers reluctance. An
effective way of doing this is to begin by briefly summarizing the highlights of the proposal with
emphasis on its benefits.
A review of background information promotes an understanding of the problem. A background
information should be provided in order to justify your statement of the need mentioned in the
proposal. Based on the background information, the need of the proposal is determine.
Description of the plan
The heart of a proposal is the description of what the writer proposes to do. This is the primary
message of the proposals. It should be concisely presented in a clear and orderly manner.
By particulars we mean the specifics: time schedules, costs, performance standards, means of
appraising performance, equipment and supplies needed, guarantees, personnel requirements,
and such. What is needed in a given case depends on its unique requirements. But in any event,
the particulars should anticipate and answer the readers questions.
Evidence of ability to deliver
The proposing organization must sometimes establish its ability to perform. This means
presenting information on such matters as the qualifications of personnel, success in similar
cases, the adequacy of equipment and facilities, operating procedures, and financial status.
Whatever information will serve as evidence of the organizations ability to carry out what it
proposes should be used.
Benefits of the proposals
The proposals also might describe good things that it would bring about, especially if a need
exists to convince the readers. Typically like selling.
Concluding comments
The proposal should end with words directed to the next step-acting on the proposal. One
possibility is to present a summary review of the highlights. Another is to offer additional
information that might be needed, yet another is to urge or suggest action on the proposal.
Effective listening is an important aspect for good communication. Listening is different from
hearing. By listening we mean all our senses especially your mind and body will be focused and
concentrated. Listening to others improve your personality.
The listening process starts from receiving the information or noise, and then your mind will
interpret the information by your mental filters and little information will be remembered in your
brain storage by which it is evaluated based on your judgment and finally the response will be
delivered in the way of verbal voice or loud applause.
1. CONTENT LISTENING: In this process a person will listen just to receive and remember
the contents of particular information just for knowing what is what. Here he is not going
to make any action based on the information received.
2. CRITICAL LISTENING: In this process a person will listen the entire information and
analyze or interprets the contents and meaning of the information rationally. Here the
objective of this listening is to give either a positive or negative feedback about the topic.
3. EMPATHIC LISTENING: Here people will listen to someone or information based on
empathic feeling towards the information or person. Here the objective is you have a
courtesy respect towards the person, for that sake you listen to them.
1. Listeners who jump to conclusion close their mind in receiving additional information.
2. Self-centered listeners shift attention from speaker to themselves.
3. Selective listeners just listen to few topics and ignore rest.
4. Physical distraction such as noise and mental distraction such as
1. Dont judge the message by the speaker but by the argument.
2. Decrease your emotional impact.
3. Fight distraction by closed doors and turning off radio and television.
4. Dont interrupt in the middle, please wait to hear the entire message fully.
5. Provide feedback and let the speaker know that you are paying attention.
6. Offer facial expression and provide your criticism in a positive tone.
7. Listen actively for key points, ideas and facts.
8. Distinguish between evidence and argument, idea and example.
9. Take brief notes so that key points can be discussed.
10. Reserve your judgment until the speaker has finished the topic.

Non verbal communication is a process of communication that occurs without words.
(Communication which occurs through our body movements, space, time, voice patterns, color
layout and design of our surroundings)

1. KINESICS: Kinesics is the study of body physical movements. It is the way our body
communicates without words and its occupying a major aspect of non verbal
communication process. When we communicate our thought process and attitude is
transmitted in the form of body movements by which our inner state of mind is reflected
in our movements. Thus you can realize these expressions by face and eyes, gestures,
posture and physical appearance.
1. Facial expression is the first way to communicate particularly eyes and eye movement.
We can express happiness, surprise, fear, anger and sadness everything through our eyes.
2. The gesture is our body parts especially arms, legs, hands and head convey meaning. All
these movements are made rationally along with our speaking and not made with any
3. Body shape is related to our biological factor and it is natural but poster is how we stretch
our body in different styles. Body shapes are classified in to three they are ectomorph
which is thin, youthful, and tall then the mesomorph is muscular fit body and finally
endomorph which is fat, round, and soft.
4. Appearance includes clothes, hair style, jewelry, cosmetics and such styles which we
include in our daily life by which we communicate how we want to project our self.
