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BSc (Hons) Economics

BSc (Hons) Economics and Business Finance

BSc (Hons) Business Economics

BSc (Hons) Economics and Management

BSc (Hons) Finance and Accounting





This handbook is intended as a guide for undergraduate
students in the School of Social Sciences, reading for
degrees in Economics and Finance.

The information contained within this handbook was correct at
the time of going to print, September 2008.


Please ensure that you read the handbook carefully within
your first week at University and ensure that you refer to it.


1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Academic Staff .......................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Undergraduate Office ............................................................................................................. 12
1.3 Postgraduate Office ................................................................................................................ 12

2 The Learning Contract: Objectives and Expectations ............................................................. 13
2.1 Core Principles, Values and Standards .................................................................................. 13
2.2 Student Learning Contact ....................................................................................................... 16
2.2.1 Staff responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 17
2.2.2 Student responsibilities .................................................................................................. 17

3 Undergraduate Degree Programmes ......................................................................................... 19
3.1 Degree programmes ............................................................................................................... 19
3.2 Learning outcomes ................................................................................................................. 19
3.3 Schemes of Study .................................................................................................................... 20
3.4 Ordinary degree scheme ......................................................................................................... 26

4 Description of Individual Modules ............................................................................................. 26

5 Information on Degree Structure ............................................................................................... 27
5.1 The structure of Brunel degrees ............................................................................................. 27
5.2 The credit system .................................................................................................................... 27
5.3 Course Timetable.................................................................................................................... 27
5.4 Schemes of Study, core modules and options ......................................................................... 28
5.5 Transfer between courses in Economics and Finance ........................................................... 28
5.6 Transfers between Brunel Schools ......................................................................................... 28

6 Teaching and Learning ............................................................................................................... 29
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 29


6.2 Student workloads .................................................................................................................. 29
6.3 Lectures, workshops, seminars, tutorials ............................................................................... 29
6.3.1 Lectures ....................................................................................................................... 30
6.3.2 Workshops .................................................................................................................... 30
6.3.3 Seminars ....................................................................................................................... 31

7 Assessment .................................................................................................................................... 32
7.1 Grade Descriptors .................................................................................................................. 32
7.2 Continuous assessment: Economics and Finance policies ..................................................... 33
7.2.1 Procedures .................................................................................................................... 33
7.2.2 Coursework assessment arrangements ......................................................................... 33
7.2.3 Assignment submissions and assessment feedback...................................................... 33
7.2.4 Procedure for submitting essays....34
Coursework Submission Sheet ...35
7.2.5 Electronic hand-in of assignments ............................................................................... 36
7.2.6 Late submission of assignments .................................................................................... 36
Mitigating Circumstances Form...38

8 Examinations ................................................................................................................................ 40
8.1 Conduct in Examinations ....................................................................................................... 40
8.2 Special arrangements ............................................................................................................. 41
8.3 Resit Examinations ................................................................................................................. 41
8.4 Examination scripts ................................................................................................................ 42

9 Student Feedback Channels ........................................................................................................ 42
9.1 Problems, questions, complaints and feedback ...................................................................... 42
9.2 Student representatives ........................................................................................................... 43

10 Complaints and Appeals ............................................................................................................. 44
11 Study Skills ................................................................................................................................... 58
11.1 Effective Reading .................................................................................................................... 58
11.2 Writing Essays ........................................................................................................................ 59
11.3 Examinations - Preparation and Technique ........................................................................... 61


11.4 Learning Support .................................................................................................................... 68
11.4.1 Assistance with mathematics ...................................................................................... 68
11.4.2 Assistance with English language .............................................................................. 68

12 Plagiarism ..................................................................................................................................... 69
12.1 Good Academic Practice and Bad Academic Practice .......................................................... 69
12.2 Examples of Plagiarism .......................................................................................................... 77
12.3 Referencing Styles .................................................................................................................. 79

13 Disciplinary procedures .............................................................................................................. 82

14 The Tutorial System .................................................................................................................... 82
14.1 Description of the Tutorial System ......................................................................................... 82
14.2 Personal Tutoring ................................................................................................................... 82
14.3 Advice for Disabled/Dyslexic Students ................................................................................... 84
14.4 Equal Opportunities ............................................................................................................... 84
14.5 Accommodation ...................................................................................................................... 84
14.6 Student Support and Welfare .................................................................................................. 85
14.7 Prayer Room ........................................................................................................................... 85
14.8 Careers Information ............................................................................................................... 85

15 Information for Work Placements ............................................................................................. 87
15.1 Objective of Work Placements ................................................................................................ 87
15.2 Work Placement Learning Outcomes ..................................................................................... 87
15.3 Work Placement Schedule ...................................................................................................... 88
15.4 Finding a Placement............................................................................................................... 88
15.5 Transfers ................................................................................................................................. 88
15.6 Linking Work Placement and Academic Experience .............................................................. 89
15.7 Assessment of Learning Outcomes ......................................................................................... 90
15.8 Who To Contact ...................................................................................................................... 90

16 Dissertation: Guidelines 90
16.1 Objectives and Learning Outcomes..90
16.2 Timing and Regulations..91


16.3 Choice of Topic..92
16.4 Organising your Dissertation.....93
16.5 Draft Dissertation ...............95
16.6 Presentation.95
16.7 Summary timetable....95
16.8 Assessment...96
16.9 Research Ethics.96

17 BOLD - Brunel Opportunities for Learning Development .................................................... 98
17.1 Effective Learning Advice Service (ELAS) ............................................................................. 98
17.2 Personal Development Planning (PDP)................................................................................. 99
17.3 Valuing Diversity at Brunel University .................................................................................. 99

18 Continuing to Postgraduate Study ........................................................................................... 101

19 Learning Resources ................................................................................................................... 101
19.1 Computing Services .............................................................................................................. 101
19.2 Library: Facilities and Information Sources ........................................................................ 102
19.2.1 Facilities and opening hours .................................................................................... 102
19.2.2 Electronic resources ................................................................................................. 103
19.2.3 Finding Material not at Brunel.103


1 Introduction

The following procedures apply to ALL students undertaking any course of study within the
School of Social Sciences, including all modules taught within the School subject areas of
Economics and Finance and Politics and History; at both undergraduate and postgraduate
levels. This information can also be found on u-Link, (http://www.brunel.ac.uk/intranets/u-
link/) which will contain important information on policy/procedural changes and School of
Social Science news and events it is important that you check this site on a regular basis:

1.1 Academic Staff

Head of School Dany Nobus
Deputy Head of School
with responsibility for Learning and Teaching Peter Lunt
School Senior Tutor Monica Degen
Subject Head - Economics & Finance Philip Davis
Senior Tutor Economics & Finance Yannis Georgellis
Director of Undergraduate Programme Paul Bennett


Whos Who in Economics and Finance

Professors John Bennett BA, MA, DPhil
Nauro Campos BSc, MA, MSc, PhD
Guglielmo Maria Caporale BSc MSc PhD
Philip Davis MA, MPhil
Elisabetta Iossa BSc, MSc, PhD
Menelaos Karanassos BSc, MSc, PhD
Christopher Martin BSc, MSc, PhD

Readers Sugata Ghosh BSc, MSc, MPhil, PhD
Sarmistha Pal BSc, MSc, MPhil, PhD
Fabio Spagnolo Laurea, MSc, PhD
Nicola Spagnolo MSc, PhD

Senior Lecturers Paul Bennett BA, MA
Sumon Bhaumik BSc, MA PhD
Jan Fidrmuc MA, PhD
Yannis Georgellis BA, MA, PhD
Andros Gregoriou, BSc, MSc, PhD
Guy Liu BSc, MPhil, DPhil
Jaideep Roy B.Tech, M.S. Ph.D

Lecturers Alessandra Canepa BA, MSc, PhD
Ralitza Dimova MSc PhD
Sonia Falconieri MSc, PhD
John Hunter BA, MSc, PhD
Kyriacos Kyriacou BSc, MSc, PhD
Bryan Mase BSc, MSc, PhD
Tomoe Moore BSc, MSc and PhD
Anja Shortland MEng, MSc, PhD

Associate and Visiting Staff Walter Elkan BSc, PhD (Professor Emeritus)
Len Skerratt BSc, BA (Professor Associate)



Head: Philip Davis


Director of Teaching: Elisabetta Iossa


Director of Undergraduate Studies: Bryan Mase

Programme Convenors:

Finance and Accounting: Tomoe Moore

Economics: Ralitza Dimova

Business Economics/
Economics and Management: Sonia Falconieri

Economics and Business Finance: Alessandra Canepa

Work Placement Convenor: Kyri Kyriacou

Undergraduate Admissions: Andros Gregoriou

John Hunter
(enquiries & overseas)

Senior Tutor and Open Days: Yannis Georgellis

Staff-Student Relations: Paul Bennett

Undergraduate Dissertations: Menelaos Karanasos

Director of SUFE Exchange: Guy Liu



Director of Postgraduate Studies: Nauro Campos

MSc Convenor and Admissions: Sumon Bhaumik

MSc Dissertations: Menelaos Karanasos

MRes Co-ordinator: Sugata Ghosh

PhD Lecture Co-ordinator: Anja Shortland

QAA: Guglielmo Maria Caporale


Director of Research (& Web Master): Chris Martin

Directors of Research Centres: John Bennett

Guglielmo Maria Caporale

Chris Martin

PhD Convenor/Admissions: Len Skerratt/Sarmistha Pal

Discussion Papers: Chris Martin

Staff Seminars:

Internal: Chris Martin

External: Jan Fidrmuc


Computing Representative: John Hunter

Library Representative: Ralitza Dimova

Health and Safety: TBA



BENNETT, John 66649 01895-266649 MJ258
BENNETT, Paul 66641 01895-266641 MJ249
BHAUMIK, Sumon 67247 01895-267247 MJ265
CAMPOS, Nauro 67115 01895-267115 MJ263
CANEPA, Alessandra 66207 01895-266207 MJ247
CAPORALE, Guglielmo
66713 01895-266713 MJ251
DAVIS, E Philip 66643 01895-26643 MJ258
DIMOVA, Ralitza 67275 01895-267275 MJ246A
FALCONIERI, Sonia 65251 01895-265251 MJ248
FIDRMUC, Jan 66528 01895-266528 MJ255
GEORGELLIS, Yannis 66635 01895-266635 MJ244
GHOSH, Sugata 66652 01895-266652 MJ261
GREGORIOU, Andros 66637 01895-266637 MJ246B
HUNTER, John 66648 01895-266648 MJ257
IOSSA, Elisabetta 66646 01895-266646 MJ253
KARANASSOS, Menelaos 65824 01895-265824 MJ269
KYRIACOU, Kyriacos 66656 01895-266656 MJ267
LIU, Guy 66659 01895-266650 MJ259
MARTIN, Chris 66644 01895-266644 MJ266
MASE, Bryan 66647 01895-266647 MJ256
MOORE, Tomoe 67531 01895-267531 MJ250
MOSCARIELLO, Nicola 67659 01895-67659 MJ262
PAL, Sarmistha 66645 01895-266645 MJ252
ROY, Jaideep 65539 01895-265539 MJ242
SHORTLAND, Anja 67091 01895-267091 MJ268
SKERRATT, Len 66403 01895-266403 MJ270
SPAGNOLO, Fabio 65637 01895-265637 MJ264
SPAGNOLO, Nicola 66636 01895-266636 MJ245


1.2 Undergraduate Office

The Undergraduate Office is located in room 103 on the ground floor of the Marie Jahoda
Centre. It is open between 10.00am and 12.30pm and then 2.00pm and 4.30pm every day for
student enquiries.

Undergraduate Administrative Staff

Assistant School Manager Emma Perry
Administration Team Leader Kiran Pardesi
Administrator Paul Buck
Administrator Sue Donovan
Administrator Parjinder Parbhakar

1.3 Postgraduate Office

The Postgraduate Office is located in room 151 of the Marie Jahoda Building.

Postgraduate Administrative Staff

Assistant School Manager Norma Bowes
Senior Administrator Linda Birch
Administrator June Costard


2 The Learning Contract: Objectives and Expectations



The University expects all staff and students, along with all other stakeholders, to act in
accordance with the values and principles and standards in the endeavour to meet the
aspirations of the Mission Statement, and to assume personal and collective responsibility for
assuring that these are embedded within the culture of the University.

The core values of the University are:
Putting people first;
Respect for the ideas of others which requires that ideas be expressed and
presented in an intellectually responsible manner, and that intellectual
discourse concerns itself solely with the ideas and not the person expressing
Excellence in research and scholarship;
Excellence in teaching and learning;
Excellence in our external relationships;
Excellence in management;
all in an atmosphere of inclusiveness and an environment in which these ambitions
can be achieved.
In addition, the University seeks in all its endeavours to value pluralism and diversity, to
actively assist in managing the work/life balance of its employees and to be universally
transparent in its decision-making.

Core Ethical Principles
In the endeavour to achieve its mission, the University is determined to
honour a set of core values based upon the fundamental ethical principles of:
respect for the innate humanity, uniqueness and dignity of others in
their identity and their ideas and;
freedom of speech, thought, and intellectual inquiry and;
enabling all staff and students to reach their full potential
as underpinned by the European Convention of Human Rights.


Core Standards of Professional Conduct

The University is committed to highest standards of professional conduct, as determined by
the Nolan Principles of
- Selflessness
- Integrity
- Objectivity
- Accountability
- Openness
- Honesty
- Leadership.

These core principles, values and standards should be addressed in all circumstances and in
all activities of the University.

The University and its governing body are committed to entering into, and maintaining,
ethical practice with all staff, students, and all other stakeholders on a reciprocal basis.
All members of the University bear a responsibility to follow the Ethical Framework. Where
issues are not explicitly expressed in the Framework, members should use it as a guide and
act accordingly.

This Framework should inform the drafting and implementation of all University codes.
The Framework was produced by the Ethical Framework Working Group and all
constituencies of the University were consulted during the process. The University is
committed to engaging in regular reviews of the Framework to ensure that it maintains the
highest standards in all its activities and relationships, subject to annual review.



In all relationships the University, its members and stakeholders will:
treat people fairly and with respect;
act with tolerance towards cultural, racial, ideological and religious differences;
ensure confidentiality of personal information and ensure that records are
appropriately maintained and up-to-date;
not accept or encourage inducements;
strive for environmentally friendly policies;
support intellectual and academic freedom;
respect the intellectual property rights of others;
strive to act positively and to promote basic human rights in relation to people,
businesses and organisations;

In all relationships the University, its members will:
respond to complaints professionally and seriously;
fulfil its responsibilities to all staff, students, partners, clients and local communities;
strive to seek funding from ethically suitable sources;
undertake ethical research that seeks to enhance the human condition;

In all relationships the University will:
communicate its policies to all staff, students, partners, clients and local communities,
where appropriate;
facilitate representation of trade union members by their unions;
exert appropriate financial control;

The University values and respects its staff. It seeks to meet the needs of employees at all
The University will:
provide clear and fair terms of employment;
provide a clear and transparent remuneration policy, which is fair and suitable across
the University;
ensure fair and equal opportunities for all staff;
provide an environment that is clean, safe and fit for purpose;
not tolerate harassment or intimidating behaviour towards any member of staff;
be open and honest with employees;
encourage staff to develop skills.


The University values and respects its students. It seeks to meet the needs of students at all
The University will:
provide inclusive quality teaching and learning opportunities that will provide
inclusive teaching and access;
provide fair, transparent, anonymous and timely assessment where appropriate;
provide appropriate resources to enable learning;
provide assistance and respect in regard to disability;
provide students with fair and appropriate support, both in terms of academic and
personal welfare.

The University values and respects its stakeholders. It seeks to meet the needs of these
The University will:
ensure that all public material is appropriately maintained and accurate;

seek to provide standards of agreed service at all times;

ensure that reports, training and other services provided are of high quality.

The University values and respects its local communities. It seeks to meet the needs of these
The University will:
strive to be sensitive to community needs;
demonstrate sensitivity to conflict between the University and local communities, and
between students and local communities;
embed itself in local initiatives where appropriate;
encourage local students to apply to the University;
strive to protect, and enhance the local environment.

The University advocates ethical working practice and requires no less of its members
and those associated with its activities.

2.2 Student Learning Contract

This contract aims to establish the general working practices by which Economics and Finances
teaching aims and objectives will be achieved. Individual modules will, additionally, issue
specific details relating to module objectives, administration and assessment procedures.

In seeking to achieve our objectives, there are levels of input from staff and students which
should be regarded as minimum requirements.


2.2.1 Staff responsibilities

Clear notification of module objectives and content, teaching methods, assessment
and the penalties for non-compliance with attendance or submission requirements.
Where these vary from details given in the last published module outlines, such
variations should be made clear.

Early notice of coursework requirements, submission and test dates.

A level of library provision which gives reasonable access to all recommended
material, where necessary through the short-loan system; availability of core texts in
the University bookshop.

High quality provision of study aids (readers, handouts) when appropriate.

Return of coursework with appropriate comments within two weeks of submission in
modules with fewer than 30 students, subject to any consideration with regard to late
submission, four weeks otherwise.

Advance notification of, and explanation for, any changes to teaching times or rooms.

A reasonable level of access to staff outside formal class times, with details of staff
office hours posted on office doors. A response to email correspondence where staff
believe it appropriate; where no reply is received staff should be contacted in office

The opportunity for discussion of performance in assessed and non-assessed

2.2.2 Student responsibilities

Registering for appropriate modules consistent with the relevant scheme of studies.

Punctuality and full attendance at lectures, workshops and seminars. Attentive
listening and note taking in lectures, without unsolicited talking. Mobile phones to be
switched off.

Reading the references required and consulting additional sources such as academic
and professional journals.

Adequate preparation for and active participation in workshops and seminars.

Organising and scheduling work so that submission deadlines are adhered to.
Acceptance of any penalties for non-compliance. Revised submission deadlines must
be requested before the submission deadlines. Mitigation Circumstances are available


from the Undergraduate Office. Revised submission deadlines may only be granted
in EXCEPTIONAL circumstances when these are supported by documentary

Written and, if possible, prior notification of unavoidable inability to attend
workshops, seminars and tutorials (e.g. on health grounds).

Written and, if possible, prior notification of unavoidable inability to attend
coursework tests and/or examinations. Students should complete a mitigating
circumstances form and forward it to Emma Perry in MJ102 within seven days of the
relevant assessment.

