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54 EC 601 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING



1. MICROWAVE NETWORK THEORY
Introduction, Symmetrical Z and Y matrices for reciprocal network, Scattering matrix
representation of multi port network properties of S-parameters, S-matrix of a two port network
with mismatched load, comparison between [S], [Z] matrices. Relationship between Y, Z and
ABCD parameters with Numerical Problems.

2. MICROWAVE PASSIVE DEVICES
Coaxial connectors and adapters, Wave guide Choke Flanges, matched Terminations, Short Circuit
Plunger, Rectangular to circular wave guide transition, Tuning Screws, wave guide Corners, bends
and Twists, windows, Coaxial line to wave guide Adapters, Coupling Loops and Coupling
Aperture, Attenuators, Phase shifters, wave guide Tees E plane Tee, H plane Tee, Magic Tee and
their applications, Isolators, Circulators, Directional couplers. Scattering matrix derivation for all
components, Numerical problems.

3. MICROWAVE VACCUM TUBE DEVICES
Introduction, Two cavity Klystron Amplifier Mechanismand mode of operations, Power output
and Efficiency, Mode Curve, Equivalent circuit and Voltage gain, Beamloading; applications,
Reflex Klystron Oscillator Mechanism and mode of Operation power output, efficiency, mode
curve, equivalent circuit, Electronic Admittance, Modulation of Reflex klystron; Applications,
TWT amplifier, Principle of Operation gain and applications; Magnetron Oscillator hull Cut-off
voltage, Mechanismof Operation, Mode separation, Phase focusing, power output and Efficiency,
Applications, Numerical problems.

4. MICROWAVE SOLID STATE DEVICES AND CIRCUITS
Microwave diodes Crystal diode, Schottky diode, Harmonic mixer; PIN diode Operation
switches, Phase switches & attenuators Gun diode Mode of operation, Oscillator Circuit,
IMPATT diodes- Mechanism of Operation, Application as Oscillator and Amplifiers, Tunnel
diodes Oscillator amplifiers, Varactor diode VCO, parametric amplifier, Microwave transistors
unipolar and Bipolar, Applications, Numerical Problems.

5. MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS
Introduction, Tunable detector, Slotted line Carriage, VSWR meter, Spectrumanalyzer, network
Analyzer, Power measurements Schottky Barrier diode sensor, Bolometer sensor, Power sensor,
High power measurement, Insertion loss and Attenuation measurement, VSWR measurement low
and high VSWR, Impedance measurement. Frequency measurement, Measurement of cavity Q,
Dielectric measurement of a solid by wave-guides method, Antenna Measurement radiation
pattern, phase and gain.

Total No of Hours: 60
TEXT BOOK:

1. Annapurna Das, Sisir. K.Das, 2001 Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Co., Ltd., 1999.
Reprint.

REFERENCES:
1. Collin. R.E, 1999 Foundation of Microwave Engineering, McGraw-Hill, II Edition.
2. Samuel. Y.Liao, 2000 Microwave devices and Circuits, Prentice hall of India Pvt ltd.
3. Reich J .H.et al, 1999 Microwave East west press.
4. K.C.Gupta, 2000 Microwaves, Wiley Eastern Ltd.


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54 EC 602 VLSI DESIGN

1. CMOS TECHNOLOGY

An overview of Silicon semiconductor technology, Basic CMOS technology: N well, P well, Twin
tub and SOI Process. Interconnects, circuit elements: Resistors, capacitors, electrically alterable
ROMs, bipolar transistors, Latch up and prevention. Layout design rules, physical design: basic
concepts, CAD tool sets, physical design of logic gates: Inverter, NAND, NOR, Design
Hierarchies.

2. MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY

NMOS, PMOS Enhancement transistor, Threshold voltage, Body effect, MOS DC equations,
channel length modulation, Mobility variation, MOS models, small signal AC characteristics,
complementary CMOS inverter DC characteristics, Noise Margin, Rise time, fall time, power
dissipation, transmission gate, tristate inverter.

3. SPECIFICATION USING VERILOG HDL

Basic Concepts: VLSI Design flow, identifiers, gate primitives, value set, ports, gate delays,
structural gate level and switch level modeling, Design hierarchies, Behavioral and RTL modeling:
Operators, timing controls, Procedural assignments conditional statements, Data flow modeling and
RTL. Structural gate level description of decoder, equality detector, comparator, priority encoder,
D-latch, D-flip flop, Half adder, Full adder, Ripple Carry adder.

