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Physical

Science
Teachers Guide

This Teachers Guide was developed by the


Center for Informal Science Education at the
Florida Museum of Natural History/University of Florida under
Innovation and Improvement Project Grant #90YD0206 from the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start.


This document is in the public domain and may be freely reproduced.
Physical Science



























Table of Contents
Page
Teacher Background Information 1
Materials List 6
Experiences
1 Introduction to Motion 10
2 Push and Pull 12
3 Wheels 14
4 Gears 16
5 Ramps 18
6 Friction 20
7 Introduction to Magnets 22
8 Magnets Can Repel 24
9 Experiment with Magnets 26
10 Introduction to Sound 28
11 Sound Waves 30
12 String Telephones 32
13 Introduction to Light 34
14 Introduction to Shadows 36
15 Further Exploration of Shadows 38
16 Reflections 40
Take-Home Information/Experience Card 42
Recommended Books 43
Head Start Domains and Indicators 53

Physical Science
Teacher Background Information
What is the focus of this guide?
Thefocusofthisguideisonthephysicalworldaroundus.Childrenbegin
exploringthisworldfromtherstmonthsoflifebyobservingandmanipulating
objects.Thislearningcontinuesduringearlychildhoodaschildrenbounceballs,
buildtowers,andoatboats.Thestudyofnonlivingmaterialsisknownformally
asPhysicalScience.Children,ofcourse,justthinkitisfun!
Thisguidefocusesonfourphysicalsciencetopicsthatfascinatechildrenand
scientistsalike.Theyaremotion,magnets,sound,andlight.Withyourguidance
andsupport,thesetopicsprovidechildrenwithmanyopportunitiestoexplore
howtheworldaroundthemworks.
What science concepts are covered in this guide?
Motion
Thingsmoveinmanydifferentways.
Objectsneedapushorpulltostart,stop,orchangetheirmovement.
Simplemachineshelpmoveobjects.
Frictioncanchangemotion.
Magnets

Magnetsattractsomeobjects,butnotothers.
Magnetscanattractthroughobjects.
Sound
Soundisproducedbyvibratingobjects.
Soundcantravelthroughobjects.
Light
Therearemanysourcesoflight.
Lightisreectedbyobjects.
Shadowsaremadewhenlightbeamsareblocked.
Motion
Theworldaroundusisalwaysinmotion.Motionoccurswheneversomething
changesplaceorposition.Movementcanbeinastraightline,crookedline,
zig-zag,circular,orbackandforth.Thingscanroll,bounce,slide,andfall.
Teacher Background Information
Physical Science
Inordertomakesomethingmove,forceisrequired.Forcecanbemosteasily
describedasapushorapull.Peopleandotheranimalsusetheirmusclesto
producetheforcerequiredtomovethemselvesorotherthings.
Theamountofforceneededtomoveanobjectdependsontheobjectsmass.
Moreforceisrequiredtomoveobjectswithalargermassthantomoveobjects
withasmallermass.
Forcecansloworstopobjectsaswell.Frictionisaforcethatiscreatedwhen
twoobjectscomeintocontactwitheachothersuchasaballrollingonthe
ground.Eventually,frictionwillslowtheballtoacompletestop.Abumpysurface
willslowtheballmorequicklythanasmoothsurface.
Wheelsandrampsmakeworkeasierbychangingthesizeordirectionofaforce.
Theyareexamplesofsimple machines.
Magnets
Magnetsarepiecesofironorsteelthathavethespecialabilitytoattractother
objectsmadefromironorsteel,aswellasnickel,cobalt,chromium,ormaterials
thatcontainasmallamountofanyofthesemetals.Magnetsdonotattract
objectsmadefromwood,glass,plastic,paper,orfabric.
Magnetscomeinmanyshapesandsizes.Theshapeandsizeofamagnet
inuenceitspower.Thestrongerthemagnet,thegreaterthedistancefromwhich
itcanattractobjects.Magnetscanevenattractthroughanotherobject.
Magnetscanalsobeattractedtoothermagnetsifproperlypositioned.Every
magnethastwopoles.Onepoleispositiveandtheotherpoleisnegative.
Oppositepoleswillattracteachotherwhereaslikepoleswillrepel ormoveaway
fromeachother.Note: Magnets should not come in contact with televisions,
computer monitors, or other electrical devices. Many electronics use
magnets to operate, and bringing another magnet into contact with them
may cause damage.
2
Teacher Background Information
Physical Science