1. PROXEMICS: It involves how we arrange personal space and what we arrange in it.
They create meaning in your mind and others mind as well. They are also called personal
space language which involves how we are maintaining relationship with a person with
intimate space, personal space, social space and finally public space. All this things are
typical example of our relationship space with our father, friend, boss and a stranger.
1. TIME LANGUAGE: Time language is all about the meaning we convey through time. In
western countries time equates money because their business culture is like that. The same
thing apply may differ for other cultures. Therefore time language is associated with
culture as well.
1. PARALANGUAGE: It involves how we say something in different pitch, tone and voice
modulation such as slow or fast. Based on voice language we infer people background and
1. PHYSICAL CONTEXT: It refers to our surroundings, colour, layout and design of our
physical environment. For example colour of the building and room, design of table and
chairs etc. All these things communicate a lot to our feelings and emotions.
To conclude Non verbal communication is an art as well a skill. We communicate through
letters, reports, mails but they are all one way communication but daily we communicate with
people which is a two way process.
This interpersonal communication requires a lot of care in non verbal cues through which we can
improve our relationship better and increase a chance of good business dealings which again is
an essential ingredient in face to face communication.
All our communication problems occur from language imperfections and incorrect thinking
patterns. If a communication wants to be effective one should note a point that all exchange of
information should be made with the judgment and reality of the particular situation.
1. TWO-VALUED STATEMENT: During communicating we consider that there is always
just two values for any statement or situation. Some situation demands statements like yes
or no, pass or fail, to buy or not to buy etc. Here we are having only two options in this
particular statement beyond that we cannot say anything. But certain statements we will
come across multi-valued situation. Example is rich poor, fat-skinny, tall-short etc. In
this statements you cannot just say rich poor because a person who having a wealth of
one crore is considered as a rich person and a person who is having fifty crore is also
called as a rich person. Similarly a begger who lives in an street is also poor at the same
time a person earning a monthly income of four thousand is also called as poor. Therefore
proper distinction should be made while you make specific reference. Without knowing
this proper distinction if you are communication then there is a communication problem.
Overcoming this problem is based on being aware of the problem and using words
precisely. You make statements with specific quantitative reference , instead of saying
he has got first class percentage say that he got 65% , similarly you can make qualitative
reference, instead of saying I agree you can say I strongly agree , agree, disagree, strongly
disagree. Therefore we should be specific in communicating along with seeing the reality
of the situation. This rule will helps a lot in writing a business letter or report.
1. FACT INFERENCE CONFUSION: There is always a difference between fact and
reality. Some statements involve inference of particular topic but we must always do a
reality check of our argument of inference. People may say we expect the sales record of
80% during next month; similarly attendance percentage will be only 15% in the
weekend. But all these statements are based on inference of prediction and not by reality.
On the other hand we cannot believe these statements all the time because these are
predictions and you must always verify these with facts of reality. Without checking the
probability of correctness this communication leads to fact inference confusion because
your perception may be completely different from reality.
1. THE BLOCKED MIND: This is a state of not accepting extra information or seeing the
overall picture of reality. We always frame certain ideas in our mind based on our beliefs,
attitudes, opinions and values. Based on our narrow ideas we tend to see only the tip of
the iceberg or one thought and forget to see the entire picture. This tendency is known as
allness, judging the whole thing with a small part. Our stereotype of references should not
block the other references of a particular topic. Therefore one should get out of this
problem by unblocking the mind. You should be open to receive all the information, than
based on your judgment analysis decide what to accept and which statement to reject.
1. THE STATIC VIEWPOINT: Static view point is a tendency of just having one idea or
information as static or permanent through out various time dimensions. Few people
communicate with same information throughout every time period. But they fail to notice
the information what is true today may not applicable tomorrow. We must accept as time
changes so do our pattern of communication changes. For example you
cannot say that I know to write a letter but I cannot compose an email. So dont have a
fixed pattern of thought, you should always be open and update yourself with the
information as per the changes in time. You must be open in receiving information and
updating it as when the environment demands you.