4. CMOS CHIP DESIGN

Logic design with CMOS: MOSFETS as switches, Basic logic gates in CMOS, Complex logic
gates, Transmission gates: Muxes and latches, CMOS chip design options: Full custom ASICs, Std.
Cell based ASICs, Gate Array based ASICs Channeled, Channel less and structured GA,
Programmable logic structures; 22V10, Programming of PALs, Programmable Interconnect,
Reprogrammable GA: Xilinx programmable GA, ASIC design flow.

5. CMOS TESTING

Need for testing, manufacturing test principles, Design strategies for test, Chip level and system
level test techniques.
Total No. Hours: 60

TEXT BOOKS
1. Weste & Eshraghian: Principles of CMOS VLSI design (2/e) Addison Wesley, 1993 for UNIT I
through UNIT IV.
2. Samir Palnitkar; Verilog HDL - Guide to Digital design and synthesis, III edition, Pearson
Education, 2003 for UNIT V
REFERENCES
1. M.J.S.Smith: Application Specific integrated circuits, Pearson Education, 1997.
2. Wayne Wolf, Modern VLSI Design, Pearson Education 2003.
3. Bob Zeidmin; Introduction to verilog, Prentice Hall, 1999
4. J. Bhaskar: Verilog HDL Primer, BSP, 2002.
5. E. Fabricious, Introduction to VLSI design, McGraw-Hill 1990.
6. C. Roth, Digital Systems Design Using VHDL, Thomson Learning, 2000.


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54 EC 603 TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND NETWORKS

1. EVOLUTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND CIRCUITS

Evolution of Public Switched Telecommunication Networks Strowger exchange, Crossbar
exchange, Stored Programme exchange Digital exchange basic telecommunication equipments
Message switching circuits switching packet switching - Telephone handset- four wire concept -
hybrid circuit, Echo suppressors and cancellers, PCM coders, Modems and relays
Telecommunication standard.

2. DIGITAL SWITCHING SYSTEMS

Time switching space switching FDM and TDM STS and TST switching digital switching
systemhardware principles of switching system software organizational processing software
switching in networked environment ISDN

3. TELECOMMUNICATION SIGNALING AND TRAFFIC

Channel associated signaling. Common channel signaling, SS7 protocol architecture, Concept of
Telecommunication traffic, grade of service, Modeling switching systems, Blocking model and
Delay systems.

3. TRANSMISSION NETWORKS

Subscriber loop DSL ADSL FDM and TDM PCM multiplex group PDSH, SONET/SDH:
SONET Multiplexing Overview, SONET Frame Formats, SONET Operations, Administration and
Maintenance, Payload Framing and Frequency J ustification, Virtual Tributaries, DS3 Payload
Mapping, E4 Payload Mapping, SONET Optical Standards, SONET Networks. SONET Rings:
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring, Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring cross talk line
equalizations adaptive equalizers network synchronization.

5. DATA NET WORKS
Data transmission in PSTN Connection oriented and Connection less protocols packet switching
ISO-OSI architecture-Satellite based data networks Multiple access techniques LAN, WAN
standards TCP /IP Internet Principle of ATM networks.

Total No of Hours: 60

Text Books:

1. Viswanathan. T, 2001 Telecommunication Switching System and Networks, Prentice Hall of
India Ltd.
2. J .E. Flood, 2001, Telecommunication switching, Traffic and Networks, Pearson Education Ltd.,
New Delhi.
3. Behrouz Forouzan, 1998 Introduction to Data Communication and Networking, McGraw-Hill.

References:

1. L.S.Lawton, 2000 Integrated Digital Networks, Galgotta publication Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Syed R.Ali, 1998 Digital Switching systems, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
3. Bellamy J ohn, Digital Telephony, J ohn Wily & Sons, Inc. 3rd edn. 2000


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54 CS 604 COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORK

1. DATA COMMUNICATION:

ISO reference model, open system standard, transmission of Digital Data Electrical Interface,
MODEMS, Line Configuration, Encoding and Decoding, Multiplexing, Error Detection and
Correction (CRC).

2. DATA LINK CONTROL AND PROTOCOLS:

Flow control and error control, stop and wait, Sliding windows, Automatic Repeat (ARQ),
Asynchronous Protocols, - X MODEM, Y MODEM, Synchronous protocols character oriented
and Bit oriented protocols (GDLC).