Strict compliance with University regulations relating to academic offences, such as
plagiarism, and acceptance of the penalties for non-compliance.

Strict compliance with University regulations to academic offences, such as
plagiarism, and acceptance of the penalties for non-compliance.

Strict compliance with University examination regulations.

Observation of relevant School notice boards at least once a week and e-mail and
u-link daily for important information including coursework deadlines, test dates,
administrative arrangements, possible changes in teaching arrangements and so on.


3 Undergraduate Degree Programmes

3.1 Degree programmes

Economics and Finance offers the following degree programmes:

BSc (Hons) Economics

BSc (Hons) Economics and Business Finance

BSc (Hons) Business Economics

BSc (Hons) Economics and Management

BSc (Hons) Finance and Accounting

3.2 Learning outcomes of degree programmes

Please refer to the following link:


3.3 Undergraduate Schemes of Study 2008-2009

BSc Economics

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC3000 Economics Project
EC3061 Advanced
EC3062 Advanced

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC3063 Econometric Methods and
EC3064 Financial Theory and
Corporate Policy
EC3065 Financial Engineering
EC3066 Managerial and Industrial
EC3067 International Economics
EC3068 The Economics of Labour

Progression and award requirements

As Senate Regulation 2

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC2002 Macroeconomics
Principles II
EC2007 Introduction to
Economic Modelling
EC2092 Work placement:
Thick Sandwich (One Year)*

* Four year programme only

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC2003 Financial Accounting and
Statement Analysis
EC2004 Company Law and
EC2005 Development Economics
EC2006 Economics of the European
EC2008 Mathematical Economics
EC2024 Corporate Finance
EC2025 Corporate Investment

Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 220
(occasionally 200) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 200 credits

Repeat Part-time with 180 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 180 credits

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC1005 Mathematics for
Economics and Finance
EC1006 Statistical Research
EC1010 Microeconomic
EC1020 Macroeconomic
EC1030 Financial Markets
EC1040 Introduction to
Financial Accounting

Option module codes, titles and credits

Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 100
(occasionally 80) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 80 credits

Repeat Part-time with 60 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 60 credits

BSc Business Economics


Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC3066 Managerial and
Industrial Economics
EC3067 International
EC3000 Economics Project

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC3061 Advanced Microeconomics
EC3062 Advanced Macroeconomics
EC3063 Econometric Methods and
EC3064 Financial Theory and
Corporate Policy
EC3065 Financial Engineering
EC3068 The Economics of Labour

Progression and award requirements

As Senate Regulation 2.

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC2001 Microeconomics
Principles II
EC2003 Financial Accounting
and Statement Analysis
EC2007 Introduction to
Economic Modelling
EC2092 Work placement:
Thick Sandwich (One Year)*

* Four year programme only

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC2002 Macroeconomics Principles II
EC2004 Company Law and
EC2005 Development Economics
EC2006 Economics of the European
EC2008 Mathematical Economics
EC2024 Corporate Finance
EC2025 Corporate Investment

Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 220
(occasionally 200) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 200 credits

Repeat Part-time with 180 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 180 credits

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC1005 Mathematics for
Economics and Finance
EC1006 Statistical Research
EC1010 Microeconomic
EC1020 Macroeconomic
EC1030 Financial Markets
EC1040 Introduction to
Financial Accounting

Option module codes, titles and credits Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 100
(occasionally 80) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 80 credits

Repeat Part-time with 60 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 60 credits

BSc Economics and Business Finance


Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC3000 Economics Project
EC3064 Financial Theory and
Corporate Policy
EC3065 Financial Engineering

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC3061 Advanced Microeconomics
EC3062 Advanced Macroeconomics
EC3063 Econometric Methods and
EC3066 Managerial and Industrial
EC3067 International Economics
EC3068 The Economics of Labour

Progression and award requirements

As Senate Regulation 2.

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC2001 Microeconomics
Principles II
EC2007 Introduction to
Economic Modelling
EC2024 Corporate Finance
EC2025 Corporate Investment

EC2092 Work placement:
Thick Sandwich (One Year)*

* Four year programme only
Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC2002 Macroeconomics Principles II
EC2003 Financial Accounting and
Statement Analysis
EC2004 Company Law and
EC2005 Development Economics
EC2006 Economics of the European
EC2008 Mathematical Economics
Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 220
(occasionally 200) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 200 credits

Repeat Part-time with 180 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 180 credits

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC1005 Mathematics for
Economics and Finance
EC1006 Statistical Research
EC1010 Microeconomic
EC1020 Macroeconomic
EC1030 Financial Markets
EC1040 Introduction to
Financial Accounting

Option module codes, titles and credits Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 100
(occasionally 80) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 80 credits

Repeat Part-time with 60 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 60 credits

BSc Economics and Management


Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

EC3000 Economics Project
MG3119 Issues and
Controversies in Management

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

40 credits from Economics options:
EC3061 Advanced Microeconomics
EC3062 Advanced Macroeconomics
EC3063 Econometric Methods and
EC3064 Financial Theory and
Corporate Policy
EC3065 Financial Engineering
EC3066 Managerial and Industrial
EC3067 International Economics
EC3068 The Economics of Labour

40 credits from Management options:
MG3008 Entrepreneurship and Small
Business Ventures
MG3018 Gender and Organisations
MG3038 International Marketing
MG3047 Strategic Management
MG3108 Ethics, Governance and
MG3109 Innovation and Knowledge

Progression and award requirements

As Senate Regulation 2.

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC2001 Microeconomics
Principles II
EC2002 Macroeconomics
Principles II
EC2007 Introduction to
Economic Modelling
EC2092 Work placement:
Thick Sandwich (One Year)*

* Four year programme only

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

60 credits from:
EC2005 Developmental Economics
EC2006 Economics of the European
EC2008 Mathematical Economics
EC2024 Corporate Finance
EC2025 Corporate Investment
MG2029 Database and Customer
Relationship Marketing
MG2048 Marketing Communications
MG2063 Critical Perspectives in
MG2096 Consumer Behaviour
MG2119 Marketing Research
MG2129 Managing Change and
Creativity in Organisations
MG2133 Human Resource
Management and its International
MG2134 Management Accounting
MG2135 Operations Management

Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 220
(occasionally 200) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 200 credits

Repeat Part-time with 180 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 180 credits


Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC1007 Mathematics and
Statistics for Economists
EC1010 Microeconomic
EC1020 Macroeconomic
EC1030 Financial Markets
EC1040 Introduction to
Financial Accounting
MG1051 Organisational
Behaviour and Analysis

Option module codes, titles and credits Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 100
(occasionally 80) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 80 credits

Repeat Part-time with 60 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 60 credits


BSc Finance and Accounting

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC3000 Economics Project
EC3064 Financial Theory and
Corporate Policy
EC3425 Financial Accounting
MG3024 Auditing

Option module codes, titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits unless
otherwise specified

EC3063 Econometric Methods and
EC3065 Financial Engineering
MG3027 Taxation
Progression and award requirements

As Senate Regulation 2.

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC2003 Financial Accounting
and Statement Analysis
EC2004 Company Law and
EC2007 Introduction to
Economic Modelling
EC2024 Corporate Finance
EC2025 Corporate Investment
MG2134 Management
EC2092 Work placement:
Thick Sandwich (One Year)*

* Four year programme only

Option module codes, titles and credits

Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 220
(occasionally 200) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 200 credits

Repeat Part-time with 180 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 180 credits

Compulsory module codes,
titles and credits

All modules are 20 credits
unless otherwise specified

EC1005 Mathematics for
Economics and Finance
EC1006 Statistical Research
EC1010 Microeconomic
EC1020 Macroeconomic
EC1030 Financial Markets
EC1040 Introduction to
Financial Accounting

Option module codes, titles and credits Progression and award requirements

Conditional Progression with 100
(occasionally 80) credits

Progression on Ordinary degree with
(normally) 80 credits

Repeat Part-time with 60 credits

(Normally) asked to withdraw with less
than 60 credits


3.4 Ordinary Degree Scheme of Studies

Economics and Finance does not offer Ordinary Degrees for ab initio registration. School
regulations are as follows:

A student may be transferred to the Ordinary Degree Route if, after reassessment, the
Board believes that she/he is not capable, at present of achieving Honours.

A minimum of 100 credits per level is required for progression. A total of 300 credits is
necessary for the award of an Ordinary Degree, as follows:

100 credits at level 1
100 credits at level 2
Minimum 60 credits at level 3

The remaining 40 credits to reach the total of 300 can be obtained either with Level 2 or
with Level 3 modules

For each Scheme of Study, the core modules for an Ordinary Degree are the same as for the
Honours Degree, with the exception of module EC3000, which is not available. Please refer to the
programme specification for the list of core modules in each scheme of study. The programme
specification will also indicate the optional modules available (if any). Please note that in selecting
an option, any pre-requisite must have been taken and passed in order to register for the module.

For each Scheme of Study, the options for an Ordinary Degree are the same as for the Honours
Degree. Please refer to the programme specifications for the list of options in each scheme of
study. Please note that in selecting an option, any pre-requisite must have been taken and passed,
in order to register for the module.

Students who have been transferred to an Ordinary Degree at the end of Level 1 may be permitted
to reregister for Honours at the commencement of Level 3, if they have accumulated at least 220
credits at level 1 and level 2, and remain eligible to register for the outstanding credits on entry to
level 3.

However, students registered for an Ordinary Degree at the commencement of Level 3 can only be
awarded an Ordinary Degree irrespective of the credit achieved by the final examination board.

4 Description of Individual Modules

A description of each module can be found on the Universitys document archive at


5 Information on Degree Structure

5.1 The structure of Brunel degrees

The University operates a system of terms. There are three terms in an academic session.

Thick-sandwich students take the third year out on placement. Non-placement modes are also

5.2 The credit system

The degree structure is modular, designed to increase student choice and encourage flexibility of
degree programmes. Modules are assigned a credit value of 20 or 40 credits. Students normally
take a total of 60 credits in each term.

Each level equals 120 credits. A total of 360 credits over three levels is required for an Honours
Degree. At Level 3 40 credits are awarded for a dissertation.

Please note that Senate has ruled that students may not take in excess of 120 credits per level.
(This does not apply to students who are repeating modules as required by the Examination

Students should be aware that it is their responsibility to register for the
correct number of credits in accordance with the appropriate scheme of
studies, and that failure to do so will affect their degree results.

5.3 Course timetable

You can download your degree specific lecture timetable from u-link. The first thing to do is to
check the scheme of studies (overleaf) for the degree you are registered for (e.g. Business
Economics). Identify the core modules listed there and consult the course timetables. Fill in all
the required lectures for your degree course.

To find which workshop/seminar you have been pre-allocated to check u-link.

Only students registered for Economics and Management degrees, take options from BBS.
Details of options can be found on u-link. Students registered on all other degrees take
Economics and Finance options only.


5.4 Schemes of Study, Core Modules and Options

The Schemes of Study and Core Modules and Options for each of the Honours Degree Courses
offered by Economics and Finance are given in Section 3 and can be found at
These list the modules which are required for each named degree (e.g. Economics, Economics
and Business Finance etc.). Where a module is specifically identified (e.g. EC1030) it is a core
module for that degree, which students must take. In some cases, particularly at Level 2 and
Level 3, students have a choice of options from which they can choose. If you are taking a joint
degree, your scheme of study will usually be more specific and will offer relatively few, if any,
option choices. Generally, the more specific your degree title, the smaller the range of option
choices available, since, for example, a degree in Economics and Business Finance is limited
mainly to Economics and Finance modules.

You should seek advice from your personal tutor regarding your choice of degree schemes and

Some modules (EC1010, EC1020, EC1030, EC1040, EC1007) are taught over one term only
with a final exam in May. Others (EC1005, EC1006) are taught over two terms also with a final
exam in May.

5.5 Transfers between degree courses in Economics and Finance

In exceptional circumstances you may be permitted by the Senior Tutor to change degree
programme. You should consult your Personal Tutor before you seek to make such a change.
You must complete a Student Record Amendment Form (SRAF), available from the
Undergraduate Office, and obtain the signature of the Senior Tutor.

Students may normally transfer from Joint Honours and named Economics Honours degrees
(e.g. Economics and Business Finance, Business Economics) into the Single Honours
Economics degree on condition that they have taken and obtained credits for the core Micro and
Macro theory modules, and the core Quantitative Methods modules, which are prescribed in the
scheme of studies for the BSc Economics (Hons); furthermore students must have taken and
passed core modules for the course, and meet the prerequisites for all the remaining core
modules prescribed by the scheme of studies for the degree into which they are transferring.
Such transfers may be permitted up to the conclusion of Level 2.

5.6 Transfers between Schools

Students may transfer between degree courses with the permission of the Admissions Tutor of
the receiving School. Again, a SRAF should be obtained, completed and returned to Student
Records Office signed first by the receiving School, and then by the releasing School.


6 Teaching and Learning

6.1 Introduction

Studying at university is different in many ways from studying at school.

Firstly, work is expected to be of a higher standard. The students at university have been
selected from the best performers at school: as the general calibre of the individual at university
is higher, the standards expected are higher. In Economics and Finance at Brunel the standards
are more demanding than at many other British tertiary education establishments.

Secondly, on entering university, students are expected to take a greater responsibility for
managing their affairs. It is essential to be able to allocate time, plan workloads and adopt study
habits that will allow the targets set by the university to be met. A high standard of motivation
and personal discipline is a pre-requisite.

These targets involve more than just success in the examination process. Economics and
Finance expects not only wide reading, across more than one subject, but deep, critical and
analytical reading. In the process of studying to pass examinations, strong critical faculties in
general should have been developed alongside a good understanding of Economics and Finance
in particular.

Time and energy will initially have to be devoted to developing good study habits. However,
thought given to study methods during the early stages of university life will form an invaluable
basis for effective working practices not only during the latter stages of university but also
beyond, throughout a working career.

6.2 Student workloads

Students undertaking a full-time course will normally be expected to study for at least 40 hours
per week on average. This implies a workload of approximately 13 hours for a 20 credit
module, including the time spent in contact hours in the lecture room or classroom. It is
essential to realise that individual study time in Economics and Finance is expected right from
the outset of your course, and that you need to manage your time efficiently, studying
throughout the term continuously, rather than trying to cram in study hours around assessment

6.3 Lectures, workshops, seminars, tutorials

Economics and Finance provides lectures, workshops, seminars and tutorials. These vary in
group size and in the level of expected participation.


6.3.1 Lectures

In lectures, generally members of staff talk and students listen and take notes; students can ask
questions for clarification, but detailed discussion is the preserve of the seminars and workshops.
Lectures give broad coverage in a relatively formal setting of a topic which can then be explored
more fully in the less formal setting of the workshop or seminar. The general functions of
lectures are:

to introduce or explore a topic
to impart information
to provide a framework for independent study

It is not necessary to commit every utterance of the lecturer to paper, but to identify and note key
points. The key points are usually highlighted by the lecturers use of the overhead projector or
the blackboard or by the way in which things are said (for example, a phrase like The basic
elements in this process are.... heralds the arrival of some important information).

To gain the maximum benefit from a lecture requires the co-ordination of a number of mental
processes. The secret is to listen actively to what is said. Active listening involves more
concentration than that required in everyday conversation. Active listening entails

preparation before the lecture (for example, how this lecture might relate to
the previous lecture or earlier material)
anticipation of questions that the lecture might address
formulation of lines of argument as the lecture proceeds

Active listening should be supported by note-taking. Lecture notes should

reflect the structure of the lecture
be organised around topics, sub-headings and numbered points
be condensed and precise

It is usually very helpful to re-draft lecture notes after the lecture. Lecture notes serve as a
framework for further study and should link up with wider reading and essay writing. Any
unclear areas should be addressed as soon as possible, by consulting textbooks, discussing with
fellow students and formulating clear questions for workshops or seminars.

Note: Students may be asked to leave lectures for unsolicited talking or for causing a
disturbance with mobile phones.

6.3.2 Workshops

Workshops are generally used for modules in finance or quantitative subjects, and take the form
of working through answers to a previously distributed assignment sheet of exercise questions.
These are often, but not exclusively, numerical.

To benefit from workshops it is essential that you prepare by completing the assignment sheet
as fully and carefully as possible beforehand. It is an excellent idea to work in groups with other
students in preparing for workshop assignments so that you can explain to each other how to


answer a question is an excellent way of increasing your own understanding. The workshop
leader will then go through the questions step by step to demonstrate the answer. You are
expected to ask if you do not understand a step in the argument (put your hand up!) If you still
cannot understand after the workshop leader has explained, and you sense that you are holding
up the groups progress, note your difficulty carefully and see the leader individually during his
or her office hour, or by appointment.

If you have difficulties prior to the workshop in completing the assignment sheet, note carefully
at what stage you are having difficulties, and be sure to sort it out in the workshop as far as

Dont be afraid that youll look stupid by asking a question, particularly in large groups. It is far
more likely that you will not be alone with a difficulty, and fellow students will probably be glad
that you have raised it. You will learn by active participation, not by passive listening, in a

Finally, if you havent prepared for some reason, attend the workshop anyway. You wont get
nearly as much from it, but it is better than nothing. Other students will be justifiably annoyed,
however, if you make a habit of going to workshops unprepared and asking questions which you
could have answered for yourself if you had done the work. Ultimately, success depends on
good preparation.

6.3.3 Seminars

Seminars are generally used for subjects where the lecture material is examined in more detail,
and theoretical concepts are analysed and applied in specific contexts. Seminar teaching takes
place in smaller groups.

Again, as for workshops, you will receive an assignment sheet of questions for discussion.
Again, it is essential that you prepare, by thorough background reading as well as reviewing
your lecture notes. Use reading lists fully and make sure that, if any readers have been
provided, you have digested these fully.

Seminar questions are often devised to make you consider several viewpoints on a controversial
issue or argument. Working with fellow students in an informal study group is a very good way
of preparing for a seminar, especially as you are likely to have different viewpoints and are more
likely to see all sides of the question. You may be reluctant to share your reading and
preparation with other students who do not appear to be working as hard. In extreme cases, this
is fair enough - someone who is not doing any work is not much use in a study group. However,
as long as you are all contributing something, even the most assiduous student will benefit from
the challenge of explaining concepts and the interaction with others.

