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US standard Electrical Design

Wire Size Relationship

US StandardAWG Metric Size mm2 Imperial Standard Amp in Normal Cond.

18 1
16 1.5
14 2.5 15A
12 4 20A
10 6 30A
8 10 40A
6 16 50A
4 25 60A
2 35 70A
1 50 100A
1/0 70 120A
2/0 70
3/0 95 150~175A
4/0 120 200~225A
250KCMIL 150
300KCMIL 150 250A
350KCMIL 185 300A
400KCMIL 240 400A
500KCMIL 300
600KCMIL 300 500A
700KCMIL 400 630A

* In US standard voltage separation in 120V/60Hz 1Ø & 220V/60Hz 3Ø basics

* Color reference are BOY(Brown ~ AØ, Orange ~ BØ, Yellow ~ CØ, White ~ Neutral, Green/Yellow ~
* Some American runs 2Ø with Neutral & Ground together in some circuits. It may be for control 2Ø
transformer or other purposed.
* For power distribution in secondary side, it is separated in 2 portions: E-Bus & U-Bus system, actually E-
Bus is essential power supply and Generator or some emergency power connected via ATS. U-Bus is
directly supplied by power provider.

* US standard Normal Panel Board Wiring Color Code

Wire Color Ckt # Phase Circuit # Wire Color
Brown 1 A 2 Brown
Orange 3 B 4 Orange
Yellow 5 C 6 Yellow
Brown 7 A 8 Brown
Orange 9 B 10 Orange
Yellow 11 C 12 Yellow
Brown 13 A 14 Brown
Orange 15 B 16 Orange
Yellow 17 C 18 Yellow
Brown 19 A 20 Brown
Orange 21 B 22 Orange
Yellow 23 C 24 Yellow
Brown 25 A 26 Brown
Orange 27 B 28 Orange
Yellow 29 C 30 Yellow
Brown 31 A 32 Brown
Orange 33 B 34 Orange
Yellow 35 C 36 Yellow
Brown 37 A 38 Brown
Orange 39 B 40 Orange
Yellow 41 C 42 Yellow
Brown 43 A 44 Brown
Orange 45 B 46 Orange
Yellow 47 C 48 Yellow
Brown 49 A 50 Brown
Orange 51 B 52 Orange
Yellow 53 C 54 Yellow
Brown 55 A 56 Brown
Orange 57 B 58 Orange
Yellow 59 C 60 Yellow
Brown 61 A 62 Brown
Orange 63 B 64 Orange
Yellow 65 C 66 Yellow
Brown 67 A 68 Brown
Orange 69 B 70 Orange
Yellow 71 C 72 Yellow
Brown 73 A 74 Brown
Orange 75 B 76 Orange
Yellow 77 C 78 Yellow
Brown 79 A 80 Brown
Orange 81 B 82 Orange
Yellow 83 C 84 Yellow
Brown 85 A 86 Brown
Orange 87 B 88 Orange
Yellow 89 C 90 Yellow
Brown 91 A 92 Brown
Orange 93 B 94 Orange
Yellow 95 C 96 Yellow
Brown 97 A 98 Brown
Orange 99 B 100 Orange
Yellow 101 C 102 Yellow
Number of General Lighting Circuits
 The code requires a minimum circuit capacity for “general lighting” of 3va/ft2 of building area
excluding open porches, garages and unused or unoccupied spaces not adaptable for future used (NEC
section 220-3b and table 220-3(b)
 The term “general lighting” in the Code is somewhat misleading. This 3va/ft2 load includes not only
ceiling and wall lighting but also all the convenience receptacles in the building. (Excluded are
appliance outlets, which are considered as separate loads) here convenience receptacles are indeed
used for general lighting such as floor lamps and table lamps. Actually it also used for permanently
plugged –in electrical loads in the residence including TV, radio, hi-fi, radio, computer plus incidental
loads such as razors, heaters, hair dryer and vacuum cleaner. For this reason it is not enough as per
 Summary: A circuit protected by 15A fuse/circuit beaker OR 20A fuse/circuit breaker.
Provide one 15Amps general lighting circuit per 400-480Sq.ft, depending upon anticipated
usage. The higher the anticipated load, the lower the square foot area per circuit.
Provide one 20Amps general lighting circuit per 530-640 Sq.ft, depending upon anticipated usage.
A minimum of 2EA 20Amps small appliance branch circuits feed be supplied to feed all
the receptacle outlets in the kitchen, pantry, breakfast room, dinning room or similar area, and no
other outlets except clock outlets and outdoor outlets. Good practice requires that these outlets be
circuited no more than four and preferably two or three to 20Amps circuit.
Other appliance Circuits : One outlet in each bedroom of a house, not for air condition but
for small 120v room-air conditioner. No more than two such outlets should be placed on a single
circuit and preferably only one plus up to three other outlets.
- For large air-condition units, special outlets and branch circuits are
- At least one receptacle outlet and preferably two or more, in garages
and basement, for electrical workbench tools and other appliances:
these outlets should be mounted no less than 42” above floor level.
- At least one receptacle in the laundry area of a dwelling unit, to be feed
from 20Amps appliance circuit and need not be GFCI.
- A dedicated individual branch circuit should be supplied to serve this
load via a special heavy duty receptacle.
GFCI protected Circuits : The piping and water close to an electrical outlet needs GFCI
protected circuit. Also recreation room, hobby area supply with water piping, a large indoor
aquarium, rooftop outlets intended for antenna, at least one GFCI protected outlet in outdoor area.
Circuits and Outlets for Electronic Equipment and Computers : The need for special
circuitry and equipment for the electric outlets feeding. Among them are proper power
conditioning : isolated grounds, electric noise filters and voltage surge suppressions.
 Good Other practice Circuiting Guidelines include :
- Avoid combining receptacles and lighting on a single circuit.
- Avoid placing all the lighting in a building on a single circuit.
- Circuit lighting and receptacles so that each space contains parts and at least two
circuits. That way, if one a single circuit is out, the entire space is not deprived of
- Do not use combination switch and receptacle outlets except where convenience of
use dictates high mounting, as for example above counters. These combination
outlets are often used in economy construction to save a few dollars in wiring. It
makes an inconvenient and unsightly receptacle.
- Supply at least one receptacle in outside the house.
- In rooms without fixed overhead or wall lighting, provide switch control of one-
half of a strategically located receptacle that is intended to supply a floor or table
- Provide switch control for closet lights. Pull chains are a nuisance.
- In circuiting convenience outlets do not count in the building load total but in the
circuit load : panel load as fixed outlet wattage + the number of receptacles.