3. LOCAL AREA NETWORKS:

IEEE 802 standards, LLC, MAC layer protocols CSMA/CD Ethernet, Token Bus, Token Ring,
FDDI, Distributed Queue Dual Bus, Switched Multimegabit Data Service.

4. WIDE AREA NETWORKS;

Circuit Switch packet Switch, Message Switching, X.25 Protocols, Architecture and layers of
Protocol, Frame delay, ISDN and ATM Protocol, Internetworking Device, repeater, bridge, Routes
and Gateways, Routing Algorithms.

5. UPPER OSI LAYERS:

Session layer protocols, presentation layer Data Security, Encryption/Decryption, Authentication,
Data Composition, Application layer protocols MHS, File transfer, Virtual terminal, CMIP.

Total No of Hours:60

TEXT BOOK:

1. Behrus A. Forouzan etat, 2000 Data Communication and Networking, 2
nd
Edition, Tata McGraw-
Hill.

REFERENCES:

1. WilliamStallings, 2001 Data and computer Communication, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall of India.
2. Andrew S.Tanenbaum, 2003 Computer Networks, Third Edition, prentice Hall of India.
3. Fred Hallsall, 2002 Data Communication Computer Networks and Open System, Addison
Wesley.










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54 EC 605 ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION

1. BASIC ANTENNA CONCEPTS

Concept of vector potential- Modification for time varying- retarded case- Fields associated with
Hertzian dipole- Power radiated and radiation resistance of current element-Radiation fromhalf-
wave dipole and quarter-wave monopole antennas. Radiation intensity- Directive gain- Directivity-
Power gain- BeamWidth- Band Width- Gain -Quarter wave monopole-Half-wave dipole and
folded dipole- Reciprocity principle- Effective length and Effective area- Relation between gain
effective length and radiation resistance

2. POINT SOURCES

Antenna Arrays: Expression for electric field fromtwo, three and N element arrays linear arrays:
Broad-side array and End-Fire array- Method of pattern multiplication- Binomial array- Horizontal
and Vertical Antennas above the ground plane, Phased arrays, Frequency-Scanning arrays-
Adaptive arrays and Smart antennas.

3. SMALL ANTENNAS

Loop Antennas: Radiation from small loop and its radiation resistance- Radiation froma loop
with circumference equal to a wavelength-Helical antenna: Normal mode and axial mode
operation-Yagiuda Antenna- Log periodic antenna- Phased array- rhombic antenna- Horn antenna-
Reflector antennas and their feed systems- Micro strip antenna-Selection of antenna based on
frequency of operation Antennas for special applications: Antenna for terrestrial mobile
communication systems, GPR, Embedded antennas, UWB, Plasma antenna.

4. SPECIAL ANTENNAS

Ground wave propagation: Attenuation characteristics for ground wave propagation- Calculation of
field strength at a distance - Space wave propagation: Reflection from ground for vertically and
horizontally polarized waves- Reflection characteristics of earth- Resultant of direct and reflected
ray at the receiver- Duct propagation Sky wave propagation: Structure of the ionosphere-
Effective dielectric constant of ionized region- Mechanismof refraction- Refractive index- Critical
frequency- Skip distance- Effect of earths magnetic field- Attenuation factor for ionosphere
propagation- Maximumusable frequency- Fading and Diversity reception.

5. WAVE PROPOGATION

Antenna Measurements: Reciprocity in Antenna measurements Near-field and Far field -
Measurements ranges - Measurement of different Antenna parameters- Directional pattern, Gain,
Phase, Polarization, Impedance, and Efficiency. Ionosphere Measurements: Measurement of
vertical Incidence- Group Velocity and Group Delay- Relation between oblique and vertical
Incidence transmission.
Total No of Hours: 60

TEXT BOOK:

1. J ohn D.Krauss, 2001 Antennas, II edition, McGraw-Hill International edition.
2. E-C-J ordan and Balmain- "Electro Magnetic Waves and Radiating Systems"- PHI- 1968- Reprint
2003