It is very important to remember that you are not competing with each other in order to obtain a
good degree. Universities do not set a quota of firsts, upper seconds, and so on. If you all work
hard and emerge with good understanding and knowledge, you will all get good degrees. Co-
operation is mutually beneficial for seminars and workshops, and experience suggests strongly
that students who study together perform better. Needless to say, this does not apply to
individually marked coursework assessments - these are to evaluate your own progress!


7 Assessment

7.1 Grade Descriptors

BAND 1 80-100 A Exemplary work, which could be recommended as a comprehensive
representation of the best that is expected of an undergraduate at this
Level, produced across many aspects of the assessment.

70-79 A A consistently authoritative grasp of the concepts, methodology and
content appropriate to the subject discipline, demonstrated through
depth and confidence in understanding of issues underpinning the
assessment tasks.

BAND 2i 60-69 B Very good. A confident level of understanding at this Level based
on an assured grasp of relevant concepts, methodology and content,
demonstrated through evidence of significant skill in interpreting
complex material articulated with a high level of competence.

BAND 2ii 50-59 C Good. A coherent response at this Level to the requirements of the
assessment tasks, demonstrated through evidence of accurate
restatement and organisation of relevant concepts and material.

BAND 3 40-49 D Acceptable. A response that shows awareness of the requirements
of the assessment tasks demonstrated through evidence of some
reading and organisation of relevant source material and of an
attempt to draw relevant conclusions. Evidence of attainment of all
learning outcomes described at threshold level.

FAIL 35-39 E Unsatisfactory. Work that does not show achievement of some
learning outcomes described at threshold level, but which may
demonstrate sufficient evidence to suggest that Band 3 is not wholly
beyond the grasp of the student.

20-34 F Unacceptable. Work that, in most respects, does not demonstrate
the achievement of learning outcomes described at threshold level.

0-19 F Unacceptable. Work that, in all respects, does not demonstrate the
achievement of learning outcomes described at threshold level.


7.2 Continuous assessment: Economics and Finance policies

7.2.1 Procedures

Assessment of all Economics modules and units includes an element of continuous assessment.
The type of coursework in each module varies and will be clearly indicated on the module
handouts. Coursework takes various forms, including essays, tests and assessed seminar

The weighting given to coursework varies between 15% and 100%, and is stated in the module
outline. Coursework marks (including test marks where appropriate) will be averaged and will
count as a proportion of the overall mark for that module/unit. In other words, coursework will
normally count as a proportion of the overall assessment, whether this reduces or improves the
exam mark, and regardless of the number or type of assignments. Assessment details are
provided in Section 5 of this handbook.

There is no reassessment of coursework in Economics and Finance. Students who are deemed to
have good cause for failure to submit/attend will at Levels 1 and 2 be assessed 100% by final
examination, and at Level 3 have the mark for the second piece of coursework applied to
the missed assessment.

N.B. Coursework marks are NOT normally substituted for examination marks even
where examinations are missed with good cause.

7.2.2 Coursework assessment arrangements

At Levels 1 and 2, week 12 of the Autumn term and week 7 of the Spring term is designated as
assessment weeks. During this week there will be no formal teaching. All coursework tests
will be scheduled during this week, at normal lecture times wherever possible. Details will be
posted on u-Link and announced in lectures. All assignments will be due by deadlines
advertised and scheduled during or shortly after assessment week.

At Level 3 week 11 of the Autumn term is the assessment week. In the Spring term, coursework
test and assignment dates will be individually organised and notified in lectures and on u-Link.

7.2.3 Assignment Submissions and Assessment Feedback

Submission deadlines are the latest time/dates for submission without late penalty. Earlier
submissions are welcomed and encouraged it is good practice, and is psychologically
beneficial to you, to submit coursework before the specified deadline day.

All coursework deadlines (date and time) will be published normally not later than 2 weeks
after the start of the relevant term by the lecturer and will also be posted onto u-Link. Any
necessary changes to the published deadlines will be notified to students as soon as possible.


7.2.4 Procedure for Submitting Essays

All essay submissions will be 1 paper copy and 1 copy submitted to the module u-Link page.
Your paper copy must have a submission sheet attached to it (example overleaf). These are
available outside the UG Office (MJ103) where there will be an example of how to complete it.
The deadline time on submission days is 3pm.

Physical submission in person or by post

Formal coursework submissions must be made to the Undergraduate Office (Room 103 in the
Marie Jahoda Building) not to tutors, lecturers, etc., so that all submissions can be properly
logged. You may submit your work to the undergraduate office either in person or by post
(NOT by email). Marked assignments will be returned to students by module tutors. Dates
will be notified to students via u-Link.

Any coursework not submitted to the undergraduate office will be deemed to have not
been submitted this is a strict University policy.

If submitting by post you must still submit 1 paper copy and 1 copy via u-link. Submissions
must be by recorded delivery/registered post, etc. such that the date of posting is certified. The
certified date of posting, rather than receipt, shall be deemed the date of submission and it is a
students responsibility to confirm receipt by the School and to produce the certification at the
submission point as soon as possible. In the event that a student fails to produce the
certification, the date of receipt shall be deemed to be the submission date. Submission by post
on a given date shall be treated as submission before the time deadline on that day.

The postal address to be used in all cases is:

School of Social Sciences
(Economics and Finance)
Room 103, Marie Jahoda Building
Brunel University



7.2.5 Electronic hand in of assignments

Coursework Submission in u-Link

You will be given guidance in submitting your coursework via u-Link, the Brunel e-learning
system. The start date/time of your submission (which can take some time for large
submissions) logged in u-Link will be treated as the submission date/time. When a date is
given for electronic submission of an assignment one copy must be submitted on the u-Link
database for the module in question by 3.00pm on the due date, after which electronic
submission will be blocked. Additionally one identical paper copy must be handed in to the
Undergraduate Office by 3.00pm on the due date. Any changes from the electronic version to
the hard copy will be classified as cheating. The consequences of this action at any level may
be subject to disciplinary action which may lead to expulsion.

7.2.6 Late submission of assignments

If you cannot submit your work on time because of extenuating circumstances, you must
submit a completed Mitigating Circumstances Form together with supporting evidence to
Emma Perry in MJ102, ideally by the deadline and in any case no later than 7 days after the
deadline see section 7.1 for submission procedure.

Assignments submitted late can only be submitted in person at the Undergraduate Office. If the
original assignment was required electronically then a paper copy must be submitted to the
Undergraduate Office.

Where serious mitigating circumstances are submitted for assignments handed in more than 7
days late, then these will not be considered until the Examination Panel or Board for the
module concerned has met. If the mitigating circumstances are accepted by the Panel or Board,
this may result in the reduction or removal of the late penalty.

Coursework Late Penalties (including Final Year Project Reports)

The following late penalty structure applies to all full-time and part-time undergraduate
students in the University. The penalty takes the form of a cap, which is applied after
assessment of the work.

The following caps will be uniformly applied, in the absence of accepted relevant mitigating

Up to 1 working day late (by 5pm) Mark capped at 70% (A grade)
Up to 2 working days late (by 5pm) Mark capped at 60% (B grade)
Up to 5 working days late (by 5pm) Mark capped at 50% (C grade)
Up to 10 working days late (by 5pm) Mark capped at 40% (D grade)
Up to 15 working days late (by 5pm) Mark capped at 30% (F grade)
More than 15 working days late Mark capped at 0%. (F grade)


A working day is here defined as Monday to Friday at any time of year, with the
exception of UK national holidays (if submission cannot be made in person to the
submission point or through u-Link, submission must be made by post). Anything
submitted after 3pm will be regarded as 1 day later.

If you do not submit a Mitigating Circumstances form to the undergraduate office within
7 days of the deadline (unless not practicable), the standard late penalties will be applied
to your submitted work.

If you do submit a Mitigating Circumstances Form with supporting evidence, this will be
considered by the Chair of the Mitigating Circumstances Panel (or their nominee) who will
decide one of the following:

that the MCs are not significant and decide that the normal late penalty should apply;
that the MCs are accepted and define a revised submission deadline for you;
that your MCs are serious/long term, suspend the late penalty requirements for your
submission and require you to be counselled concerning your learning and assessment
work plan.

You will be notified of the decision as soon as possible by letter.

Late submission of Final Year Project Reports

Late formal submissions of undergraduate Final Year Project reports will be treated in exactly
the same way as other assessed undergraduate coursework as defined above. It is therefore vital
that you schedule your project work, monitor your progress and ensure that your supervisor is
kept abreast of any (particularly technical) problems that arise. You should, of course, schedule
sufficient time before the deadline for addressing formatting and printing problems which may

If, however, you are unable to submit your report on time you must submit a Mitigating
Circumstance Form, even if the unforeseen circumstance was known by your supervisor (your
supervisor may be able to supply supporting evidence).



ACADEMIC YEAR: 2008/9 TERM: _______________(ONE/TWO)

This form should be completed if illness or other circumstance has affected your academic performance.
All claims MUST be substantiated by original documentary evidence (e.g., medical
certificates/self-certification form) and must be signed and dated.

All information submitted is confidential and will only be made available to the relevant Board. The
information you provide on this form will be used in relation to your assessment for the affected
modules, and will be retained as part of your student record. Further information on the Universitys
Data Protection Policy can be found at

Family Name: ________________________________ First Name(s): __________________________

Registration Number: _________________________________

Course: _________________________________________________ Level: ____________________

Please complete the sections below and overleaf and return this form together with supporting
evidence to Emma Perry (Assistant School Manager Undergraduates) in room MJ104 before the
deadlines shown at the bottom of this page. Please note that claims received after these deadlines will
not be considered by the Mitigating Circumstances Panel and that late submissions of your claim will
not be accepted as valid grounds for appeal.

Please list all modules for which you are submitting mitigating circumstances

Please insert one or more of the codes from the list below in the box marked Part(s) Affected above.
NB: Coursework includes dissertations, projects, presentations and in-class tests.

Part Affected 1 Exam -performance affected
2 Exam -unable to attend
Module Title
(select from
list below)
For Exams
For Late Coursework
Date of


3 Coursework -submitted on time but performance affected
4 Coursework -submitted late but before the cut-off date,
(give dates above)
5 Coursework -not submitted

Coursework: no later than 7 days after submission of assessment deadline
Examination: no later than 7 days after examination

Further Details
Please give further details of your circumstances, including the dates during which you were affected
and the impact on your academic performance. Please note that you should retain a copy of your claim
form along with copies of any original documents you submit. Further information on how the School
deals with claims of mitigating circumstances is given in your Students Handbook.

Details of Your Claim Dates Affected Module(s) Affected

Original documentary evidence MUST be attached to this form.

I attach medical evidence (doctor's certificate/letter) YES / NO

I attach other supporting evidence YES / NO
(please circle yes or no above)

Comments from Personal Tutor:

Signed: ........................................................................ Date: ..........................................

Your Signature: _____________________________________ Date: ______/______/______


8 Examinations

The pass mark for all undergraduate modules is 40%. The School will follow Senate
Regulation guidelines relating to Undergraduate degrees
(http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about/administration/rules/senateregs/sr2), and will normally
condone marks in the range of 35-39.

8.1 Conduct in Examinations / Tests

Candidates are reminded that the following rules apply during an examination or test:

1. You must remain silent at all times during the period you are in the examination room,
unless permitted to speak by an Invigilator. You must not attempt to communicate by
any means with another student.
2. Coats, other personal belongings and materials not permitted at your desk should be
placed at the side/front/back of the room.
3. Calculators, watch alarms or mobile telephones must be switched off.
4. You should check that you are seated at the correct desk and have in front of you the
correct examination paper.
5. You should print your registration number on the front cover of the answer book,
together with the code and title of the examination and date of the examination. Where
supplied, you should complete the attendance slip.
6. Write your names on the flap in the top right hand corner of the front page. Do not seal
the flap until the END of the examination.
7. If you are allocated reading time, you may not write in your answer book during this
time but you may make notes on the question paper.
8. Any permitted calculator/tables/statutes/etc. must be checked by a member of staff.
9. You may not smoke or eat during the examination.
10. If you require another answer book, or any other assistance during the examination, you
must raise your hand.
11. If you need to leave the room for any reason, you must raise your hand. Only one
student will be permitted to leave the room at any one time. Any student leaving the
room temporarily will be accompanied by an Invigilator.
12. You may not leave the room during the FIRST OR LAST THIRTY MINUTES of the

At the end of the examination:

13. You should ensure that your number is on each answer book and on any other papers
which you are submitting to the examiners, and tag all books and papers together.
14. Make sure you have filled in the flap in the top right hand corner of the front page. Now
seal it.
15. You should remain in your seat without talking until your answer book has been
collected and you are permitted to leave the examination room.
16. You must leave the examination room quietly, as other students may still be working


8.2 Special arrangements

The Disability and Dyslexia Service works with students to ensure they are not disadvantaged
by their disability or specific learning difficulty whilst studying at Brunel. Please get in touch
with the Disability Office if you would like more information on anything from having extra
time in exams to getting a dyslexia diagnosis.
Opening hours:
Monday - Friday 9am to 4.30pm
Room 315, Bannerman Centre
Contact Details:
Tel: 01895 265213
Fax: 01895 269767
Text: 07790 761932
Email: disability@brunel.ac.uk
Web: http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/disability/

Special arrangements may be made for sitting examinations in certain cases please liaise
with the Disability Office and Parjinder Parbhakar, (Room SS103).

8.3 Resit Examinations

Senate Regulations stipulate that the Board of Examiners may permit you a second opportunity
to sit an examination or submit coursework for a module at Undergraduate Levels I and II.
Failure to attend the resit examination or submit the coursework, without good reason and
supported by documentary evidence, will mean that you will be deemed to have failed the
module. This failure will remain on your record and may affect your final degree

At Levels 1 and 2 you will normally be allowed a reassessment of failed modules on ONE
further occasion only provided that you have 60 credits or more at the end of the session.
Candidates who have passed fewer than 60 credits may be asked to withdraw immediately.

Resit examinations will be taken at the next available opportunity for assessment in the relevant

It is the responsibility of students to ascertain whether there has been any change in
syllabus content or assessment.


Marks for resits are capped at 40% unless documentary evidence of mitigating circumstances
has been submitted and accepted by the Board. The only exception is where a different module
is substituted for a failed option. The maximum possible substitution is for 20 credits per level.
Resits are normally on an examination only basis, but students may be required to retake the
course with attendance and resubmission of coursework. In all cases, coursework and
examination resits or retakes are capped at 40%.

Students who do not fulfil resit requirements whether through absence from an
examination (or non-submission of coursework without good cause) are deemed to have
failed that resit attempt. Since no more than two ATTEMPTS are permitted for each
module, non-fulfilment of resit requirements may jeopardise future academic progression.

8.4 Examination scripts

Examination scripts are not returned to students. Students may request that a clerical check
be performed on examination scripts.

9 Student Feedback Channels

9.1 Problems, questions, complaints and feedback

All academic staff have 'office hours' posted on the doors of their rooms. These are the times
they make themselves available to see students. If your timetable prevents you from seeing
them at these times, please make an appointment to see them via e-mail.

If you have any problems or questions, initially address them to the relevant tutor. Personal
issues, such as accommodation problems, homesickness, references, etc, are dealt with by your
personal tutor who will also advise on choice of course options. Academic issues, problems and
questions concerning your work, should be addressed to your seminar leader for the course in
which they arise, during seminars, or by making an appointment during office hours. General
academic issues are dealt with by the Senior Tutor and assessment issues by the Director of
Undergraduate Studies.

If you have a complaint about any aspect of the course, or a problem which you are finding
difficulty in resolving, see the lecturer in the first instance. If you are not satisfied with the
response, see the Programme Convenor and then if necessary the Head of Staff-Student
Relations. In the last resort ask to see the Head of Economics and Finance, but this should not
normally be necessary. If you are still not satisfied, then contact your student representative for
the year, and ask for the issue to be raised at the Economics and Finance Committee. Students
have a right of appeal against decisions of the Board of Examiners. Further information on the
Universitys appeals process can be found at:
http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about/administration/rules/senateregs/sr6/. If Economics and Finance
fails to follow the procedures properly and thereby disadvantages a student, the student has the
right to bring the case to the University Appeals Committee. Note that there is no right of
appeal against academic judgement.


All courses in Economics and Finance are monitored for student feedback. In most cases this
consists of a questionnaire, usually administered towards the end of the course. It is very much
in the interests of students to give carefully completed responses to questionnaires, which are
used to improve courses on an ongoing basis. Constructive feedback from students is welcome
at any time during the course.

A staff-student liaison meeting is held in each term where any problem raised by staff or
students is discussed, providing another opportunity for students to make their views known.
(Details of representation are given below.)

An annual monitoring meeting is held where all courses are discussed. Students are
represented at this meeting, and student feedback is a major input into the discussion.

9.2 Student representatives

Student representatives from each level of the course are elected on an annual basis. Their role
is to bring to the attention of staff any matters of concern to students, and in particular to consult
with students prior to the Staff-Student Liaison Committee meetings on course matters.

Representatives also play an important role in the Annual Monitoring process, providing an
additional mechanism of feedback on the courses.

Elected representatives should be aware of the Education Unit within the Union of Brunel
Students, which aims to provide a wide range of services (support, training, guidance and
information) to equip student representatives with skills and information in order to be better
able to give useful feedback into Schools and the university as a whole. Your student reps will
be detailed on u-Link. Election details can be found at http://www.brunelstudents.com/.


10 Complaints and appeals

The School operates an internal process for all student appeals. Please note that students may
not appeal against academic judgement. Grounds for appeal are normally on the basis of
mitigating circumstances that, for good reason, were not submitted to the Examination Board
at the correct time.

All students are expected to submit a case for internal resolution to their School 14 days after
notification of results from the Board of Examiners. If the submission is after 14 days the
student must be able to satisfy their School that they were unable, for good reason, to submit
a case within 14 days. Schools have 14 days from the receipt of the case to respond to the

If Schools are unable to resolve cases to the student's satisfaction, the School will have to
provide the student with a 'formal record of conclusion of internal resolution'. Students will
normally be expected to have this record in order to appeal to the University.

Students have 21 days to submit an appeal to the University from the date of notification that
their internal resolution has not been successful.

