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ISSN 2304-1579.Visnyk Odesk. Nats. Univers. Mat. i Mekh.2013 .V.18,Is.4(20).P.

6875

Mathematical Subject Classification: 11K45, 11T23, 11T71


UDC 511
Tran The Vinh, P. Varbanets
Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University
INVERSIVE CONGRUENTIAL GENERATOR OF THE COMPLEX
PSEUDO-RANDOM NUMBERS
i, . . I i
.
i i
ii , ii-i i , 3 (mod 4), i . ii
, ii i i i
()

, i
(0 , . . . , 1 ). , ii { }, =
1

+1 + + (mod ), = 0, 1, 2, . . . ii ii , ,
i iii 0 , i = 2 , = () i
s-i iii i.
i : i , ii, ii .
, . .
. , , 3 (mod 4), . , ()
(0 , . . . , 1 ). , { }, =

, +1 1 + + (mod ), = 0, 1, 2, . . .
, , 0 , = 2 , = () s-
.
: , , .
Tran The Vinh, Varbanets P. Inversive congruential generator of the complex pseudo-random numbers. Consider the distribution of elements of the sequence
on pseudo-random complex numbers generated by linear-inversive generator modulo prime
power number , 3 (mod 4), in sectorial regions from unit ball of complex plane. We
constructed an analogue of Turan-Erdos-Koksma inequality that make it possible to derive
()
non-trivial bounds for discrepancy (0 , . . . , 1 ). It is shown that the sequence { },

= , produced by the recursion +1 1 + + (mod ), = 0, 1, 2, . . . under


certain conditions to coefficients , , and initial value 0 , has maximal period = 2 ,
= (), and it passes the s-dimensional test on equidistribution and unpredictability.
Key words: pseudo-random numbers, discrepancy, exponential sum.
Introduction. Let be a prime number, > 1 be a positive integer. Consider
the following recursion

+1 1 + (mod ), (, Z),

(1)

c Tran The Vinh, Varbanets P., 2013

Inv.-congr. generator of PRNs over Z[i]

69

where is a multiplicative inversive modulo for if ( , ) = 1. The parameters


, , 0 we called the multiplier, shift and initial value, respectively.
In [4] there was constructed the linear-inversive congruential generator
+1 1 + +

(mod )

(2)

} passes serial test on


with (, ) = 1, 0 (mod ), such that the sequence {
equidistribution and statistical independence (unpredictability as well).
Our purpose in this work is to show a passing the tests on equidistribution and

unpredictability for sequence { }, =


, where produced by the recursion

+1 1 + +

(mod ),

(3)

, , are the Gaussian integers, is a prime rational integer, > 2, N, > 3.


Hence, the main point to be shown is the possibility for such sequences of complex
numbers to be used in the problem of modeling the real processes and in cryptography.
We consider the sequence of complex numbers { }, | | 6 1. Let 0 6 1 < 2 6 1,
0 6 1 < 2 6 2 and let (, ) denotes the sectorial region of unit ball || 6 1
(, ) := { C : 1 < () 6 2 , 1 < arg 6 2 }.

(4)

Denote by F the collection of sectorial region (, ) for all and .


The sequence { } calls the pseudo-random in unit circle if it induces by a determinative algorithm, and its statistic properties are similar on property of sequence
of the random numbers. The similarity means that this sequence closely adjacent
to uniformly distributed in the disk || 6 1, and its elements are uncorrelated. On
these properties of the sequence of pseudo-random numbers (abbreviation: PRNs)
can destine by value of discrepancy of the points 1 , 2 , . . . , :

( )

(1 , 2 , . . . , ) := sup
(5)
| | ,

C
where ( ) is the number of points among 1 , . . . , falling into , | | denotes
the volume ; supremum is extended over all sectorial region of unit circle || 6 1.
The similar definition
has for the -dimensional sequence of
( of discrepancy
)
()
()
()
complex points = 1 , . . . , , C.
We say that the sequence { } passes -dimensional test on uncorrelatedness if it
passes -dimensional test on equidistribution, i.e.
)
(
()
()
()
1 , . . . , 0 ,
for = 1, 2, . . . , .
Notation. Let denotes the ring of the Gaussian integers, := { + : ,
Z}; () = ||2 calls the norm of . For denote (respectively, * )
the complete system of residues (respectively, reduced residue system) in modulo
; is a prime number in Z; p is a Gaussian prime number. If is a positive integer,
> 1, then we write () = 2 for R. Symbols O and are equivalent;

70

Tran The Vinh, Varbanets P.

() = if |, +1 |.
Let > 1 be a positive integer and let 1 , 2 , . . . , be some sequence of points
form and let = { }, = 0, . . . , 1. For F denote (, ) the
number of points from contained in .
We will adapt the proof from [2] for a construction of an analogue of the TuranErd
os-Koksma inequality.
We define the adequate approximation of sectorial region F,
}
{

: 1 6 () 6 2 , 0 6 1 < arg 6 2 < 2 , N.