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REFERENCES:
1. Edward C.J ordan, Keith G.Balmain, 1999 electromagnetic waves and Radiating systems, Prentice
hall of India 1 Td,
2. Balanis E.S. 2002 Antenna Theory Analysis and Design Technology.
3. P.E Collins 2001 Anteenas and Radio Propagation, McGraw-Hill.
4. R-E-Collins- 'Antennas and Radio Propagation "- McGraw-Hill- 1987-
5. Ballanis "Antenna Theory " - J ohn Wiley & Sons- second edition 2003
6. D.Ganesh rao, B.Somanathan nair, Deepa Reghunath- Antennas and Radio-Wave Propagation,
Sanguine technical publishers, Bangalore- 2007.












































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54 EC 606 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

1. INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBERS
Evolution of fiber Optic system Element of an Optical Fiber Transmission link Ray Optics
Optical fiber Modes and Configurations mode theory of Circular Wave guides Overview of
modes Key Modal Concepts Linearly polarized Modes Single mode Fibers Graded Index
fiber structure.

2. SIGNAL DEGRADATION IN OPTICAL FIBERS
Attenuation Absorption losses, Scattering losses, Core and Cladding losses, Signal Distortion in
Optical Wave guides Information Capacity determination Group Delay Material Dispersion,
wave guide Dispersion, Signal distortion in SM Fibers Polarization Mode dispersion, Intermodal
dispersion, Pulse Broadening in GI fibers Mode Coupling Design Optimization of SM fibers
RI profile and cut-off wavelength.

3. OPTICAL SOURCES
Direct and indirect Band gap materials LED structures Light source materials Quantum
efficiency and LED power, Modulation of a LED, Laser Diodes Modes and Threshold condition
Rate equations External Quantum efficiency Resonant frequencies Laser Diodes structures
and radiation patterns Fabry-Perot Lasers Distributed Feedback (DFB) Lasers Power
Launching and Coupling : Source to fiber power launching Lensing Schemes for Coupling
improvement Temperature effects, Introduction to Quantumlaser.

4. OPTICAL RECEIVERS
PIN Photo detector Schottky-Barrier Photodiodes Avalanche Photodiodes Photo detector
noise, SNR, Detector Response time, Avalanche Multiplication Noise Comparison of Photo
detectors Temperature effects on Photo detectors Fundamental Receiver Operation pre-
amplifiers Error Sources Receiver Configuration Probability of error the QuantumLimit.

5. DIGITAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Point-to-point links System considerations Fiber Splicing and connectors link Power budget
Rise-time Budget Noise Effects on System performance operational Principles of WDM,
Solitons, optical amplifier basic concepts of SONET / SDH.
Total No of Hours:60

TEXT BOOK:
1. Gerd Keiser, 2000 Optical Fiber Communication, McGraw-Hill International, Singapore, 3
rd
ed.
2. G.P Agarwal- Fiber Optic Communication systems- II edition- J ohn wiley & Sons- NewYork-
1997


REFERENCES;
1. J .Senior, 2002 Optical Communication,Preinciples and Practice, Prentice Hall of India.
2. J .Gower, 2001 Optical Communication System, Prentice hall of India.
3. Palais Fiber optic communications pearson 2005 5edn.
4. J ohn M. Senior-Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications-
pearson/Prentice Hall.
5. Harry J . R Dutton- Understanding Optical Communications- IBM
6. Corporation- International Technical Support Organization- 1998




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54 EC 607 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL COMMUNICATION LAB


1. Setup of analog link using fiber optic cable.
2. Measurement of bending loss in fiber communication.
3. Measurement of propagation loss in fiber optics.
4. The PI characteristics of LASER.
5. Measurement of numerical aperture using fiber optic cable.
6. The VI characteristics of Gunn diode oscillator.
7. The PI characteristics of LED.
8. The characteristics of reflex klystron oscillator.
9. To study of fusion splitting techniques
10. Measurement of frequency and wavelength


Total No. Hours: 45


























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54 EC 609 MINI PROJECT


The Objective of Mini project work is to enable the students to work individually on a project
involving theoretical and experimental studies related to Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
Every Project Work shall have a Guide who is a member of the faculty of the College. Time shall
be allotted in the Time Table for this important activity and this time shall be utilized by the
students to receive directions from the Guide, on library reading, laboratory work, computer
analysis or field work as assigned by the Guide and also to present in periodical seminars the
progress made in the project.
Each student shall finally produce a comprehensive report covering background information, literature
Survey, problem statement, Project work details and conclusions. This final report shall be typewritten form
as specified in the guidelines.
The continuous assessment and semester evaluation may be carried out as specified in the guidelines to be
issued fromtime to time.


Total No. of Hours: 45