Appeals are unlikely to be successful if mitigating circumstances were not submitted at the
correct time to the Examination Board. No re-marking of scripts is permitted and students
cannot appeal on the grounds that they are not satisfied with the mark received. Further
information on the Universitys appeals process can be found at:

A degree which may be the subject of an appeal may not be conferred until the appeal process
has been concluded. Students will not be able to attend a degree congregation for the purpose
of receiving a disputed award until their appeal is resolved. Students who choose to attend a
degree congregation or accept their award will not be able to submit or proceed with an

All students within the School of Social Science wishing to lodge an appeal, must complete the
appropriate Appeals Form (see over) and submit to the Assistant School Manager. The Social
Science appeals form and guidance notes can be found at:

Academic appeals: A guide for students
The procedures governing Appeals Against Assessment are specified in Senate Regulation
6. A copy of SR6 and a downloadable proforma for submitting an appeal can be found at:
This guide is intended to supplement SR6 by providing an explanation of the important
features of appeal to help you decide on the best way to proceed with your grievance relating
to assessment.


Frequently asked questions about appeals.
I am unhappy with my results. What should I do first?
What sort of decisions might I appeal against?
What are valid grounds for appeal?
When can I submit an internal resolution?
When can I submit an appeal?
How do I submit an appeal?
Any tips on preparing an appeal?
What is the procedure after I have submitted my appeal?
What should I do whilst awaiting the result of my appeal?
Do I need to attend a meeting?
Can I see the documents used by the Committee to consider my appeal?
What if my appeal is rejected?
What if my re-appeal is rejected?
Who should I contact if I have any questions?

I am unhappy with my results. What should I do first?
First you need to be clear if the results you are unhappy about have been confirmed by the
Board of Examiners. If you have received a provisional grade, you are unable to enter formal
internal resolution or appeals process until the Board of Examiners has notified you of your
results. Many concerns about results can be resolved simply by contacting your personal
tutor, module leader or course director to ask for clarification. Students who have mitigating
circumstances should also see the section on mitigating circumstances later on in the

If you have a grievance relating to assessment the first step is to seek internal resolution; this
means you should attempt to resolve the matter at a local level within your School. It may be
the case that your School is able to settle the matter to your satisfaction without the
involvement of the Universitys Academic Appeals Committee. You should bring the matter
to the attention of your Personal Tutor, Course Director or Head of School. In any case you
must submit a form to seek internal resolution within 14 days of the notification of your

The Academic Appeals Committee will not consider appeals that have not been submitted for
consideration under internal resolution by your School. The Committee will refer appeals
back to your School if you have not sought to resolve your grievance at a local level. Only if
this process of internal resolution has not resulted in an acceptable outcome should you
consider submitting a formal appeal.

What sort of decisions might I appeal against?
Decisions about your academic progression are made by a Board of Examiners. These
decisions may include:
A decision on whether or not to award you credits for a module
A decision on whether or not you may proceed to the next level of your course
A decision to require you to withdraw from your course
A decision to award you a particular degree, diploma or certificate


What are valid grounds for appeal?
SR 6.5 states the grounds for appeal that the University will consider. These are:
(i) that there exist circumstances materially affecting the students performance which were
not known to the Board of Examiners when its decision was taken and which it was not
reasonably practicable for the student to make known to the Board beforehand;
(ii) that there were procedural irregularities in the conduct of the examinations and/or
assessment procedures, including assessment of coursework, of such a nature as to create a
reasonable possibility that the result might have been different had they not occurred;
(iii) that there is evidence of prejudice, bias or inadequate assessment on the part of one or
more examiners.
You cannot appeal solely because the result is worse than you would have wished or worse
than you feel you deserve. You cannot challenge academic judgment. For example, if a
project has been awarded a lower mark than you feel is justified, you do not have valid
grounds for an appeal unless you can identify a procedural error in the assessment process.

If you think that mitigating circumstances have affected your performance you should bring
this to the attention of the Board of Examiners; University rules state that mitigating
circumstances must be submitted no more than seven days after the assessment. If you fail to
submit mitigating circumstances within the required timescale, you cannot subsequently use
them as grounds for an appeal unless you can show that it was not reasonably practicable for
you to have submitted the mitigation in accordance with University rules.

When can I submit an internal resolution?
You have 14 days after the notification of your results in which to submit a case for internal
resolution to your School. A student appealing more that 14 days after publication of their
results must satisfy their School that they were unable, for good reason, to submit a case
within 14 days of notification.

When can I submit an appeal?
You can only submit an appeal after you have sought internal resolution. You have 21 days
from the notification of your results at the internal resolution stage in which to submit an
appeal to the University. Appeals may be rejected at the earliest stage if they are received late
without good reason.

The Academic Appeals Committee will expect you to have sought internal resolution before
submitting a formal appeal, and will ask you to provide the formal record of internal
resolution provided by your School.

How do I submit an appeal?
Cases for Internal resolution must be submitted to your School. Your School office and
page 47 of this handbook will have further details.
Formal appeals against assessment must be submitted on the Academic Appeals form
(available from Registry, Students Union and on the web pages).
Appeals should be submitted to the Secretary to the Academic Appeals Committee who is
based in Registry.

Any tips on preparing an appeal?
Putting your case together


Students are often tempted to include as much information as possible in their appeal in the
belief that this may strengthen their case. This would only be true if the information directly
supported the point that was being made. Inclusion of material that is not directly relevant to
the grounds on which the appeal is being brought often leads to unnecessary delays.
Appellants should carefully consider the case that they wish to bring and include only
information that is directly relevant to the appeal.

Mitigating circumstances submitted out of time.
The Academic Appeals Committee will wish to know why the mitigating circumstances were
not submitted in line with University and course regulations. Appellants will have to
demonstrate that it was not reasonably practicable to make mitigating circumstances available
to the Board of Examiners.

The nature of mitigating circumstances
Many students will have various distractions and responsibilities during their course, which
will, at times, interfere with their studies. These may include financial and housing problems,
relationship problems and minor illnesses. Mitigating circumstances are taken into account in
cases where they have prevented a student from demonstrating their learning in formal
assessments. They cannot be used as a justification for your failure to master the subjects you
are studying, or to achieve the results you might have obtained had you been able to attend
and/or study more effectively. Before submitting an appeal, you should consult your course
regulations to find out how your School considers mitigating circumstances. You should note
that University regulations do not permit Board of Examiners to increase marks where
mitigation is accepted. It is more likely that a Board will offer you the opportunity to resit the
assessment uncapped, or, if the mitigation is particularly serious, it may award you a P
grade, which means you are given credit for the module but no mark is given.

The effects of mitigating circumstances
Appellants must be able to demonstrate that the mitigating circumstances have had an effect
on their performance in formal assessments. It is especially important to show exactly how
the mitigating circumstances have affected your performance; for example, a bout of flu in
April is unlikely to be accepted as mitigation for poor performance in the May exams.

Appellants should also be aware of a distinction between medical opinion and evidence of
medical problems. Submitting copies of letters confirming medical appointments, for
example, is not the same as a medical report offering a professional opinion.

Ongoing and chronic problems
Boards of Examiners will normally give consideration to long-term problems and this might
result in you being allowed reassessment. There is however, no general obligation on
examiners to offer subsequent reassessments.

What is the procedure after I have submitted my appeal?
The Secretary to the Academic Appeals Committee will write to you to acknowledge receipt
of your appeal. A copy of your appeal will then be sent to your School for their formal
response to the issues raised in your appeal. When your Schools response is received, the
Secretary will arrange for your appeal to be considered at the next meeting of the Academic
Appeals Committee.


The Committee meets approximately once a month and comprises twelve senior academic
staff of the University who are appointed to the Committee by Senate. All Schools are
represented on the Committee. To ensure that your case is heard by staff who are impartial,
any members of the Committee who are involved with the delivery or management of your
course or have been involved with the Schools response to the Committee are not allowed to
contribute to the discussions, and must leave the room. The Committee will only consider
written appeals. You will not be able to attend the meeting of the Committee.

The Committee is a procedural committee and is principally concerned with the correct
interpretation and application of University rules by Boards of Examiners. In general the
Committee is concerned that:

Boards of Examiners follow the published rules of the University and also their own
guidelines, which must be consistent with those rules.
Boards of Examiners take into account all relevant factors in making decision on individual
students cases, including properly notified mitigating circumstances.
Boards of Examiners ensure that assessment processes are fair and appropriate.
Boards of Examiners exercise consistency amongst students in the same cohort. The
decisions are not influenced by bias or prejudice.

After it has considered your case the Committee will normally reach one of three decisions:

REJECT: If the Committee believes that the decision of the Board of Examiners was fair
and does not contravene University regulations the appeal will be rejected. An appeal may
also be rejected because the grounds for appeal are not clearly stated or the appeal has been
received late.

UPHELD: If the Committee believes that the decision of the Board of Examiners was unfair
or contravened University regulations it will decide to uphold the appeal. If this happens, the
Committee will write to the School recommending a course of action to resolve the situation.
You should note that when an appeal is upheld the Committee may not necessarily
recommend to your School the corrective action that you have requested. The Committee
cannot substitute any mark with one of its own, make a judgement on the quality or standard
of a students work or unilaterally change a degree classification.

DEFER: If the Committee believes that further information is required before it can make a
decision it will defer the case and ask the Secretary to write to the School and/or appellant
requesting more details. Where a case is deferred, every effort will be made to obtain the
additional information in time for the case to be reheard at the next meeting.

Shortly after the meeting the Secretary will write to inform you of the outcome or progress of
your appeal.


What should I do whilst awaiting the result of my appeal?
Even though you have submitted an appeal you should follow the course of action decided by
the Board of Examiners; for example, if you have been asked to withdraw from your course,
you should not attend lectures or participate in any assessments. If your appeal is
subsequently upheld, the University will tell you what action needs to be taken (for example,
you may resit modules, or your degree classification will be changed).

If you have been recommended for an award, the award will be put on hold, and you will
not be able to attend a graduation ceremony, until the appeal is resolved. If you chose to
attend a degree ceremony or accept your award you will not be able to submit or proceed
with an appeal.

If you submit an appeal in the months leading up to degree congregations the Committee will
do its best to resolve the appeal by the time of your graduation, but this is dependent on the
information being made available to the Committee and cannot be guaranteed.

Do I need to attend any meetings?
It is very unlikely that you will be required to attend any meetings. The Committee considers
written submissions and does not invite appellants to attend meetings. In most instances, the
Committee will be able to reach a decision on the basis of the written submissions, however
the Committee may call a hearing where a material fact is in dispute, which may be resolved
by questioning. An example of this would be in order establish an accurate account of events
where there is dispute between the parties. This will only be a fact or event that the
Committee considers to be relevant to its consideration of the case. It must also be an issue
that cannot be resolved by the submission of written evidence.

Any hearing will be limited to a specific point or aspect of the appeal, as determined by the
Academic Appeals Committee. A hearing may not be used by an appellant to request a
wholesale review of the case, nor may it be used to bring forward fresh evidence that might
reasonably have been disclosed in writing before the hearing. Any hearing would not negate
the need for formal corroboration of mitigating circumstances by, for example, a medical

The decision as to whether to hold a hearing rests with the Academic Appeals Committee.

Can I see the documents used by the Committee to consider my appeal?
You will not automatically be sent a copy of the paperwork, but documents used by the
Committee in reaching a decision will be made available to you on request. This will
normally be after a decision has been reached. In order to receive these documents you
should make a subject access request to the Information Access Officer at the University.

What if my appeal is rejected?
SR 6.17 allows for resubmission of an appeal on one further occasion. Students must submit
any reappeal no later than 21 days after notification of the Committees decision. Reappeals
must contain material and significant new evidence. This means that you should only
reappeal if you have significant new evidence that the Committee has not already seen. You
will need to explain why this material was not submitted in the first instance. If you simply
reiterate points made in your first appeal the re-appeal will be rejected. All re-appeals should
be submitted on the Academic Appeals re-appeal form.


What if my re-appeal is rejected?
Once the Universitys internal processes have been exhausted, your file will be forwarded to
the Office of the Secretary and Registrar which will review the case and send you a
Completion of Procedures Letter. This letter advises you that the Office of the Independent
Adjudicator now applies where you are dissatisfied with the outcome of internal review. The
letter will advise you of the time limits and how to obtain a Scheme Application Form

Who should I contact if I have any questions?
The Secretary to the Academic Appeals Committee can advise you on the procedure for
submitting an appeal. The Union of Brunel Students Advice and Representation Centre can
offer advice on appeals and may be able to help you prepare your case.

Graduating Students
SR6.16 clearly states that a degree that is subject to an appeal may not be conferred until the
appeal process has been concluded. If students wish to attend a graduation ceremony they
must accept they will not be able to proceed with their appeal.


Internal Resolution Form



Print name in full: ____________________________________________________________________

Student Reg. No: _______________________________ E-mail address: ______________________

Course of study: _____________________________________ ______Level_____________________

A. What decision are you appealing against?

B. What are your grounds/reasons for appealing? ( Please append any documentary evidence)

C. What outcome are you seeking from this appeal?

Signed: ... Date: .




Academic Appeal Form
These can be downloaded from:





The following diagram shows the internal process which should be followed in the case of an appeal
before and if required, a formal appeal can be submitted:


School complaints and appeals process informal resolution
The University Complaints and Appeals process and much
guidance and advice is available on:
Take up with student
Raise with
personal tutor
Raise at SSL
Generic issue
Raise at School
School issue
Student has
Generic issue
or non-
Raise with Senior
Tutor or Subject
Formal Appeal
under SR6
or other
Raise with Programme
Director or Chair of
Exam Board directly or
via Asst SM (Ops)
Raise with
School Manager
Formal Complaint on
official form submitted via
School Manager or (if of
personal nature against
member of academic staff)
directly to Head of School
Appeals Panel
using internal
appeals form
All these routes also facilitated by Asst SM - Ops
14 day deadline for informal appeal - coordinated by Asst SM (Ops)


11 Study skills

11.1 Effective reading

One of the biggest demands that will be made on you during your academic career will stem
from the volume of written material that you are expected to read. Textbooks and references
should be fortified by material that you discover in the library and elsewhere. In addition it is
highly recommended for you to read at least one quality newspaper (e.g. The Guardian, The
Times, The Independent, The Financial Times) every day. As a student studying Economics and
Finance, you should also be reading more specialist publications such as The Economist.

Reading is an art which has to be cultivated. One tried and tested reading method is the SQ3R
method. This stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recall and Review. This method has been
developed to help readers select pertinent material, comprehend ideas quickly, fix these ideas in
the mind, and be able to review and use this information efficiently when required.


This stage enables you to decide whether the material is relevant to the purpose at hand. It
involves, for example, reading the table of contents, summaries, headings, indices and so on.


You should always approach written material with a purpose or a question for which you seek
an answer. Without this your reading will lack purpose and you will waste time. Questions may
come from a variety of sources, such as essay titles.


At this stage you are attempting to find answers to the questions that you have set for yourself.
You should read through the text fairly quickly to build a general picture of its content. Then
you should re-read at a speed that allows you to absorb the ideas and information contained in
the text thoroughly. It is only during the re-read stage that you should take notes. Notes should
be recorded in your own words after you have finished reading a section and should be made
without reference to the text. Do not simply write down what the author has said.


At the end of each section (or paragraph if the material is particularly difficult) stop and test your
recall. If you have any difficulties with the material, then re-read it until you are sure that you
have grasped the key ideas.


The final element in the SQ3R method involves checking the accuracy of your recall. Never try
to convince yourself that you have remembered everything - check first. Re-read your notes to
reinforce your understanding of the key ideas, the relationships between them and any


applications or implications that they may have. Ask yourself if your questions have been
answered to your satisfaction. If not, then your search can be guided by the new questions
generated as a result.

11.2 Writing essays


Essay-writing forms an important part of your study of Economics and Finance: both in
examinations and continuous assessment, essays are the main medium for judging your
understanding of the subject.

Writing comes more easily to some people than to others, but like most things, the quality of
your essays - and their value to you - can be improved with practice. However, this requires
cultivation of good habits and avoidance of bad habits.

The notes which follow are intended to guide you in your efforts to write better essays. They are
not intended to constrain you in the development of your own individual style of essay-writing.
But they do provide some general guidelines, which we hope will not only improve your
performance in essay-writing, but which, by promoting your understanding of Economics and
Finance, will also add to your enjoyment of your studies.

A more extensive assistance with writing techniques is available from the Brunel Learning,
Teaching and Development Unit (LTDU). Contact the LDTU on Ext. 66547, Direct Dial 01895

Writing an Essay

Any written assignment has two main functions: first, it reveals, to you as well as to your tutor,
how much you have understood of the topic in question; and, second, by requiring you to
marshal your thoughts and impressions on the subject, it constitutes an essential part of your
learning process. An essay thus involves an exercise in two things: (a) the organisation of
ideas; and (b) the communication of ideas.

These functions can be fulfilled only if the essay reflects your own efforts and is written in your
own words. Any form of plagiarism (i.e. taking and using someone else's words as your own) is
therefore unacceptable. This includes transcribing or summarising extensive passages from
textbooks (or any other source). Editing, minor alterations and re-arrangements of such material
does not disguise the fact that it is not your own work. Moreover, contrary to what some
students think, the ability to do this, or even to identify relevant passages in a textbook, does not
imply understanding of the contents. It is also worth mentioning that plagiarism is usually
embarrassingly easy to detect, even when disguised.

None of this means that you are expected to produce original ideas (although in the course of
your studies you will gradually be expected to grasp insights related to your essay topic going
beyond the material discussed in lectures and seminars); it means only that you should express
your understanding of what you have read in your own words. This is not as difficult as it
sounds, and will become easier with practice. For a start, avoid writing your essay with your


textbook/articles/ lecture notes open in front of you, unless you are checking a point or selecting
a quotation. Rather work from your own notes based on your reading.

How to Prepare for an Essay

First, ascertain what the essay should be about. This is not as trivial as it may sound - a high
proportion of essays contain much material not directly relevant to the topic. So read the
question carefully, and analyse its constituent parts.

Next, do the reading. Search for information and ideas relevant to the subject, making brief
notes as you proceed. Do not waste time copying out lengthy passages verbatim; rather try to
distil out the essence of each section in a few crisp notes, since the mere fact of doing this will
enhance your understanding.

Finally, plan your essay before writing it. Sketch out a framework which will permit an
adequate and systematic answer to the question and use this framework to ensure not only that
you will have done sufficient reading and annotating to cover all relevant points, but also to
ensure that you exclude all irrelevant points.