 To standardize 12AWG wire, but for high temperature and/or when a large number of conductors are
run in a single raceway. It ampacity will derated to 18Amps and not 20A, the circuit breaker protecting
the circuit would not exceed 15 Amp, and not 20Amp.
US Standard Color Coding
 Color for 208/120V circuits : AØ ~ Black; BØ ~ Red; CØ ~ Blue
 Color for 480V/277V circuits : AØ ~ Brown; BØ ~ Orange; CØ ~ Yellow
 Neutral ~ White, Ground ~ Green/Yellow
 Fire Alarm System ~ Red Colot
 Fire Supression Supervisory and Control System ~ Red/Yellow
 Combined Fire Alarm and Security System : Red/Blue
 Mechanical and Supervisory System : Green and Blue
 Telecomm System : Green and Yellow
 Control Wiring : Green and Red

Departmental Lighting Requirements (Ref: U Ohn Myint)

Arm storage 2.5 watt/sft
Show rooms Lobby/waiting 2.5watts/sft
Painting show rooms 100watt per Hallway/corridor 8watts/ft
ft WALL Patient room 2.5watts/ft
Motor showroom 4.0watts/sft Special Patient room 3.5watts/sft
Auditorium 1.5watts/sft Operation Theatre
Banks 4.0watts/sft
Main Lobby 2.5watts/sft Around table
Teller counter area 7.5watts/ft 3000watt/area
Office & filing 4.0watts/sft Laboratory 4.0
Catering & Beauty parlor 4.0watts/sft watts/sft
Bowling theatre 2.5watts/sft Hotels
Columns area 300watts Receptionist area
Billiard Lobby 2.5watt/sft 2.5watts/sft
Billiard Table 450watt Dinning Room 2.5watts/sft
Church Kitchen
Auditorium 1.5watt/sft 2.5watts/sft
Lecture room 2.5watt/sft Bedroom
Abbot area/platform 3.5watt/sft 3.0watts/sft
Clubs Hallway/corridor 10watt/ft
Lobby 1.5watts/sft Drawing room 4.0watts/sft
Reading rooms 4watts/sft Library
Justice 2.5watts/sft Reading area 6.0watt/sft
Ball room/Dancing 1.5watts/sft Bookshelf 12watt/ft
Drawing Room 7.0watts/sft Movie theatre 1.5watt/sft
Fire station 2.0watts/sft Play Theatre 2.5watt/sft
Gymnasium Office Building
Main hall area 3.0watts/sft Paid Room(no working) 3watt/sft
Bath room 2.5watts/sft Paid Room(working) 5watt/sft
Locker/Change room 1.5watts/sft General Office(no working) 3watt/sft
Boxing Square 4.0watts/sft General Office(working) 4.5watt/sft
Hand ball/soft ball 5.0watts/sft Filing room 2.5watt/sft
Hallway/corridor 15watt/ft Receptionist area 1.5watt/sft
Hospital Post Office
Lobby 2.5watt/sft Theatre 2.5watts/sft
Letter separation room 4.0watts/sft Lecture room 4watts/sft
Filing room 2.0watts/sft Drawing room 7watts/sft
Dentist Clinics Lab-room
Lobby 2.5watt/sft 3.0watts/sft
Consulting room 4.5watt/sft Practical room 7.0watts/sft
Work room 4.5watt/sft Store/mini markets
Dental chair Main floor
600watt/chair 5.0watts/sft
Railway station Other floor
Traveller waiting 2.5watts/sft 3.5watts/sft
Ticket box 2.5watts/sft Dancing Hall
Ticket counter 75watt/ft Main floor area
Recreation room 2.5watt/sft 1.5watts/sft
Package rooms 2watts/sft Entry area
Platform 1watt/sft 2.5watts/sft
Restaurant/Cafeteria 3.0watts/sft
Dinning area 2.5watts/sft WALL
Table area 100w/ft 50/75watt per ft