1. FAILURE TO DISCRIMINATE: When we communicate we speak based on similarity
of events. For example all men are rough and tuff is a statement of similarity but
exceptions are there. All teachers adopt same method of lecture teaching is a similarity
statement but exceptions occurring based on teaching style. Therefore we must not see all
communication based on similarity of events rather we should able to judge the best to
worst. You buy dozen of apple but all of them are not in the same taste. So you cannot say
apples are great in taste. You should be able to differentiate based on your judgment and
logic of reality.
1. DECEPTIVE TACTICS: This is a tendency of over emphasizing a statement. That is
making or showing information in an exaggerated manner. Generally people use to hide
the facts or give false statement about a topic of discussion in communication. But the
reality of the situation will be different.
1. INFORMATION OVERLOAD: This is the amount of information one receive. For
example your mail inbox is filled with information and you want to replay as soon as
possible, at the same time you getting a phone call and a customer are waiting to talk to
you. Your boss is asking urgent information. Now all these things in a particular point of
time create information overload.
1. WRONG CHOICE OF MEDIUM: Medium is a tool which we use for communicating our
ideas. Cell phone, letters, mail, slide presentation etc. When you select wrong medium for
communication it creates a problem. You cannot ask a bank statement just with a phone
call because written document is authentic.
1. PHYSICAL BARRIERS: Physical barriers include noise, inappropriate timing, and
spatial distance.
1. RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT: You want to communicate according to the situation
and time. All communication cannot happen in the same way. Thus you should analyze
the audience and the environment before you communicate. If the environment is not
appropriate do not communicate or adopt a different strategy for communicating.
At the end communication is successful only when the feed back is clear. It is our responsibility
as a communicator to check all these barriers and present a proper communication.


Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. Emotional stress usually occurs when people
consider situations difficult or unable to manage. Different people consider different situations as
stressful.Physical stress refers to a physical reaction of the body to various triggers. The pain
experienced after surgery is an example of physical stress. Physical stress often leads to
emotional stress, and emotional stress often occurs as physical discomfort (e.g., stomach
Stress management involves controlling and reducing the tension that occurs in stressful
situations by making emotional and physical changes. The degree of stress and the desire to
make the changes will determine how much change takes place.
Attitude: A persons attitude can influence whether or not a situation or emotion is stressful. A
person with a negative attitude will often report more stress than would someone with a positive
Physical well-being: A poor diet puts the body in a state of physical stress and weakens the
immune system. As a result, the person can be more likely to get infections. A poor diet can
mean unhealthy food choices, not eating enough, or not eating on a normal schedule. This can
cause a person to not get enough nutrients.
This form of physical stress also decreases the ability to deal with emotional stress, because not
getting the right nutrition may affect the way the brain processes information.
Physical activity: Not getting enough physical activity can put the body in a stressful state.
Physical activity has many benefits. A regular physical activity program can help
decreasedepression, if it exists. It also improves the feeling of well-being.
Support systems: Most everyone needs someone in their life they can rely on when they are
having a hard time. Having little or no support makes stressful situations even more difficult to
deal with.
Relaxation: People with no outside interests, hobbies, or ways to relax may be unable to handle
stressful situations because they have no outlet for their stress.
Positive thinking.
Refocus the negative to be positive.
Make an effort to stop negative thoughts.
Plan some fun. Take a break.
Physical activity:
Start an individualized program of physical activity. Most experts recommend doing 20
minutes of aerobic activity 3 times per week.
Decide on a specific time, type, frequency, and level of physical activity. Make this
dedicated time fit into your schedule so it can be part of your routine.
Find a buddy to exercise with it is more fun and it will encourage you to stick with
your routine.
You do not have to join a gym 20 minutes of brisk walking outdoor will do the trick.
Plan to eat foods for improved health and well-being. For example, increase the amount of
fruits and vegetables you eat.
Use the food guide pyramid to help select healthy food choices.
Eat an appropriate amount of food at a reasonable schedule.
Social support:
Make an effort to interact socially with people. Even though you feel stressed, you will be
glad to have gone out to meet your friends if only to get your mind off of things.
Reach out to individuals.
Nurture yourself and others.
Learn about and try using one or more of the many relaxation techniques, such as guided
imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. One or more should work
for you.
Take time for personal interests and hobbies.
Listen to ones body.
Take a mini retreat.