In writing your essay, you should:

(i) Use your introductory paragraph(s) to show that you have correctly identified the main
theme(s), and to indicate briefly the manner in which you propose to tackle the topic.
Do not simply restate the information already inherent in the essay title.

(ii) Use subsequent paragraphs to dispose systematically of all the relevant points. Use a
new paragraph for each new aspect of the question, and ensure continuity of the
argument by providing some meaningful link between each paragraph or section. If
necessary, use headed sub-sections to indicate a change in the emphasis of your analysis
but make sure that you provide logical links between different sub-sections. Bear in
mind the fact that the essay-marker should know what you are talking about is beside the
point, since the object of the exercise is to test your understanding! Remember that the
opportunity cost of space devoted to one aspect of the problem is space to discuss other

(iii) Summarise the main features of your argument and conclusions in your final

(iv) Use diagrams (or tables) where relevant. Make sure that you integrate them into your
discussion. Preferably, practise drawing your own diagrams rather than copying them
from books. Ensure that all the elements of the diagram are properly labelled and give
each illustration a title and/or number. Make sure that you state the source of the
diagram (e.g. lecture notes, textbook page reference).

Quotations and References

Appropriate quotations can add spice to any essay, inappropriate ones do not. Do not quote
merely for the sake of quoting, but rather to give emphasis to, or provide evidence for, a
particular point or argument. Integrate each quotation properly into your essay, by using it either


to illustrate a point which you have already argued in your own words, or to introduce
discussion of a particular concept or problem. Every quotation, irrespective of source, nature,
length or importance, must be fully acknowledged, using one of the widely accepted
conventions for doing so. If you don't understand these conventions, ask your tutor for advice.

A full bibliography of books, articles, etc consulted in connection with the essay is also required.
Again, you should adopt one of the various conventions, details of which may be found in the
Aanonson guide mentioned in the introduction to this section.

11.3 Examinations - preparation and technique

First the good news:

Examiners generally want you to pass and have realistic views on what you can
be expected to have learned.

Examiners want you to show what you have learned and are unlikely to change
the form of emphasis of an examination without warning.

Most examinations at university level are intended to test understanding and the
ability to apply principles, rather than knowledge of the detail of the syllabus.

Now the bad news, some known to you already:

The duration of a typical formal examination, coupled with the range of material
to be covered, gives little time for recall and planning.

The tension of the examination period can affect both revision and performance
during examinations, with effects varying greatly from one person to the next.

No matter what examiners intend, a comprehensive knowledge of the syllabus
content is necessary, placing demands on both short-term and long-term

By the time they reach university, most students have had much experience of examinations,
although in some cases it was gained some years ago. No matter how often you have prepared
for and taken formal examinations, you are likely to benefit from rethinking your strategy or - if
you do not have a strategy - defining one for the first time.

Although there are lots of potentially helpful things to say about preparing for examinations,
nothing is gained if you do not have the patience to read them. Hence this documentation starts
with a quick overview; look at it even if you cannot be bothered to consider the more detailed
advice given later. It is regrettable that much of the advice is so extensive, but many aspects of
your behaviour can significantly affect your success in coping with examinations.


Brief advice on revision

Keep close touch with every course as it develops; do not rely too heavily on revision
just before the examinations.

Prepare a realistic plan for revision, but allow it to evolve in the light of experience
while revising.

Find out all that you can about the format and content of each examination: Study
carefully the learning outcomes of each module to see what examiners expect you to

Obtain the syllabus for each course and break it down into sections; for each section,
pick out principles, key theoretical results, and if applicable, representative empirical

Even if you have full structured notes, prepare your own outline notes, matched to your
own way of looking at the subject.

Set realistic short-term objectives for each study session.

Resist tension and exhaustion: do not study too long; leave time to rest and unwind
during the periods of revision and examinations.

Brief advice on sitting examinations

Control the examination:

arrive in good time with all the permitted materials
read the questions carefully and plan your use of time
prepare a plan before answering each question
do not let any question absorb excessive time
use all the time allowed, and do not leave early.
at all times abide by the rules of the examination; in particular, you must not
communicate with other students in any way.

It is usually thinking time that is in short supply, rather than writing time.

Give what the examiner asks for, rather than generally related thoughts that come into your

Planning for examinations

From earlier experience you should have some ideas about preparing for examinations, in
keeping with your own way of learning. Whatever your way preparing, the first step is to
prepare a plan of campaign - a timetable for revision.


What you need to start planning

the schedule of examinations
representative past examination papers
the syllabus to each examination, including any recent changes
the rubrics for each examination
relevant information on examination procedures.

A warning: The examination periods are known well in advance, but detailed schedules are
prepared centrally, and actual dates and times may not be known until after your revision has
started. Preliminary indications will be given, but you must watch the relevant notice board
until the final version of the examination timetable has been posted.

The overall plan

Step 1 Plan your work on assignments to avoid interference with revision, leaving a few weeks
clear before the examinations.

Step 2 Using the examination schedule, mark the relevant sessions and locations on a timetable.
Check carefully, to avoid arriving on the wrong day. If in doubt, double-check the timing
and venue of examinations with Economics and Finances Secretariat.

Step 3 Mark in the periods that you can devote to revision.

Step 4 Divide the total time between the subjects to be examined. This allows you to balance
the needs of subjects in which you believe you are strong against those about which you
are not as confident. Be sure not to shy away from the weaker areas. If possible, retain
flexibility by including one or more spare days.

Step 5 Allocate time for each subject. You should, of course, assign time to each subject in the
period just before it is examined.

Two warnings:

Do not leave all your revision till this final period; nasty surprises are bound to occur.

Do not use the period just before the examination too intensively; you should not arrive
exhausted at the examination.

Treating individual subjects

Apply the preceding Steps 4 and 5 to the sections of each subject. This will involve further
difficult decisions, in allocating time to the various topics.


Guiding principles

Match your revision to what examiners expect you to know. For each individual
module, find out what you are expected to know by reading carefully the
learning outcomes list in the relevant section of your Student Handbook.

Study the material related to introductory lectures very carefully; it is not
possible to understand subsequent analysis if you have not understood very well
the fundamental concepts involved in the analysis. Having done that, focus on
the central parts of a course. Do not try to memorise passively theoretical
material; you should aim to understand the mechanisms linking the variables
involved in the analysis. This will enable you to tackle not only the specific cases
discussed in lectures and seminars but, also, all possible questions relevant to that
particular section of the module.
Find out whether matters covered in assignments should be given less attention;
Bare in mind that your lecturer would have been given you prior notice if she/he
did not want these matters to be revised. If in doubt, ask your lecturer.

If you encounter difficulties during revising a module which you have tried to
overcome and were not able to do so, do not hesitate to conduct your Lecturer
and/or your seminar/workshop leader during office hours to ask for clarifications.
She/he will be happy to help you.

Preparing for examinations

It is never too early to start thinking about the inevitable examinations. Everything you do
during the academic year influences your examination performance, and your day-to-day
programme of study should be designed with this in mind. Before considering your activities
during the time set aside for revision, we note some supporting activities that should be
maintained throughout the academic session:

The notes made as you progress through the syllabus should not only support your
learning, but should be designed for use during revision.

Throughout the course you should concentrate on the core of widely applicable concepts
and methods. Indeed, a central aim of your studies should be to identify them and
understand them very well.

Coping with the problems of revision

Concentrating for long periods. Changes of activity or location and short breaks will
help. They also serve to avoid physical discomfort.

Keeping awake. Your revision should not be so intensive that this is a real problem.
Making notes, rather than just reading, will help.


Needing to work undisturbed. If you can, arrange for a special degree of privacy
during this period. Some students choose to revise at home; if you do this, be sure you
take everything you need, and that you know the final details of the examinations before
leaving the campus.

Maintaining flexibility. Review your progress daily to see if your revision programme
needs to be altered.

Remembering. This may not be as big a problem as you fear. The primary interest of
university examiners is not memory, but understanding. Complicated formulas and
detailed data are usually provided with the examination paper.

Getting bored. Some people find that background music helps. Working with other
students may be helpful, although socialising is not.

Panicking. Examiners do not expect superhuman performance. The best way to reduce
pressure is keeping up with your work throughout the year.

The process of revising a subject

1. Break down the syllabus into components. Taking into account the learning outcomes
list, past examinations and any advice on emphasis from tutors, pick out the principles
and key results for each revision section. Prepare summary notes for each section.

2. Set realistic targets for each study session, to give yourself a psychological boost when
each is met.

3. Study the style and format of the examination and tackle some past questions in the time
that will be available during the examination.

4. Make sure you understand the questions on past papers and the solutions to them.

5. List and check your memory of key ideas, definitions and (simple) equations.

6. Having finished your revision, it is a good idea to practise a mock-exam using a past
paper and allowing your-self no more than the real examination time to answer the
7. Do not try to cram in fresh information just before the examination; consolidate what
you already know.

The examiners point of view

If you do not have much experience of university examinations, it is worth noting some ways in
which they differ from those you have taken earlier. This requires you to understand what the
examiners are trying to do.


The psychology of university examiners

They are naturally interested in the final answer, but also in your understanding of the question,
and in your approach to the solution.

They usually do not require students to remember extraordinarily complex equations, but do
expect you to recall simpler results that embody important concepts or define significant

They will also expect you to understand the assumptions that lie behind equations that you
introduce or that they quote for you to use.

They will generally assign marks to the individual steps that lead to the final answer, such as:

identifying the problem and putting it into a tractable form

preparing an appropriate diagram of the situation to be considered

electing appropriate principles, techniques and assumptions

identifying data defining the situation of interest

writing down or deriving appropriate equations

carrying out the detailed calculations needed to get from equations to answer

How to collect marks

Do not start writing immediately: Read carefully all questions and decide which ones
you are going to answer.

For those questions you decided to answer, determine precisely what the examiner wants
in each question: Read each question carefully and more than once; underline the words
that specify the kind of the answer required. In the examiner's model answer, marks will
be assigned for moving in that direction, although you may pick up some marks by
addressing peripheral matters.

Build a foundation for your answer. Time is seldom wasted when spent in picking out
and analysing key words, converting the verbal specification to a diagram or sketch, and
setting down the relevant principles, assumptions and equations.
Match the length of your answers and the time spent on the distribution of marks among
the parts of each question (this will normally be given).

As a rough guide, an effective essay-type answer from a student might generate one
mark for every two lines of compact, well thought-out writing. (The examiner's model
answer is probably about half as long, since it will be more precisely targeted.) Hence a
question that is assigned ten marks probably merits an answer of about twenty lines, that
is to say, less than a page. You may be able to write a good deal more about the topic,
but careful reading of the question should reveal exactly what is wanted. Extraneous


material is unlikely to produce marks and will certainly absorb time that could be used
more profitably.

Do not allow a single question to absorb much more than its proper fraction of the total
examination time. There is no iron-clad rule for moving to another question. Although
you must be willing to abandon a question when its time has gone, there is little point in
doing so if you are still scoring marks rapidly. Remember that you are not obliged to
provide answers to all the sub-sections of one particular question in a consecutive way.
Eventually, you have to answer all sub-sections but you could first answer section (a) of
question 1; then answer section (b) of question 2; than section (b) of question 1; etc.
Answer first those sub-questions which you feel more confident with. Having put some
marks in the bag, your psychology will be better when you start tackling more difficult
sub-questions. In relation to this, further points to note are the following:

the rate of scoring marks is often fastest when you begin to answer;
the last few marks take disproportionate time;
unless there is time to spare, do not get bogged down in detailed algebra,
calculations or long explanations.

Points on numerical answers: Include units; do not state results to an unrealistic degree
of accuracy; if a numerical result looks unrealistically large or small, point this out to the
Before you abandon a question, indicate quickly the steps that would have followed, if
there had been more time.

If you run short of time before answering the full number of question, jot down notes to
show how you would have finished off the paper.

The day of the examination

Thorough preparation is undoubtedly the key to success in examinations. What you do on the
day is important too. Some pointers are given below.

Avoiding disaster

Make sure you know the right day and time, and what aids you are allowed to take into
the examination room.

Arrive early. Take your seat when allowed into the examination room. Prepare your
writing materials. When permitted, fill in the cover sheet. This routine will reduce
nervous tension.

Before starting to write, read the paper to the end and pick out the questions that appear
best for you. If you have not finished reading when permitted to start writing, continue
a little longer with your planning. This preliminary reading is harder than it sounds.
Many candidates start to write at once; resist being stampeded into starting before you
have done your reading and thinking.


As mentioned above, start with the question that you can answer most quickly and most
fully. It may not be the first question on the paper. By starting with the easiest question
will increase your confidence.

Read each question when you start it. Look back at the question as you work, to check
that you have not misunderstood or forgotten it.

Keep an eye on the clock, and try to match your progress through the examination to the
passage of time.

Do not jump into the middle of the answer, but work to a plan, which should be set
down where the examiner can see it.

For an answer in the form of an essay, the plan will probably have two stages:
(i) a list of ideas and facts;
(ii) the structuring of that material into sections and paragraphs.

For an analytical question, the plan will identify the principles, equations, and
methods on which the answer will be based.

If you have time at the end, re-read the questions and amplify or correct your answers.

Make sure that every piece of paper on which you have written gets to the examiner. A
much-needed mark could be lurking in your rough-work. Also, if you have used more
than one examination note-book, point this to the examiner by writing at the end of the
first notebook something like answer continues in second notebook.

Do not make any injustice to yourself by trying to violate examination rules. It is much
better to have a very bad exam rather than being caught cheating or resorting to
plagiarism. You can certainly make up for the former; you will not be able to make up
for the latter as the University in general and Economics and Finance in particular, take
incidents of cheating and plagiarism very very seriously.

11.4 Learning support

11.4.1 Assistance with Mathematics and Statistics

Students encountering difficulties with Mathematics or Statistics at Level 1 should attend the
weekly supplementary lecture in EC1005 and EC1007. The Lecturers will also be available
during their office hours to assist students on an individual basis.

11.4.2 Assistance with English Language

Students who need assistance with English Language are advised to attend supplementary
seminars run by the Language Centre (E-mail language.centre@brunel.ac.uk).


12 Plagiarism


Introduction: Academic Misconduct

Please read this section carefully. It contains information which may affect your future studies
and career. You are deemed to have familiarised yourself with this section from the start of your
studies at Brunel University.

The University has approved regulations regarding student disciplinary matters. These
regulations are set out in Senate Regulations 6.39 - 6.110 (see below for URL to the
Universitys intranet site). The University identifies a number of types of academic and non-
academic misconduct. These are set out in Senate Regulation 6.44.

The majority of the academic offences which occur relate to plagiarism, cheating or
collusion. The University expects all students to observe good academic practice in their studies.
This includes the use of proper styles of referencing in accordance with the rules and guidelines
with which you are provided. It also includes the expectation that you will follow rules or
guidance with which you are provided regarding the particular arrangements for group or
individual assessments.

The University is concerned to note that the number of detected instances of plagiarism, either
from books, journals, articles, the internet, websites or other students appears to be increasing in
recent years. The University and the School are not prepared to tolerate plagiarism, cheating or
collusion and will make vigorous efforts to eliminate them. The University has determined to
apply penalties to students who are found to have committed plagiarism, cheated or colluded in

Senate Regulation 6 defines plagiarism, cheating and collusion as:
6.46 Plagiarism is the knowing or reckless presentation of another persons thoughts, writings,
inventions, as ones own. It includes the incorporation of another persons work from
published or unpublished sources, without indicating that the material is derived from
those sources. It includes the use of material obtained from the internet.
6.47 Collusion involves aiding, or attempting to aid, another student in deception or dishonest
action, or attempt at such action.
6.48 Cheating involves actual, intended, or attempted deception and/or dishonest action in
relation to any academic work of the University. Taking unauthorised material into an
examination (including revision notes or unauthorised equipment) shall be regarded as
attempted deception.

The penalties agreed by Senate for academic offences, even for a first offence, therefore
may result in you not achieving your intended class of degree or any qualification from
your programme of study. The University may also be obliged to report offences to
professional, statutory or regulatory bodies, which may have impact on future career
opportunities. In the academic years 2004-05 and 2005-06 the University took action against a
total of 80 students for academic offences, with the vast majority being cases of plagiarism.

As this guidance explains, you should never plagiarise, cheat or collude. There is ALWAYS
another choice.


Managing your workload effectively may not always be easy. If you begin to find it difficult,
especially as deadlines approach, CONSULT YOUR PERSONAL TUTOR or the Schools
SENIOR TUTOR if your personal tutor is unavailable. Do it early, do not wait until the day
before the deadline. If a particular piece of work is giving you problems, consult the module
leader or another member of staff teaching on the module. Again, do it early, do not put the
matter off.

The School has published policies for the late submission of work. While the late submission of
work without good cause may lead to a penalty, it is better than the penalties associated with

The following guidance is intended to inform you about what constitutes plagiarism, collusion
and cheating, to advise you how to avoid inadvertently committing it and to warn you about the
risks that you run if you nevertheless resort to it. The following information and guidance should
be read as guidance which will enable you better to understand the implications for your studies
of Senate Regulation 6. You should ensure that you are familiar with all the contents of
Senate Regulation 6. If you are in doubt regarding matters relating to academic discipline, now
or in the future, you should raise your concerns with us through your personal tutor or another
member of staff.

To many of you, advice about these matters may seem unnecessary. However, we ask that you
read it carefully to ensure that you are familiar with the contents. Should you feel affronted that
we raise this subject, we ask you to consider that it is in the interests of all students to be familiar
with these issues. Also, it is appropriate for the University to take steps to see that those who do
not abide by the rules do not gain an unfair advantage over those students who do.

The rest of this guidance is divided into three sections.
Guidance about plagiarism and what you should do to follow correct academic practice;
Guidance about collaboration and collusion between students
Guidance about types of cheating in examinations.

Please remember: the School and the University will assume that you have read and
understood its policies on plagiarism and other academic misconduct, as well as this

As part of its efforts to deter and detect plagiarism, the University may make and may
authorise third parties to make copies of any work submitted by you for assessment for the
following purposes: (i) comparison with databases of earlier answers or works or other
previously available works to confirm there is no plagiarism; and (ii) addition to databases
of works used to ensure that future works submitted at this institution and others are not
plagiarised from your work. We will not make any more copies than are necessary for
these purposes, will only use copies made for these purposes and will only retain such copies
as remain necessary for those purposes. Where copies .are made and retained for these
purposes, we shall ensure that no personal data is made available to any third party.