:=

The set ( ) calls the adequate approximation of if


( 1 )
(i) (, ( )) = (( ), ( )) + 2 ,
(ii) volumes | | and |( )| are similar,
(iii) (( ), ( )) has a representation by an exponential sum.
Let 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are the parameters in the definition of . For , Z we set

=
,=
.
Determine
{
(
)}

1
1
, : =
: , < () 6 +
, 2 < arg 6 2 +
. (6)

Put
( ) :=

, .

,,
,

It is obvious that ( ) = ( 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ), where

},
1 = min{ , Z : 1 6

2 = min{ , Z : 2 6
},

2
2
1 = min{
, Z : 1 6
},

2
2
2 = min{
, Z : 2 6
}.

We proved the following analogue of the Turan-Erdos-Koksma inequality (see,[3])


Auxiliary arguments.

Theorem 1. Let > 1 be integer. Then for any sequence { }, , the


discrepancy of points { } satisfies to inequality
(
(
)2 )
2
6 2 1 1
+

(
) (
( 1 ))
1
1
1
1
+
min
,
| | + 2
,

| sin | | |

= 0

Inv.-congr. generator of PRNs over Z[i]

where =

71

(( )).

=0

Proof. By an analogue with the work[2] we infer


(( )) :=

1
(( ))
1
|( )| =
( ) ( ) |( )|,

=0

(7)

where = , is the characteristic function of the set .


By the equality
, () =

1
(( ))
2

we get

0=

| (( ))| 6

1 1
1

(((,
)))

((
))

=0
(,),

(8)

where (, ) is the complex number such that


((, )) =

2
, arg (, ) =
.

In order to calculate the first inner sum over , one needs an estimate of the
sum

=
(()), (0 = ).
(9)

1 < ()<2 ,
1 <arg 62

The sum can be considered as asum of coeficients of Dirichlet series for the
Hecke -function over the Gaussian field Q():
(, 0 , 1 ) =

0=

Putting 0 = 0, 1 =
estimates:

2(1 ) 4 arg

, ( > 1).
( + 0 )

we obtain for any > 1 by a standard way the following

1
() = (2 1 )
() 6 () +
1 +

()6
()6

4 arg

+ (2 1 )
()

=1 ()6

(10)

()6

()4 arg

2 +
1

+ 2 (|| + 3)1+

(11)

72

Tran The Vinh, Varbanets P.

(for the details, see Chapter 2 of [1], for example).


Next, we have a simple analogue of the estimate of linear exponential sum over

1 < ()<2 22() 6


)
(
(12)
1
1
6 (2 1 ) 2 min (2 1 ) 2 , | sin 1| , | sin 1| .
2

Now by (6)-(11), putting = 3 and taking into account that | | =


we obtain our assertion.

2 1
(2 1 ),
2

Theorem 1 shows that the estimates of discrepancy are essentially depended on


estimate of the special exponential sum on the sequence of pseudo-random numbers
{ }.
To construct such estimate we need the following lemmas.
Lemma 1. Let () = 1 + 2 2 + (3 3 + ) be a polynomial over , and
let (2 , ) = 1. Then, for any , we have

+ (1 )
2

6 2 2 ,

|( ; )| :=

*
where 1 denotes the multiplicative inverse of in * .
Lemma 2. Let { } is the sequence of PRNs generated by the recursion (3)
with conditions (0 , ) = (, ) = 1, 0 < () < (). There exist the polynomials
0 (, , ), 0 (, , ) over Z such that for any > 2 + 1 the relations
2 = + 01 + (1 ( 1)1 2 )0 + (1 )02 +
+ (2 + 2 2 2 )03 + 0 (, 0 , 01 ),
2+1 = ( + 1) + ( ( + 1) 2 )01 + ()02 +
+ (2 + 2 2 )03 + ( + 1)0 + 0 (, 0 , 01 ),

(13)

(14)

where := min ( ( 3 ), ()); 0 (, , ), 0 (, , ) Z[, , ], and furthermore, the coefficients of the polynomials 0 , 0 depend only on , , , (1 ) ,
= 1, 2, . . . , 2 + 1, hold.
Corollary 1. For the sequence { } generated by (3) we have
[
]
2 = 0 + (1 1 02 ) + 1 2 0 + 01 (1 2 04 ) +
[
]
+ 2 1 2 0 (1 1 02 ) + 0 (, 0 ),
[
]
2+1 = ( + 0 0 ) + + 0 2 1 02 2 03 +
[
]
+ 2 2 01 + 2 2 03 + 0 (, 0 , 01 )
where > 2 + 1, := min ( ( 3 ), ()), and the coefficients of polynomials 0 ,
0 depend only on , , , (1 ) , = 1, . . . , 2 + 1.
Corollary 2. The maximal period of the sequence of PRNs { } produced by (3)
is equal to = 2 if and only if 02 (mod ).

