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CS3500

Computer Graphics Module: Projective Geometry

P. J. Narayanan Spring 2005

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Projective Geometry of the Plane

Points represented by:

T

.

Consider the line equation:

Rewrite as:

.

Lines are represeted by 3-vectors, just like points. Scale is unimportant.

. Describes all points incident on

Line equation:

line

or all lines passing through point

!!

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T represents

What happens when

?

2

Points at Inﬁnity

.

Becomes point at inﬁnity or ideal or vanishing point

Points at

projective geometry.

inﬁnity can

be handled like any other

in

T are all points at inﬁnity on the plane. They together form a line at inﬁnity.

What is its representation? [0

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0

1] T

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View of Projective Representation

represent rays from origin in a 3-space.

Any cross section perpendicular to the describe the plane.

Ideal points lie on the

plane.

axis can

Lines are planes passing through the origin.

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Line Joining 2 Points

Let

be two points. We have:

.

Considering them as vectors in 3-space, we want to ﬁnd

a vector

orthogonal to both

and

.

The cross-product

is a solution. Thus,

.

Long route:

.

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T

.

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Line between

and

T . Same as

Ideal point of line

Line joining inﬁnity.

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T and

:

.

T is

T is:

T

.

T

T

, the line at

5

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Point of Intersection of 2 Lines

Two lines

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.

intersect in a point with

. And,

.

.

T

.

.

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Intersection of

Same as

.

Intersection of

Ideal point of line

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and

and

T is

:

:

T

.

T

.

T

.

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8

Conics: Second Order Entities

.

Rewrite using homogeneous coordinates as:

Rewrite as:

.

A symmetric

Covers circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, etc.

represents a conic:

T

.

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T

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Properties of Conics

gives the tangent line to the conic at

.

Dual conic: conic deﬁned by its tangent lines!

T

If

where

is non-singular,

Point of tangency of to symmetry.

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and

-1 .

is given

.

due

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Projective Transformations

A general non-singular

other points. Overall scale of

matrix

transforms points to

is unimportant.

gives the transformed point.

gives the transformed line.

is the transformed conic.

Linearity is preserved.

collinear if

are.

Such a transformation is called:

collineation, homography, projective transformation.

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Isometric Transformation

Transformations of the form, with

:

Includes rotations, translations, reﬂections.

Preserves distance measurements, angles, parallelism, etc.

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Similarity Transformations

Transformations of the form for nonzero

:

Includes rotations, translations, uniform scaling

Preserves angles, parallelism, ratio of distances.

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Afﬁne Transformations

Transformations of the form:

Includes

rotations,

shearing, etc.

translations,

nonuniform

scaling,

Preserves parallelism, ratio of lengths of parallel lines, ratio of areas, centroid.

Points and lines at inﬁnity map to themselves.

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Projective Transformation

Any general matrix

.

Represents a very general transformations.

Finite points can map to ideal points and vice versa.

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End of Class 5

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