Senate Regulations 6.39 - 6.110 can be found in full at:


Plagiarism from published and unpublished sources and from the internet


What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is passing off ideas or words created by someone else as being ones own ideas
or words. Whilst such copying may take any number of forms in academic work, typically
students guilty of plagiarism do so in one of two of the following ways:

1. Plagiarism from published sources; or
2. Plagiarism from unpublished sources.

1. Plagiarism from published sources.

Plagiarism is passing off ideas or words derived from someone else as your own. This may be
either by positive assertion (as in I once described foxhunting as the unspeakable pursuit of the
uneatable, and it seems to have become part of the language) or more commonly by omitting
to acknowledge their origin.

Obviously, in student essays and examinations, truly original ideas will be rare. You will, for
the most part, be presenting opinions derived from teachers, textbook writers and others.

It is therefore not plagiarism to write an essay which begins In answering this question I
cannot do better than to quote in full the view presented by Jones in his book Standard
Answers to Common Essay Questions, who writes ........ and ends: Thus Mr Jones has
given us an excellent answer to this very interesting question.

Of course, such an essay will fail, but on other grounds, because we are seeking your own
words and your ideas, not Joness. More specifically, we are looking to see why you may agree
or disagree with published commentaries on the points raised in assessment questions (e.g., as
may be found in textbooks, journal articles) and/or whether you may come up with any novel
ideas and/or criticisms on the subject area to be analysed.

Plagiarism would include (but is not restricted to) the following scenarios:

(1) Simply copying out Jones answer verbatim without any acknowledgement. This is
the most obvious case.

(2) Using substantial extracts of Jones answer but transposing the order of paragraphs
here and there, omitting odd sentences and making cosmetic changes, usually to
linking words or phrases, without any acknowledgement of the source. This form of
plagiarism is more common.

(3) Rewriting Jones answer entirely in your own words, but preserving essentially
intact both the sequence and structure of his argument, without acknowledging
Jones as being the source of the material.

(4) All (or any) of the above, and not acknowledging Jones (in the text and/or in the


footnotes/endnotes) as the source, but listing Joness work in the bibliography.
Simply listing a source in your bibliography without indicating clearly in your essay
which material from that source is used in your essay (and where it is used) is NOT
sufficient acknowledgement of the source, and DOES constitute plagiarism.

Plagiarism from several sources: shuffling the deck.

It is not uncommon to find that an essay has been written from several books, articles etc. on
the desk in front of the writer. What he or she has done is to lift a paragraph from one, then a
paragraph from another and so on, all without acknowledgement of their source, and linking
them with a few words of his or her own. This also constitutes plagiarism.

How can I avoid plagiarism?

(a) If you wish to use quotations, quote phrases from books or journals in order to analyse
them, and quote writers if they express particularly what you want to say, or if they are
making a controversial point that you wish to take up. Generally, quotations should be
quite short and should not be merely a vehicle for getting across information, e.g., the
facts of a case, which you can quite easily, if less elegantly, put in your own words.

You do not need to avoid direct quotation entirely.

Quotations are an integral part of most essay writing. However, they should be used
judiciously and not so frequently so as to render the assessment into a disjointed piece
of work, characterised by excessively short paragraphs.

(b) Make your notes, transcribe quotations that you may wish to use, and note clearly
where they occur. Close the books before you begin to write your answer and only
open them to copy quotations or to check doubtful points.

(c) Always attribute direct quotations and enclose them within quotation marks. Always
give a full reference (including page number) for all quotations. Merely referring to
the source in the bibliography at the end of the essay is not sufficient. If you quote from
other sources you must ensure that you indicate this clearly by the use of quotation
marks and by noting precisely the source of the quotation, at the beginning or end of the

(d) Always attribute all ideas that are neither your own nor in common currency. Give a
full reference (including page number) for all such ideas. Once again, merely
referring to the source in the bibliography at the end of the essay is not sufficient.

It is absolutely vital that the marker(s) of your work know precisely where any
material that you have copied starts and ends, and where (i.e., author,
book/journal, page number, etc.) you have copied the material from. PLEASE

It is entirely your responsibility to ensure that you make these absolutely clear.


Markers MUST NOT be left in a situation where they are unsure whether
particular ideas and/or words are yours or are copied from somewhere else.
Failure to adhere to this advice may leave you open to a charge of plagiarism.

(e) When you paraphrase and attribute the source of an idea in your essay, each new aspect
or continuation of that idea as may occur in consecutive sentences must be
accurately referenced. It is NOT sufficient to note the source of several linked ideas,
say, just once in a paragraph at the end or beginning, as it is impossible for the reader to
discern which are your sources ideas and which are yours.

(f) Factual information such as 3,000 people die on roads worldwide each day always
has a source. You should always cite the original full reference for each fact, AND if
you accessed the fact in a secondary source rather than the original this should be cited
in full too. Facts without stated sources are unsupported assertions and constitute
poor scholarship. Where you have accessed them in a secondary source without
proper acknowledgement, this, at best, constitutes poor scholarship. Where you also
include unattributed commentary made by the secondary source on the facts you cite,
this may constitute plagiarism.

2. Plagiarism from unpublished sources (e.g., from other students).


We do not wish to discourage you from collaborating in the preparation of essays and in
revision for examinations. It is a valuable part of your education to discuss specific
assignments with friends and it is quite common for small groups of students to pool their

It should equally be clear that to copy from another students essay, whether already
marked or not, is plagiarism and is wholly unacceptable.

The Limits of Collaboration

It will not be surprising if the members of a group which studies together produce answers
which are broadly similar. Note however that if two or more student essays are substantially
identical, they will all be presumed to be cases of plagiarism unless a student can prove that
he/she is not responsible for copying. Therefore it is important to make sure that you
recognise the importance of safeguarding the confidentiality of your work prior to

If you fail to safeguard the confidentiality of your work, you may well find yourself facing a
charge of plagiarism if someone else copies your work.

As a rough guide to what is, and what is not, legitimate collaboration with other students, the
following points are crucial and must be understood properly:

(a) Do not read each others essays. Do not read out your essays to each other, either in
draft or in final form except with a view to ensuring that your English is correct. Where


it is suggested that your English needs amendment, do not show that part of your essay
to the listener(s).

(b) Do not circulate or exchange essays before submission. You must absolutely ensure that
you do not show your essay to any other student before submission.

(c) Do not progress from discussing how a question might be answered to hammering out a
common essay plan that you will use.

(d) Do not ask another student to type your essay on his or her word processor; it can lead
to different students work becoming conflated.

Acquiring essays on the open market (e.g., via the internet)

Any student who acquires an essay written entirely or in part by another person(s) (e.g., from
the web) for the purposes of submitting it as their own work is obviously guilty of plagiarism.
This is a very clear and disgraceful form of passing off another persons work as ones own. It
is an extremely serious form of plagiarism. Any student advertising such services on the
university campus will effectively be inciting plagiarism and this will be duly noted on their
record and for the purposes of disciplinary proceedings taken against them.


Plagiarism is wrong for many reasons:

1. It denies credit to the true author and gives it instead to the pretended one.

2. In a university it is particularly objectionable both on educational grounds and, more
narrowly, for the distortion it imposes on assessments of achievement.

3. Educationally it is wrong because it is usually a product of laziness and is a rejection of
an important part of your education, that is, learning how to marshall and integrate
material from different sources and present it as a coherent, concise argument.

4. It is also a fraud on your fellow students, on your teachers, and ultimately, on all those
who may be deceived by qualifications that you have not earned.

5. It marks you as untrustworthy and devalues whatever academic qualification you may
be wishing to gain at university as well as undermining the credibility of all of your
previous academic achievements.




Students who are charged with plagiarism often come up with all sorts of excuses and
explanations. Such excuses/explanations after you have been caught often sound hollow and
lame. Remember that Disciplinary Boards and tutors are very experienced and cannot easily be
Common (and lame) excuses include the following:

I did not realise that what I was doing amounted to plagiarism
I did not mean to cheat
I thought that I did not have to use quotation marks for all verbatim quotes
I acknowledged the sources in my bibliography, and I thought that this was sufficient
In my (former) school/country/college/university/whatever, we were not taught how to
reference our work properly
I come from a country/clan/family/college/university/whatever, where copying
someones ideas and works is a mark of respect for that person
I did not lend anyone my essay, and it is just a coincidence that Xs essay is so similar
to mine


Students who plagiarise usually do so because (a) they believe the chances of detection are
acceptably remote and/or (b) that the penalties are unlikely to be severe. It is more often a
result of bad planning followed by panic than a systematic intention to cheat, but if you are
tempted, you may care to consider the following.

(1) Will I get away with it?

You may well think you might, but the risk of being found out is greater than you might think.
Bear in mind that, as with most forms of unlawful activity, it is the foolish, the impulsive and
the desperate who are most likely to be detected.

Note that:

(a) Several were detected last session, resulting in possible expulsions from the University.

(b) All markers have been briefed to be especially vigilant.

(c) Staff in the School have copies not only of the reputable textbooks on the various
subjects, but the crammers too (including HLT publications and SWOTS).

(d) Few students write in the style of published works. To do so requires patience and care,
otherwise the joins between your writing and copied parts will show.

(e) The University has invested in software that is designed to detect plagiarism, including
that involved in downloading material from the internet, and members of academic staff
in the School regularly use search engines to check for internet-based copying.


(2) What will happen if I am caught?

The procedure is laid down in Senate Regulations 6, but, in general terms;

(a) You will be given 0 (zero) for that piece of work (be it essay, dissertation, or whatever).

(b) All your other coursework from the same semester will be required for inspection and
will be similarly penalised (retrospectively) if plagiarised.

(c) Your name will be circulated to any other Schools or subject areas in which you may be
taking courses, with the recommendation that they scrutinise your work with extra care.

(d) You will be reported to the Board of Examiners. If you fail a course, or a year, the
Board is unlikely to exercise leniency.

(e) It will be noted on your file and will be a permanent part of your student records.

(f) You will be reported to the Vice Chancellor and disciplinary proceedings may be
instituted against you, which may result in your being EXPELLED from the

(g) Any employment/academic reference that you request from the university will include a
note of the plagiarism. You might well think that you can do without such a reference,
but then again how will you explain to a prospective employer what you were doing
during your university years?

(h) In all probability, you would have ruined permanently any chance that you may
have had of having a decent career.


1. Managing your workload effectively is not always easy. If you begin to find it
difficult, especially as deadlines approach, CONSULT YOUR PERSONAL TUTOR.
Do it early, do not wait until the day before the deadline. If a particular piece of work
is giving you problems, CONSULT YOUR SEMINAR LEADER or the course
lecturer - again, do not wait.

2. Different subject areas have different rules. It is your job to know them. For example,
if your essay or dissertation is late, you WILL lose marks. Depending on the extent of
the lateness, you may end up with a mark of 0% (see your course Handbook). All these
are serious - but they are far better than the penalties associated with plagiarism.


Final year undergraduate projects are often crucial to a degree class and you cannot graduate
unless you have passed the project.

For Masters degree (including MPhil and MRes) and PhD students, your dissertation/thesis is
equally crucial. Projects, dissertations and doctoral theses are marked with particular care and
you are required to keep for inspection all your working papers and notes. You may be asked


to identify the source of particular passages and to give the markers access to any published
work you have used.

The consequences of plagiarism in a project or dissertation/doctoral thesis are dire.


As you will have seen from this document, plagiarism is a very serious matter. You must
read this document over and over until you are sure that you understand what constitutes
plagiarism. Plagiarism can be easily avoided by referencing everything that is not original to
you. If, however, you are concerned about your referencing and whether it is adequate, you
MUST see your personal tutor well before any deadline for submission of your


Cheating in Examinations

You will note, above, that the University considers taking unauthorised material into an
examination (including revision notes or unauthorised equipment) as attempted deception and as
a form of cheating. It is not necessary, therefore, to be caught using revision notes in an
examination to receive a penalty for cheating in an examination. Having the notes in the
examination room is itself an offence.

12.2 Examples of Plagiarism

Below are two examples of the sort of approach to be avoided in writing essays. They are based
on the following essay topic and extract from the book by Lipsey, An Introduction to Positive

'The determinants of movements along a demand curve must be distinguished from the
factors which shift a demand curve'. Explain.

From: R.G.Lipsey, Introduction to Positive Economics, 4th edition, R.G. Lipsey (1975,
GOODS: Here the effect depends on whether the good, whose price changes, is a complement
or a substitute. Consider, for example, the effect on the demand curve for electric cookers of a
rise in the price of electricity. Electricity and electric cookers are complementary commodities
and the rise in the price of electricity makes cooking with electricity more expensive than
previously. Some households will switch to gas when they come to replace their existing
cookers and some newly formed households will buy a gas rather than an electric cooker when
they are setting up their household. Thus the rise in the price of electricity leads to a fall in the
demand for electric cookers. Now consider the effect of a rise in the price of gas cookers. Gas
and electric cookers are substitutes for each other and when gas cookers rise in price some
households will buy electric rather than gas cookers, and the demand for electric cookers will
thus rise.


Example 1

Here the effect depends on whether the good, whose price changes, is a complement or a
substitute. Consider, for example, the effect on the demand curve for electric cookers of a rise in
the price of electricity. Electricity and electric cookers are complementary commodities and the
rise in the price of electricity makes cooking with electricity more expensive than previously.
Some households will switch to gas when they come to replace their existing cookers and some
newly formed households will buy a gas rather than an electric cooker when they are setting up
their household. Thus the rise in the price of electricity leads to a fall in the demand for electric
cookers. Now consider the effect of a rise in the price of gas cookers. Gas and electric cookers
are substitutes for each other and when gas cookers rise in price some households will buy
electric rather than gas cookers, and the demand for electric cookers will thus rise.

Example 2

A second factor which can shift the demand curve is a change in prices of other goods. Here the
effect depends on whether the other good is a substitute or a complement. Take the example of
the effect of a rise in the price of gas on the demand curve for gas cookers. Obviously, gas
cookers and gas are complements, so with the rise in the gas price cooking with gas is made
more expensive. Some households will switch to electricity when they decide to buy a new
cooker, and some newly formed households will buy an electric rather than a gas cooker. Thus
there is a fall in the demand for gas cookers. Now suppose the price of gas cookers were to rise.
Because electric cookers are substitutes for gas cookers, the rise in the price of the latter will
cause the demand for electric cookers to rise.


Example 1: This is blatant plagiarism. The writer has simply copied the text from the source
without any alterations or amendments and has not referenced or acknowledged the source in
any way.

Example 2: This is also plagiarism. Minor alterations, additions and omissions have been
made with the intent to disguise the source. No knowledge of economics is required to do this
and the result of this is likely to be a zero mark.

How it should be done

Here the effect depends on whether the good, whose price changes, is a complement or a
substitute. This is the opinion of Lipsey (1975) who continues Consider, for example, the
effect on the demand curve for electric cookers of a rise in the price of electricity. Electricity
and electric cookers are complementary commodities and the rise in the price of electricity
makes cooking with electricity more expensive than previously. Some households will switch to
gas when they come to replace their existing cookers and some newly formed households will
buy a gas rather than an electric cooker when they are setting up their household. Thus the rise
in the price of electricity leads to a fall in the demand for electric cookers. Now consider the


effect of a rise in the price of gas cookers. Gas and electric cookers are substitutes for each other
and when gas cookers rise in price some households will buy electric rather than gas cookers,
and the demand for electric cookers will thus rise."

At the end of the work the reference will be given as:

Lipsey, R.G. (1975) Introduction to Positive Economics, 4th edition, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

If you still feel unsure:

Contact your personal tutor, or another appropriate tutor for advice. You might also contact
BOLD or the Information and Advice Service of the Students Union if you are confused about
how to seek advice about these important matters. The BOLD web-site provides useful links to
guidance on these matters at:


12.3 Referencing Styles

12.3.1 Harvard Reference Style this is the School of Social Sciences preferred
style of referencing and should be used for all assessments submitted by all
students within the School

The following information is not definitive. It is intended to demonstrate how the Harvard
referencing system can be used to avoid committing plagiarism.

There are two parts to referencing:

The citation is included in the text. It shows that what you have written is not your own idea (or
research). If you do not correctly cite other peoples work, you are plagiarising.

The reference is included in a list at the end (or sometimes as a footnote to the page). It gives the
full details of what you have cited, so that someone else can read what you have read.

To cite a source

The following are examples of the three types of citations.


There is some dispute about who invented the Internet, but usually the same three names are
mentioned. (Jones, 2002).

This indicates that this idea was published by Jones in 2002. The student has used their own
words, so it is not a quote.


Direct quote

The most important invention in Mans evolution is not the Internet, but the bicycle. (Brown &
Smith, 1997, p.69).

This is a direct quote. The student uses quotation marks to show this. The quote is from page 69 of
the work published by Brown and Smith in 1997.

Secondary source

If mathematicians had preferred drinking tea to coffee, the Internet may never have been invented.
(Watts, 1991 cited in Miller et al., 2000, p.228).

The student has shown that the idea was published by Watts in 1991. However, the student has not
read Wattss work they read Millers work of 2000. Wattss idea was used by Miller on page

To reference a book
Books are one of the easiest items to reference, as all the information that you need is usually
included in the title page of the book. For each reference, you should include the following
Surname first, followed by initials
If the book has an editor or editors, this must be signified by using '(ed.)' after their name.
The date follows the author(s), in brackets
Quote the full title, including sub title if there is one, as given on the title page of the book.
The title should be written in italics or bold or underlined in order to distinguish it from other
Include the edition number if it is not the first.
Other Publication Details
Place of publication, followed by a colon (:) then publisher
Example: Pilcher, J. (2002) Age and generation in modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
To reference the chapter of a book


To reference the chapter of a book you should include the title, author(s) and date of the chapter,
and the full details of the book.

Example: Smith, P. H. (1951). The overall allocation of resources. In: D.N. Chester, ed.
Lessons of the British war economy. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999, pp34-57
To reference a journal article
Use the same style as before: authors surname, followed by initials
Give the year of the article in brackets after the authors name
Article Title
Quote the full title of the article, as given at the beginning of the article.
Title of Journal
Quote the full title of the journal, as given on the front cover. Do not use abbreviations.
The journal title should be written in italics or bold or underlined
Other Details
The volume number should be as given on the journal, and the issue number (if there is one)
should be in brackets. Give the start and finish page numbers. If the journal article you read
was in an electronic format, you should include [www] after the journal title.
Example: Matthews, H. (1999) The geography of children: some methodological
considerations for project work and dissertation work. Journal of geography in higher
education, 22 (3) 311-324
To reference a website
A website should be cited in the same way as a book, except for one important feature. As
well as stating when the website was published, you must also note when you accessed it.
You should also give the location of the document.

