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# Nilam Patel

Partners: Bella Buscarino and Asami Odate Date: February 13, 2013
Lab # 3 Capacitance
Part 1:
Aim: To test the equation for capacitance of a Pasco parallel plate capacitor with air gap.
Materials: Aluminum foil, Beam Balance, Meter Stick
Sketch:

Procedure: The capacitance is measured using a multimeter as a function of the plate separation.
Measurements begin with plates as close as possible to the nearest mm. Then the plate separation
is increased by one mm, and the capacitance value is read for each separation up to15 data
points.

Raw Data:
Mass of Ball and Pendulum M= 0.3275 kg 0.0002kg
Mass of Ball m=0.0661 kg 0.0002kg
Distance from the pivot to the point at balance R
cm
= 0.285 m 0.001 m

0
16.5

0
16.5

0
16.5

0
16.5

0
16.5

0
16.5

0avg
16.5

Analysis:
1. Since

## , the muzzle velocity of the projectile launcher, using

the average , is 2.37631 m/s. The error in measurement of ball velocity will not exceed
10% using this apparatus. Therefore, the error in the measurement is 0.237631 m/s.

) =
(4.95461) (

) =
(4.95461)

= 2.37631

2. During the collision of the ball and the pendulum bob, momentum was conserved but
energy was not since this was an inelastic collision, which means some energy was lost
upon impact to heat or friction. If energy was conserved, all the PE=KE.

= ( (

)

KE=

mv
2
= (0.5)( ( 2.37631

)
2
= 0.1862 J
Therefore 0.14853 J or 0.79769*KE was lost.
3. The angle reached by the pendulum change if the ball is not caught by the pendulum
would be smaller since the collision now is less inelastic; therefore the energy during the
collision is conserved. The ball would have some velocity or kinetic energy as is bounces
off the pendulum and therefore less of the initial KE is transferred to the PE of the
pendulum.
Discussion of Results and Conclusions: The experiment demonstrated that the velocity of a
projectile can be calculated from the swing of the pendulum to be is 2.376310.237631 m/s. We
can do this since the collision between ball and catcher is inelastic and momentum is conserved
and energy is not conserved. Energy was lost due to friction upon impact and the kinetic energy
that was transferred was converted into potential energy which was indicated by the height of the
pendulum swing.
Experiment #2: Predicting the Horizontal Distance of a Projectile
Aim: To use the value of v
b
, as measured in the previous experiment to predict the horizontal
range of the projectile ball launched with an initial horizontal velocity v
b
.
Materials: Projectile Launcher Kit, Carbon Paper, Plumb Bob, White Paper, Meter Stick
Sketch:
minus the pendulum arm.
Procedure: The pendulum arm was removed and the ball was placed into the launcher and
locked it to the same range as used in the previous experiment (short range). One shot was fired
and a piece of carbon paper was placed on top of the white paper and tape it down at the location
the ball struck the ground. At least 10 shots were fired and the vertical distance y from the
bottom of the ball as it leaves the barrel to the floor was measured and the horizontal distance
traveled for each shot x was measured. Calculate the average distance was calculated with
uncertainty.

Raw Data:
Vertical
Distance (m) Uncertainty (m)
Horizontal Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
(m)
0.993 0.001 0.936 0.0185
0.94 0.0185
0.944 0.0185
0.949 0.0185
0.945 0.0185
0.946 0.0185
0.947 0.0185
0.951 0.0185
0.966 0.0185
0.973 0.0185

Average Horizontal Distance = 0.94970.0185 m

Analysis:
1. The horizontal distance traveled by the projectile can be calculated using the equations

From

## , and can plug that into =

.
1. The predicted horizontal distance traveled by the projectile can be calculated using the
equation

= 1.06971 m.
The theoretical uncertainty is 10% of this measurement therefore 1.0691 0.10691 m.

The average distance traveled by the projectile was 0.94970.0185 m. When accounting
for the max error in distance travelled, the projectile landed between the range 0.9312 m
to 0.9682 m and when accounting for the max error in theoretical distance travelled, the
projectile could travel 0.96228 m to 1.17601 m, therefore the experimentally found
landing position is within the range of theoretical landing positions within the uncertainty
of the experiment.
Discussion of Results and Conclusions: The experiment demonstrated that the value of v
b

measured in the previous experiment could be used to predict the horizontal range of the
projectile ball launched with an initial horizontal velocity v
b
within the uncertainty of the
experiment based of kinematic equations. The causes for uncertainty in position of projectiles
landing can be due to air resistance or the uncertainty of the machine set up which is accounted
for with the 10% uncertainty of the measurement.