Inv.-congr. generator of PRNs over Z[i]

73

Main Results. Having prepared the necessary background presented above, we


can obtain the main result of our paper.

Let { } be the sequence produced by the recursion 3. For Z, we denote

(, 0 ) :=

=0

Theorem 2. Let the linear-inversive congruential sequence generated by the recursion 3 has the period , and let () = , ( 02 ) = 0 , () = 2 6 .
Then we have the following bounds

| (, 0 )| 6

()

+
2

> 2 0 < , < 0

= 2, 0 < , 2 () < 2;

0 > , < 2;
.

Proof. Lemma 2 and its corollaries show that the behavior of the exponential
sums on the sequences of PRNs are identical. Thus we consider the sequence generated by 3. And without loss of generality we can assume that = 2 . By the
Corollary 1 we have

)
)
1 (
1 (

| (, 0 )| =

6
=


=0

=0

(
)
(
)

1
1

21
21 +1

1 =0

=0
1
=21
=21 +1


1 (
)
)
1 (


()
()
+
=

+ ().

=0

=0
where
2 = () := 0 + 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 ,

2+1 = () := 0 + 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 ,

(15)

74

Tran The Vinh, Varbanets P.

with
0 = 0 (0 ) 0

(mod )

1 = 1 (0 ) (1 1 02 ) + 1 2 0 + 0 1 (1 2 04 )
2 = 2 (0 ) 1 2 0 + 2 2 03
0 = 0 (0 ) + 0 1 + 0

(mod )

(mod ) = 1 2 0 (1 1 02 )

(mod )

1 = 1 (0 ) (1 0 2 ) 2 0 1 0 (1 2 0 4 )
2 = 2 (0 ) 2 0 1 + 2 0 3
3 = 3 (0 , ) 3 (0 , ) = 3 0

(mod )

(mod ) = 2 0 1 (1 0 2 )
(mod ),

{
}
where := min ( 3 ), (, ) .
In the last part of the formula (15) we take into account that the representation
as a polynomial on holds only for > 2 + 1.
Thus by Lemma 2 from[4] we easy obtain

()
> 2, 0 < , < 0 ,

= 2, 0 < , 2 () < 2,
()
| (, 0 )| 6
+

4 2

0 > , < 2,

.
The constants implied by the O-symbol are absolute.

As we said in above, the equidistribution and statistical independency properties of pseudo-random numbers can be analyzed based on the discrepancy of certain
point sets in the unit s-dimensional ball.
Theorem 3. Let 3 (mod 4) be a prime number, 0 , , , , 0 6 arg 0 <
0 6 arg , arg , arg < 4 , and let 0 = () < () < (), 02 (mod ).
Then for the sequence , = , = ( , +1 , . . . , + ), = 0, 1, 2, . . .,
where are given by recursion (3) whith period = 2 , = (), the discrepancy
()
= (0 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) satisfies inequality

2,

() 6 2+2

1
3
log 2() +

)3

+ 22(+) .

Inv.-congr. generator of PRNs over Z[i]

75

Proof. For = 1 we apply the analogical reasoning as in the proof of Theorem


4 [4] and take into account the result from Theorem 2. Then we derive at once our
assertion.
If > 2 we simply get the inequality (see, the proof of Theorem 1 with =
in above)
()

(0 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 6
)
(

1
1
1

,
6
min
6 +

| sin 0 | | sin |

=1

=(0,...,0)

(
) (
( 1 ))

1
1
1
1
()
6 +
min
,
| | + 2
,

| sin | | sin |

=(0,...,0)
()

where =

1
=0

+1 ).

=1

Next, following to argument from Theorem 5[4], we derive the assertion of our
theorem for = 2, 3, 4.

Conclusion. Theorems proved above show that some methods of construction
of nonlinear congruential generators of the pseudo-random real numbers can be used
in problems generating of the complex pseudo-random numbers.

1.

Baker R. C. Diophantine Inequalities / R. C. Baker. LMS Monographs New Series,


Book 1, Oxford University Press, 1986. 250 p.

2.

Drmota M. Sequences, discrepancies and applications / M. Drmota, R. F. Tichy.


Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 1997. 506 p.

3.

Hellekalen P. General discrepancy estimates the Walsh function system / P. Hellekalen // Acta Arithm. 1994. V. 67. P. 209218.

4.

Varbanets P. Generalizations of Inversive Congruential Generator / P. Varbanets,


S. Varbanets // Analytic and probabilistic methods in number theory. Proceedings of
the 5 international conference in honour of J. Kubilius, Palanga, Lithuania, September
410, 2011, Vilnius: TEV. 2012. P. 265282.