Brunel Library (2004) Searching the library catalogue [www] Available from:
http://www.brunel.ac.uk/library/guides/skills/guide3.html [Accessed 20th July 2004]

To reference something you have not read
As a principle you should read everything that you wish to cite in your work. However,
sometimes that is not possible - maybe the work was not published, or it was a personal
communication between two authors, or it is not written in a language you can read!
If you wish to refer to work that you have not read but that is quoted in someone else's work
you should mention the author(s) of the work, but cite the source author(s).



Smith's work (cited in Jones, 1999, p.43)
Jones (1999, p.43) argues that the work of Smith shows ...

Only the source (in the above examples this is Jones, 1999) should be listed in the references.

13 Disciplinary procedures

The School follows Senate Regulation 6 guidelines for disciplinary procedures:

14 The Tutorial System

14.1 Description of the tutorial system

The tutorial system a Brunel is designed to provide a framework for contact between staff and
students and the following notes give a brief description of the tutorial systems used by
Economics and Finance.

14.2 Personal Tutoring

Coming to university, whether from school or as a mature student, requires a whole variety of
adjustments, academic and personal. All undergraduate students will be assigned a personal
tutor for both academic and pastoral guidance. Your personal tutor provides a primary link to
the University - for the purpose of advice on broad academic issues such as choice of modules,
for guidance on specific course assignments or for help with any of the variety of issues that a
student may feel the need to discuss. If you have problems/concerns, let your tutor know. Only
then can we help you. Issues that cannot be dealt with by your personal tutor will be referred to
the senior tutor of your subject group. If you still feel that the issue has not been resolved
satisfactorily you should get in touch with the School Senior Tutor Dr. Monica Degen:
monica.degen@brunel.ac.uk. An outline of the tutoring system is also available on u-link.

For the first term at Brunel, you will meet in your Personal Tutors office early in the term. It is
essential that you maintain contact after this initial meeting so that your tutor will get to know
you, and can support you with references or assist with problems that you encounter, particularly
when you are new to university life. You are also expected to see your tutor at least once per
term as you advance through your course, to review your progress.

Special circumstances which already exist (e.g. dyslexia, hearing or sight impairment) of
which we need to be aware, should be discussed with your personal tutor at your introductory
meeting. Your personal tutor may suggest that you approach specialist advisors or services -


such as student counsellors or the University Medical Service - and full details of these can
be found in your Students' Handbook. Your personal tutor is also the person to approach
regarding academic references.

At all levels you should feel able to consult your personal tutor on general academic matters
and on non-academic matters which might be affecting your academic work. All tutors are
expected to arrange regular office hours each week when they will be available to see their
students, and to be available at other times by appointment. They will advertise 2 x 1 office
hours per week which will normally commence on the half hour to help prevent clashes with
the teaching timetable. Hours will be displayed on staff office doors and also on the Schools

Allocation/change of personal tutors

Your personal tutor will be assigned, wherever possible, from the teaching staff of your main
discipline within the School of Social Sciences, but this may not always be possible. It is
recognised that, to be successful, the tutor-tutee relationship requires some natural
compatibility which cannot always be guaranteed. If a change is felt to be necessary by either
party, it should be discussed with the Senior Tutor.

Staff changes will sometimes mean that a change of personal tutor is unavoidable. Where this
happens don't wait to be approached; introduce yourself to your new tutor. Remember that you
may wish to use your personal tutor as a referee in the future, and for this the tutor needs to
know who you are.

Workshop/Seminar Leader

For the majority of your modules you will be allocated to a tutorial group which will meet
weekly or fortnightly under the direction of a member of staff who will be your Seminar Leader
for that course. For most modules, you will be assigned to either a workshop (larger group) or
seminar (smaller group), led by a member of staff, who will normally assess your coursework
and provide your Personal Tutor with information about your progress in each subject. If you
encounter problems in a particular module then, in nearly all cases, your Seminar or Workshop
Leader for that course would be the first person to approach for assistance.

Work Placement Tutor

Your Work Placement Tutor is allocated before you leave the University in June. The allocation
of Work Placement Tutors takes into account the nature and location of the work placement.
You should contact your Work Placement Tutor as soon as he/she is allocated for a given work
period. The Work Placement Tutor takes over tutorial responsibility for you for the duration of
the placement.

The Work Placement Officer administers the employment of students, obtaining jobs and
arranging interviews for students. The Work Placement Officer for Economics and Finance is


Michelle Kavan. Students will receive details of procedures for work placement application in
the Autumn term. [See also the Section - Information for Work Placements]

Work Placement Convenor

The Work Placement Convenor has overall responsibility for the operation of the work
placement system within Economics and Finance.

Programme Convenor

The Programme Convenor co-ordinates the teaching and administrative arrangements for a
particular degree programme and generally acts as a focal point for problems specific to that

Senior Tutor

The Senior Tutor has a general responsibility for the organisation and operation of the tutorial
system in Economics and Finance. His responsibilities include ensuring that equal opportunities
commitments are met within Economics and Finance.

Director of Undergraduate Studies

The Director of Undergraduate Studies has general responsibility for the organisation of
undergraduate study in Economics and Finance, including examination board issues of
assessment and progression.

Director of Teaching

The Director of Teaching has overall responsibility for the organisation of undergraduate and
postgraduate study in Economics and Finance.

14.3 Advice for disabled/dyslexic students

Students should have informed Economics and Finance of any disabilities prior to admission to
establish whether appropriate arrangements can be made. Parjinder Parbhakar should be
informed as soon as possible of any disabilities which arise during the course. Advice may be
obtained from the Universitys Disability Officer, and the Universitys Dyslexia Adviser.

14.4 Equal opportunities

Economics and Finance subscribes to the Universitys Equal Opportunities statement, which
reads as follows: Brunel University, in conformity with the intention of its Charter, is
committed to a policy of equal opportunity in employment, admissions, and in its teaching,
learning and research activities. It will endeavour to ensure that no applicant for employment or
study, member of staff or student is disadvantaged or discriminated against unlawfully and that
all are treated on the basis of their relevant merits and abilities.


14.5 Accommodation

The University Accommodation Office is located at the end of Saltash Hall behind the
Counselling Office near the Medical Centre. It is open from 9-1 and 2- 4.45 Monday Friday.

14.6 Student support and welfare

The University has a Counselling Service available to all students. It is staffed by a Head of
Counselling, a Senior Counsellor and a further full-time Counsellor, a administrator and several
part-time qualified Counsellors. The Counsellors are able to assist students in coping with
personal and emotional difficulties.

Counselling is strictly confidential and bookings to see a Counsellor are by appointment. The
appointment system means that service users will be able to meet with a Counsellor at the
soonest available time convenient to those concerned. Counselling can be very beneficial in
order to talk over issues of emotional difficulty, within a confidential environment. Counselling
appointments will normally be of a maximum fifty minutes to an hour and you will be able to
see a Counsellor for one session or more if necessary. Generally, Counsellors work within a
time limited framework offering up to a maximum of six sessions. An appointment to see a
Counsellor can be made by contacting the Counselling Offices (Tel 01895 265070).

14.7 Prayer room

The Meeting House has a quiet room for prayer, meditation, or just being quiet. It is open
every weekday (9am to 4pm) and welcomes students and staff of any faith, or none, to use its
facilities. Coffee, tea and biscuits are available. You are welcome to come in and have a chat,
relax or do some work.

14.8 Careers information


Students may seek advice as follows:

General careers advice:

Careers Service, First Floor
Bannerman Centre
E.mail: careers@brunel.ac.uk

Careers in accountancy/exemptions from professional accountancy exams


Brunel University Careers Service

The Careers Service is located on the first floor of the Bannerman Centre, Uxbridge
Campus. Opening times are: Monday-Friday 9.30-4.45
Tel. 01895 266840

(It is advisable to telephone first to check opening times before visiting during vacations)

If you are seeking information about careers, employers, postgraduate study and vacancies you
will be able to get help at the Careers Centre. If you would like help with career planning and
decision making Careers Advisers are available for appointments. If you have a short query no
appointment is necessary as a Careers Adviser is usually available on most weekdays between
9.30 and 4.45.

Wednesday afternoon workshops (primarily for final year students) are from 2.00 until 4.30:
Psychometric test practice; interview practice; personality questionnaire (MBTI) and how it
helps with career decisions.

We have a web site from which you can find links to a wide range of useful resources as well
as advice about, for example, career decision making, career planning, researching employers
and postgraduate study www.brunel.ac.uk/admin/careers

Making the most of your time at university

It is never too early in your University career to start career planning and to consider your
options when you graduate. Your course at Brunel should help you to improve your
employment prospects by providing you with knowledge and skills relevant to future careers.

It is your responsibility to make the most of your time at University to enhance your skills and
experience and so increase your chances of achieving your career goals.

Employers like to see that you get involved with activities apart from studying. They see it as
evidence of enthusiasm and commitment. So why not try some of these?
Get involved with University clubs and societies
Do some voluntary work
Join in with sports activities
Gain work experience
Learn a language

Employers frequently prefer applicants with an understanding of business, whatever subject
they have studied, and a European language is often stated as 'essential' or 'desirable' on
vacancy information. You can gain an understanding of business and the world of work
through work experience by:

Doing a sandwich course
Summer vacation work


Part-time work

Part-time Work

The Brunel Careers Service Job Shop provides information about local part-time
opportunities. Many local employers send in information and the jobs are posted on the web
site (click on Job Shop), on the notice board at the Careers Centre and in the Careers Service
magazine Career News, which is published fortnightly in term time and available at many
locations round the campus.

Part-time work may not provide you with career-related experience but will enable you to
develop a range of personal skills and an understanding of businesses and how they operate
which will be invaluable when you are writing your CV or completing application forms.

Whatever your career interests and aspirations do visit us as soon as you can and make use of
the services we offer.

15 Information for Work Placements

15.1 Objective of work placements

Practical work experience is the distinctive feature of four year degrees in Economics and
Finance. You benefit in two ways: (i) first hand knowledge of organisations and markets helps
towards a better understanding of the principles of economics and finance taught in your
academic studies; (ii) placement experience is highly valued by graduate employers and will
give you a real advantage over other graduates (iii) the experience of job hunting, attending
interviews, preparing CVs and application forms - will give you the edge over other graduates
when competing for jobs at the end of your course.

Students should check with Registry on the fees payable while on work placement.

To gain maximum benefit from your sandwich degree, a number of simple rules and guidelines
must be observed. These are set out in detail in a document Student Guide to Work-Placements
available to every student registered on the placement programme. Read it carefully. What
follows is a summary of the main points.

15.2 Work Placement Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of their work placement students will be able to demonstrate:

An understanding of the working environment

Some practical skills and competencies appropriate to most employment

Competence in the professional and personal skills appropriate to the context in which
the placement takes place


Some professional knowledge and skills to assist in an effective transition to the work
place and in the management of their careers

An ability to link practical experience with academic theory and analysis

15.3 Work placement schedule

Thick Sandwich

On a thick sandwich degree you are normally required to complete a period of 44
weeks after the end of Level II, between June and the following September.

15.4 Finding a placement

Although the Placement Team will help you with advice, support and information, it is
your responsibility to find a work placement. Specifically you must:

You must take the initiative at all times. Keep in regular contact with the
Placement Team. Check your Brunel email account and respond immediately to
any communications about placements.
If appropriate you may make your own arrangements for a placement directly
instead of through the Placement Team. However you must have the prior
agreement of the Placement Officer to ensure that it is a placement of an approved
standard. Keep the Placement Team posted on applications that you have made.
Use directories such as the Kompass Register (available in the Library) to find the
details of possible employers.

Produce an up-to-date curriculum vitae (CV) to be emailed to the Placement
Team by 27 October 2007. The Placement Officer will be happy to discuss your
CV. Please also email updated versions of your CV.

Failure to comply with these guidelines may mean, either that you will not
be entitled to any support from the Placement Team and or that you don't
get a placement at all.

15.5 Transfers

You may, but only with the signed approval of the Work Placement Convenor,
transfer from a three year to four year sandwich degree. There is no unconditional right
to change courses.


you must earn the privilege of remaining on the sandwich degree. You may be
transferred from the sandwich to a three year course if:


(i) your academic performance is poor (two or more fails), necessitating revision
and/or resits when you should be doing a placement. Students who, because they
have insufficient credits, are placed on an ordinary degree course, will not
normally be eligible for a sandwich degree.


(ii) you fail to co-operate fully and professionally with the Placement Team or
behave in a manner which will jeopardise the reputation of the Universitys
placement Programme and its students. Specifically:

(a) you must ensure that the Placement Team has both your CV and
placement registration form, and that the Placement Team has at all times a
current address/phone number where you can be reached.

(b) you must turn up for all interviews arranged on your behalf by the
Placement Team

(c) you must never, having accepted an offer of employment from an
organisation, then withdraw because you have found an alternative job. This is
damaging to the reputation of the University and may spoil work experience
opportunities for other students. If you want time to think about an offer, either
because you are uncertain about the work or because other offers are pending,
then be frank and tell your interviewer, but say by what date you will decide.
You must discuss any issues that you may have with the Placement Officer.

(d) you must, if you are making your own arrangements for a placement,
have the prior approval of the Placement Team, who will require a job
description from the employer. If you ignore this rule then your placement will
not count towards a sandwich degree and you will be expected to return to the
University at the start of the next term.

(e) you must never, having started work with an organisation, leave without
first discussing this with the Work Placement Convenor or your Work Placement
Tutor, and the Placement Officer. You must of course give appropriate notice to
your employer.

15.6 Linking work placement and academic experience

You will be assigned a Work Placement Tutor, who will keep in touch with your
employer and visit you at your workplace to discuss progress with you and your


You will, during your placement, be expected to return to the University for a Tutorial
Day giving you the opportunity to compare your placement experience with other
students - also to discuss with your tutor connections between the placement and
academic studies.

Your placement is expected to provide a substantial input of material for your Level III
Dissertation. .

15.7 Assessment of learning outcomes

Satisfactory completion of a work placement is assessed as follows:

By tutor visit to the work place and discussion with the student and his or her supervisor

By a graded report from the employer on the students acquisition of a range of work-
related skills

By satisfactory completion of a placement-related dissertation.

15.8 Who to contact

Your Personal Tutor during term time, Kyri Kyriacou, Economics and Finance Work
Placement Convenor.

Placement Team:
Placement Officer Seema Shoor
Tel: 01895 265562

16 Dissertation: guidelines for students on Economics and
Finance three and four year programmes

This section is of particular relevance to Level 3 students. Level 2 students should, however,
read through this section and be aware that some forward thinking is advisable before departing
on summer vacation or on work placements.


Economics and Management Students wishing to work on a Management based dissertation
should contact the Brunel Business School at the start of the Autumn Term.

16.1 Objectives and learning outcomes

The final year dissertation provides undergraduates with the opportunity to provide evidence of
abilities not usually measured by the written papers and assessments on the course - notably the
ability to work independently in a subject area of the student's choice. For sandwich degree
students it is frequently based on the 3rd year work placement.

Subject learning outcomes:

On completion of the module students should be able to:

(a) Demonstrate experience in independent investigation of a topic chosen by the student
which is distinct from the taught syllabus of the degree course

(b) Demonstrate the ability to sustain a structured argument and adduce appropriate
supporting evidence

(c) Demonstrate the ability to analyse, and reflect critically upon, relevant academic

(d) Apply relevant theoretical and analytical techniques learned elsewhere in the course

(e) Present material clearly and coherently in the form of text and related tables,
diagrams, and statistical or mathematical forms as appropriate

(f) Draw appropriate conclusions from the research work conducted

(g) Apply generic and transferable skills

16.2 Timing and regulations

The final year dissertation counts for 40 credits at Level 3. You should decide on a provisional
topic before the end of the Spring Term of Level 2, and discuss it with your Personal Tutor. It is
your responsibility to ensure that you see your Personal Tutor before leaving the

You are strongly advised to start work on your dissertation during your work placement (four
year degrees) or during the summer vacation preceding your final year (three year degrees).
Towards the end of September you will be asked to register a provisional title in Economics
and Finance with the Undergraduate Office and submit a one page outline of how you intend to
proceed. You will then be assigned a supervisor who will advise and support your work, and
monitor your progress. You are required to meet your supervisor two times prior to submitting
your literature review, to monitor your progress, at a time specified (two group meetings). You
will receive a dissertation diary in which you will record your meetings with your supervisor,


and your progress in meeting a set of targets, or milestones. The diary will be signed by your
supervisor at each meeting and will be submitted with the dissertation in March.

By the 28th of November (end of week 9) you will be asked to hand in, via the Undergraduate
Office, an initial report on topic definition and literature review to contain the following:

(a) aim and objectives of the dissertation;

(b) background theory and draft literature review;

(c) time plan for the completion of the dissertation.

By this time you will be expected to have completed the dissertation outline, the literature
review, and to have checked the availability of the data that you will be using (see "Choice of
topic" and "Organisation" below). You should have established clearly in your two group
meetings with your supervisor the direction necessary for you to be able to complete the
dissertation working independently.

You will receive comments on the literature review (see 16.4 below) which will be returned to
you during the week beginning 15
December (week 12). Note that your supervisor will
comment once only on whatever you submit. If your review is incomplete, the feedback you
receive will obviously be limited.

From December to January, students based in Economics and Finance will have a clear period
for independent work on their dissertation. Supervisors will be available during this period for
one further meeting at students request, but essentially at this stage you are expected to be
working independently. Students will be required to complete a full first draft of the dissertation
to be handed in on Monday 9
February 2009, 3.00 p.m (beginning of week 20).

Your supervisor will read and comment on the draft as submitted, normally within 10 days,
namely the 20
February. It is important to note that supervisors comments are intended
to identify areas for improvement and are not intended as an assessment, nor are they an
indication of the likely outcome of assessment.

The submission date for all final-year dissertations (with diaries) will be Monday 30th March
2009 (beginning of week 27) at 3.00 p.m. Students should note that the University Computing
System operates a limited service over the Easter break, so plan accordingly. Dissertations must
be handed into the Undergraduate Office and not to tutors. The dissertation is part of your final
examination and the deadline for submission must be rigidly observed, just as is attendance at an
examination. A revised submission deadline can only be granted in exceptional circumstances
and after consultation with the supervisor. (Please see page 37.) Any dissertation which is
submitted late will be subject to the normal capping procedure.

16.3 Choice of topic

The purposes of the dissertation are:

(1) To test your ability to apply an economic perspective to an empirical observation or a
practical issue;


(2) To test your ability to carry out a small research project - to read relevant literature,
collect information, and present it coherently.

The choice of topic is particularly important to accomplishing objective (1). If you choose to
discuss a subject to which it is difficult to apply economic analysis, you will have difficulty
obtaining a good mark for your project. It is important to discuss your topic with your
supervisor to avoid this.

Note that this does not mean that you should necessarily choose a topic which is already
extensively written up in the economic literature. Indeed if your project is just a literature
review, you will not do well. Successful projects have often taken subjects on which economists
have written very little - the key to their success has been that they have found relevant
analytical concepts in economics to apply to their subject.

One way of verifying whether a project is suitable is by identifying a question which it can be
seen as answering. This test will rule out purely descriptive topics (e.g. what has happened to
the steel industry since 1945?), and should also exclude topics which are too ambitious (e.g. Is
monetarism right? Why are developing economies poor?) You should try to find a (usually)
small scale empirical project which uses economic concepts to answer a specific but interesting

It is important that your topic is not entirely theoretical - i.e. that you demonstrate your ability to
apply the theory. You may do this by

(a) Presenting relevant statistics - providing tables and graphs, and using the methods taught
in EC1006 Statistics for Economics to calculate summary statistics and undertake
hypothesis tests relevant to your argument. Tables and graphs should usually be
interleaved with the text, and you should provide a description of the main points of
interest that they illustrate.

(b) Undertaking econometric analysis of data, using techniques from EC2007 Introduction
to Economics Modelling or EC3063 Econometric Methods and Applications. This
requires that you formulate regression equations which are properly explained and based
on theoretically sound prior assumptions, and that you present and interpret the
diagnostics produced by the econometric package you use. You should use the
diagnostics to choose a 'preferred specification', and comment on how the theory
withstands your econometric tests.

(c) Presenting descriptive material not in statistical form. This is often the only practicable
way of undertaking the empirical part of your project. A lack of statistical material need
not be a disadvantage, but you must present information clearly, avoid vague and
sweeping generalisations, and tie your descriptive material closely to the theoretical

You may get some ideas about how to proceed with your dissertation by looking at the
collection of past dissertations held in the library. Catalogued under:

Economics work placement based dissertations


Economics final year dissertations (non work placement based)

16.4 Organising your dissertation

A dissertation of this length is best arranged in 3 or 4 chapters. You should also provide an
Introduction which sets out the subject of the project and introduces the contents of each chapter,
and you should end with a Conclusion which sums up the content of the project.

It is important that you refer properly to the relevant literature on your topic. This should take
the form of a chapter devoted to reviewing the literature, perhaps in order to select the approach,
theory or model which is best suited to the questions you wish to answer.

Your review should identify key references which relate to your topic, demonstrating the extent
of the literature search you have undertaken and the breadth of your knowledge of the subject.
However rather than attempting to provide brief summaries of a large number of references, you
are advised to focus on a few key items which you judge to be most relevant to your topic, and
review in some depth the content of these sources. While reviewing critical literature you
should also take note of the manner in which arguments and material are presented, for use in
your own work.

You will normally provide in addition a theoretical section for your dissertation, and it is
probably sensible to leave detailed discussion of underlying theory for later, rather than covering
it in your literature review, though you should note in your review items to which you will be
referring in a later chapter(s). Any theoretical discussion should of course be consistent with
empirical work presented elsewhere in the dissertation.

All direct quotes should be referenced as described below, and you should also provide a
reference when you have paraphrased an argument. Statements of fact should also be provided
with a source when they are not of general knowledge or based on your own experience.

A direct quote should end with either:

(a) the name of the author(s), date of publication and page reference, all in brackets: (Smith,
1982, p.30)


(b) a footnote number, where the footnote provides author, title, date and page reference.

If system (a) is used, you should ensure that your bibliography is organised by authors' names,
alphabetically, followed by dates, so that the full versions of the references in the text can easily
be found.

When paraphrasing or referring in a general way to a book or article, a reference should be
provided as above, except that the page number is not essential. Note that you should mention
all the references you have used in putting together your analysis. Usually items should not
appear in the bibliography unless you have referred to them in the text.


You are reminded that Economics and Finance has a clear policy on plagiarism which must be
adhered to (see section 4.2.6). Because of the weight attached to the project, and the emphasis
on your own individual contribution, plagiarism will be dealt with severely. It could result in
your being denied a degree. If you are in any doubt on this issue talk to your supervisor.

16.5 Draft dissertation

Try to complete a typed draft 1-2 weeks before the deadline, as this will allow you time to
improve the organisation of the material.

The final dissertation must be bound by the Print Room prior to submission.

16.6 Presentation

The dissertation must be accompanied by a signed statement of length. The dissertation should
ordinarily be about 8,000 words in length. The maximum permissible length is 9,000 words,
and a dissertation which exceeds this limit will be penalised by the markers.

'Length' is calculated by multiplying the number of pages by the number of words on a normal
page, which varies from about 250 to 350 depending on the type-face used. The word limit
excludes the bibliography, appendices, graphs and statistical tables. Note that appendices should
only contain supporting documentation such as data or samples of forms or questionnaires. If
the markers take the view that an appendix contains material which should be in the body of the
project it will be included in the word limit.

Two bound copies to be submitted together with: (1) dissertation declaration form; (2) the
dissertation, raw data and data used in the estimations, on a Disk/CD/Zip. And (3) the diary.

Typing should be double-spaced, on A4 size paper, with a 1" left-hand margin, to fit into the
standard binders used by the University.

16.7 Summary timetable - final year dissertation

End of Spring term, Level 2 All students see personal tutor
End of September 2008 Submit one page outline of dissertation with title
October-November 2008 2 group meetings with supervisor: completion of
project diaries
28th November 2008 Submit literature review and plan
W/B 15
December 2008 Receive supervisors comments on initial report
December-January 2009 Complete draft dissertation
9th February 2009 Submit draft dissertation for supervisors comments


February 2009 Receive supervisors comments on draft final
supervision meeting
30th March 2009 Submit completed dissertation and project diary

16.8 Assessment

The Level 3 dissertation counts for 40 credits and is marked 100% on the content of the written
submission of the final dissertation. It is doubled marked by two members of staff in Economics
and Finance.

For guidance on assessment criteria see the Grade Descriptors, Section 7.1.

16.9 Research Ethics

It is a University requirement that all research involving human participants is subjected to
ethics scrutiny and approval prior to commencement of the research. Information and
guidelines regarding submissions to the School Research Ethics Committee may be found on
the RESEARCH ETHICS PAGE of the School's web pages.

This form MUST be completed by all final year Undergraduate Students. Failure to complete
this form will result in the dissertation/thesis not being marked.

You are required to complete the Research Ethics form, obtain your supervisors signature
and return the completed form to the Undergraduate Office, Marie Jahoda 103 immediately
after your first meeting with your supervisor.

If, however, your research involves human subjects, you must apply to the school ethics
committee using the form at:

All forms will be scrutinised by the Schools Research Ethics Committee/Officer. Any
concerns relating to the ethics of the students research, will be communicated immediately to
the student and supervisor concerned.

Information on Brunel Universitys code of practice can be found at:



1. Title of the Study:
Date of Submission:
Proposed Start Date: Proposed End Date:

2. Name of applicant
School: Course Title
Email: Telephone:

3. Supervisors should complete this section
Supervisor Name: Position held:
Contact details (email/telephone/fax):
Signature: Date:

Declaration to be signed by the supervisor in the case of a student:
I confirm that the research will be undertaken in accordance with the Brunel University Code
of Research Ethics.
I shall ensure that any changes in approved research protocols are reported promptly for
approval by the School Research Ethics Committee.
I shall ensure that the research study complies with the law and Brunel University policy on
Health and Safety.
I am satisfied that the research study is compliant with the Data Protection Act 1998, and that
necessary arrangements have been, or will be, made with regard to the storage and
processing of participants personal information and generally, to ensure confidentiality of
such data supplied and generated in the course of the research.
(Note: Where relevant, further advice is available from the Data Protection and Information
Officer, e-mail data-protection@brunel.ac.uk).
I will ensure that all adverse or unforeseen problems arising from the research project are
reported in a timely fashion to the School Research Ethics Committee.
I will undertake to provide notification if the research fails to start or is abandoned.


Signature of Supervisor:.........................Date


17 BOLD - Brunel Opportunities for Learning Development

In addition to the learning development support you get from your School, you should take
advantage of the many opportunities offered through BOLD (Brunel Opportunities for
Learning Development). The aim of BOLD is to give you the chance to make even more of
your time at Brunel. BOLD will support you both in enhancing your academic skills and
developing your employability and transferable skills. Faced with an increasingly demanding
world, where prospective employers expect the most highly skilled graduates, we want you to
feel fully prepared for the challenges that lie ahead, whether that be employment or further
study. BOLD is Brunel's way of helping you to find out about and fully benefit from the
learning development opportunities offered by Brunel's Central Service Departments:

Arts Centre Job Shop
Brunel International Language Centre
Brunel University Skills for
Society (BUSS)
Learning & Teaching Development
Unit (LTDU)
Counselling Service Library Services
Disability & Dyslexia Service Placements & Careers Centre
Effective Learning Advice
Union of Brunel Students (UBS)

These opportunities are in the form of skills workshops and seminars, one-to-one appointments,
drop-in sessions, web-based guidance and interactive, online learning packages. To find out
more about ways of enhancing your study and employability skills:

visit the BOLD Website at http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/ltdu/bold
pick up the Get BOLD Guide (Level I students) (you will receive your copy of this during
Induction week)

17.1 Effective Learning Advice Service (ELAS)

The Effective Learning Advice Service provides you with additional study skills support to
help you with your academic study. Whether you need some guidance in using your time more
effectively, producing a first class academic essay or support in creating an impressive
presentation, a one-to-one appointment with an adviser can help. In addition, there will be a
series of weekly workshops as well as additional study skills weeks in the Autumn and Spring
terms. To see an adviser:


Drop-in to LC019, Lecture Centre
Tel: 01895 266547 or 01895 268889
Email: elas@brunel.ac.uk

17.2 Personal Development Planning (PDP)

Whilst you are putting the effort into developing existing and new skills it is essential that you
keep track of your progress. This will enable you to learn from your experiences and plan your
next moves. Plus, you will have already collected sound evidence of what makes you the ideal
candidate when it comes to applying for jobs and/or further study. We call this process of
planning, doing and reviewing Personal Development Planning.

You will be given the opportunity to get involved in PDP through your degree programme. In
addition, as a Brunel student you are automatically registered for BOLD PDP Online, the U-
link web-base that enables you to manage your personal and professional development. To get
started, log on via Brunels Web-based Learning portal:
http://www.brunel.ac.uk/intranets/weblearn/ and click on the Brunel Opportunities for Learning
Development link. For details of PDP at Brunel contact Kate Smith of the LTDU at

17.3 Valuing Diversity at Brunel University

The Brunel University community is truly diverse and multicultural. We are proud of this
diversity, which enriches the learning experience of the student and staff body.

We strongly recommend that, in order to participate fully and fairly as a member of the Brunel
community, you find out about:
Your rights and your role
Our commitment and our expectations
How to make the most of our diverse community

The easiest and quickest way to do this is through the Valuing Diversity @ Brunel University
resource. This is a virtual learning environment that provides essential information and
guidance to equip you to confidently handle all areas of equality and diversity such as ethnicity,
gender, disability, sexual orientation, class, politics, religion and age. Theres also lots of
information about activities that you get involved in at Brunel.

These opportunities are in the form of skills workshops and seminars, one-to-one appointments,
drop-in sessions, web-based guidance and interactive, online learning packages. To find out
more about ways of enhancing your study and employability skills:

Visit the BOLD Website at http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/ltdu/bold

Pick up the Get BOLD Guide

The chart below gives a glimpse of one aspect of the diverse student body of Brunel

To access the Valuing Diversity @ Brunel University web
Go to http://www.brunel.ac.uk/intranets/weblearn/
Click on Login to U-Link.
Follow the U-Link log-on instructions on the screen
Click on Valuing Diversity @ Brunel University.
Any questions, please e-mail
Get BOLD Guide (Level 1 students)
The chart below gives a glimpse of one aspect of the diverse student body of Brunel

To access the Valuing Diversity @ Brunel University web-base:
on instructions on the screen.
lick on Valuing Diversity @ Brunel University.
mail bold@brunel.ac.uk
The chart below gives a glimpse of one aspect of the diverse student body of Brunel University.


18 Continuing to Postgraduate Study

Students considering postgraduate study when they graduate are advised to consider applying
before Level III exams start. Brunel School of Social Science offers a wide range of
postgraduate courses for which you may be eligible to apply, including specialist Masters
degrees in business, economics, finance, politics, history, and international relations. You are
also eligible to submit an application and research proposal for a Masters (MRes) or doctoral
(PhD) degree.

Postgraduate study allows graduates to develop new knowledge in an area complementary to
existing study and can lead to enhanced career prospects. Should you be offered a place in a
course, as a Brunel graduate you will be granted a discount on postgraduate tuition fees.

If you wish to discuss your options regarding postgraduate study, would like further
information on any of the courses listed above, or would like information on how to apply,
please visit http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about/acad/sssl/ssslcourse/e_f. Information on all courses
is also available on the Brunel website.

19 Learning Resources

19.1 Computing Services

The Computer Centre provides computing services distributed throughout the University, with a
wide range of applications software on UNIX machines and PCs, and with access to various
academic services across the Joint Academic NETwork (JANET). As well as traditional
computing, the central computing services include electronic mail facilities, together with
information, library and news services. The Centre also provides user support, in terms of
documentation, help and advice, and purchasing opportunities.

Students should complete a registration form, available from the Computer Centre, in order to be
allocated a user password.

Please refer to the Computer Centre homepage http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/cc/ for details of
computing availability

Access to computers

The Computer Centre provides PC access in several locations across the campus, some of
them (in John Crank) round the clock: see
http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/cc/facilities/workareas/uxbridge.shtml for details of places, and of
opening times for CC-managed locations. Elsewhere, PC access is available during building
opening hours: check with the appropriate building owners websites for these. The
Computer Centre is rolling out a kiosk service of cut-down access for particular needs:
check the Computer Centre website for details as this facility matures.

Its worth noting that there is free internet access at any public library in Hillingdon, so you
will be able to check your mail and do other work while off-campus. See


http://www.hillingdon.gov.uk/libraries/general/openhour.php for locations and opening hours
of libraries within the borough. Most other public libraries have internet access: just ask at
any local library, wherever you happen to be.

Finally, remember that you can connect to u-Link and your webmail from any internet-
connected PC, and that you can gain access to the Brunel network from halls of residence,
from home and from a laptop: see http://connect.brunel.ac.uk/ for details of this service.

The Computer Centre operates a comprehensive campus-wide print service, which also offers
scanning and copying facilities: see http://intranet.brunel.ac.uk/cc/facilities/printing/ for full

Printing Facilities.

Centrally provided printing facilities.

Brunel Computing Services provide a prepaid self-service printing facility. The nearest
monochrome printer is located in Room MJ243 in the Marie Jahoda Building. Full details of
this service are provided on the following web page:-

School provided printing facilities.

There are two monochrome laser printers which are maintained by the School Technicians
and these are based in the Gaskell Building.

A 5p a side charge is made upon collection of the print job from the Technicians Service
Hatch in GB237.

19.2 Library: facilities and information sources

19.2.1 Facilities and opening hours

Uxbridge Library, situated in the Bannerman Centre, has an extensive collection of books and
journals (periodicals) and other resources. Computers providing access to the web based online
catalogue can be found on all floors. We also provide computing, printing and photocopying
facilities and a range of rooms to assist different types of learning, including silent study and
group study rooms.

Library staff can help you to make the most of the resources on offer, please ask at our help
desk. Each School also has a Subject Liaison Librarian who can help with more specialist
enquiries. (see below for contact details.)

You should carry your University ID card with you at all times as you will need it to gain
access into the Library and also to borrow books and pay for photocopying and printing. All
new students will be given a Library Induction during Freshers Week - this induction will be
supplemented with further information skills training throughout the course of your degree.


The librarys term-time opening hours are as follows:

Monday 08.40-21.00
Tuesday 08.40-21.00
Wednesday 08.40-21.00
Thursday 08.40-21.00
Friday 08.40-21.00
Saturday 12.00-17.00
Sunday 12.00-19.00

The librarys vacation-time opening hours are as follows:

Monday-Friday 09.00-17.00
Saturday Closed
Sunday Closed

19.2.2 Electronic Resources

In addition to providing printed material, the Library provides a large number of journals and
other information, electronically. These can be found on the main Library website.

For help in finding, and using these resources, contact your Subject Liaison Librarian: Ruth
Woodland: ruth.woodland@brunel.ac.uk

19.2.3 Finding Material not at Brunel

There are two ways of obtaining materials not held at Brunel Library.

Inter-Library Loan:
If an item is not available at Brunel, then we can try and order a copy for you via the British
Library. There is a cost for this, the current charges are:

Book: 9.00 per item
Journal Article: 7.00 per item.

Using Other University Libraries:
Alternatively, you can visit another university library to access materials. This is possible
through the SCONUL Access Scheme. Access varies according to your level and mode of
study. UG students can use the libraries for reference purposes only.

For all schemes, the following rules apply:

Users must sign up at their home library.
Users must be registered at their home library and hold a valid library card.
Users must be in good standing (no outstanding bills or fines) with their home library.


For further help, or to sign up for the schemes, please come to the Library Enquiry Desk or
contact: ruth.woodland@brunel.ac.uk

Further information

For further information on learning resources and services offered by the Library, visit the
Librarys web page.

For further enquiries:

Contact our Library Help Desk (Floor 0)
Ask a question using our online form
Contact your subject librarian: ruth.woodland@brunel.ac.uk