Sound
Soundisproducedwhenobjectsvibrate.Thesevibrationscreatewavesthat
traveltoourears.Asthewavesentertheear,theeardrumvibrates.These
vibrationssignalspecialnervesintheearthatsendmessagestothebrainwhere
theyareprocessed.Thisentireprocessoccursalmostinstantaneously.
Soundwavescannotbeseenwiththehumaneye.However,itispossibleto
seetheeffectsofsoundwaves.Strikingatuning forkandplacingitinabowlof
waterwillmakethewaterrippleinwaves.Thewaterwavesareadirectresultof
thesoundwaves.
Soundwavescanbefeltaswell.Thinkbacktowhenyouhavebeensittingina
movietheaterandyourchairseemstohum.Thelouddeepsoundsofthemovie
createmanyvibrationsthatinturnvibrateobjectsinthetheater.
Soundwavesvarydependingonthevibratingobject.Size,shape,andmaterial
allaffectsoundwaves.Thesevariationsinuenceboththevolumeandpitchof
sound.
Thespeedwithwhichsoundwavesmovedeterminespitch.Thefasterthewaves
move,thehigherthepitch.Theslowerthewavesmove,thelowerthepitch.
Soundwavestravelthroughair,water,andsomesolids.Assoundwavestravel,
somevibrationsarelost,orabsorbed,asthewavespassthroughobjects.Asa
result,thesoundmayseemsofterorlessclear.
Light
Lighttravelsinwavesaswell.Themajorityofourlightisnatural,comingfromthe
sun.However,wealsogetlightfromcandles,campres,ashlights,andelectric
appliances.Someorganismssuchasreiescanevenmaketheirownlight!
Lighttravelsinstraightlines.Lightwilltravelthroughtranslucentand
transparent materials.Ifanopaqueobjectisplacedinthepathoflight,thelight
wavewillbeabsorbed,reected,orrefracted.
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Teacher Background Information
Physical Science
Objectsusuallyabsorblightasheat.Rememberfeelingthewarmthofthesun
onyourskin.Lightalsocanbounceofforbereectedfromobjects.Yousee
thingsasaresultoflightwavesreectingoffthem.Mirrorsreectlightand
enableyoutoseeyourownreection.Lightisrefracted,orbent,asitpasses
throughatranslucentobject.Thinkofhowapencillooksasitsitsinaglassof
water.Lightmaypassrightthroughtransparentmaterialslikeglass.
Shadowsformwhenlightwavesareblocked.Thesizeandshapeofshadows
varywiththepositionofthelightsourceandthepositionoftheobjectthatis
blockingthelight.
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Teacher Background Information
Physical Science
Teacher Vocabulary
absorbtotakeinorsoakup
attracttomoveclosertowards
forceapushorpullthatisappliedto
anobject
frictionforcecreatedwhentwo
objectsrubtogether
magnetspecicmetalthatis
polarizedandattractsironorsteel
materials
massamountofmaterialthatmakes
upanobject
motiontheprocessofchanging
positionorplace
opaquedoesnotallowanylightto
passthrough;solid
pitchattributeofsounddependenton
wavefrequency,canrangefromhigh
tolow
reecttobounceoff,bendback
refracttobend
repeltopushawayfrom
shadowtheshapeformedwhenan
objectblocksthepathoflight
simplemachinebasicdevicethat
helpsmakeworkeasier
translucentallowssome,butnotall,
lighttopassthrough
transparentallowslighttopass
throughcompletely;clearorsee-
through
tuningforkatwo-prongedmetal
objectthatgivesaxedtonewhen
struck
vibratetomovebackandforthina
rhythm
volumeattributeofsoundthat
indicatesloudness
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Materials Books
Experience 1: Introduction to Motion
varietyofobjectstodemonstratemotion Go,Go,Go!:KidsOntheMove
byStephenR.Swinburne
WigglebyDoreenCronin
Move!bySteveJenkinsandRobinPage
Choo Choo, Clickety-Clack!
byMargaretMayo
Experience 2: Push and Pull
largeitemtomovesuchasablockortoytruck
ball
varietyofobjectsthatcanbepushedor
pulled,orhavepartstopushorpull
PushandPullbyMarciaFreeman
TheGiganticTurnipbyAlekseiTolstoy
And Everyone Shouted, Pull!
byClaireLlewellyn
Experience 3: Wheels
blocks
containerforblocks
3dowels
1pegboard
toywagon
varietyofwheels
What Do Wheels Do All Day?
byAprilJonesPrince
OneWheelWobbles
byCaroleLexaSchaefer
TheRedRacerbyAudreyWood
What Is a Wheel and Axle?
byLloydG.Douglas
Experience 4: Gears
gearset
What Do Wheels Do All Day?
byAprilJonesPrince
WheelsAroundbyShelleyRotner
Alphabeep!AZipping,ZoomingABC
byDeboraPearson
Experience 5: Ramps
2smooth-sidedboards
2different-sizeblockstosupportramps
ballsortoycars
Roll, Slope, and Slide: A Book About
Ramps byMichaelDahl
SimpleMachinesbyAllanFowler
The Tall, Tall SlidebyMichaelDahl
Materials for Core and Center Experiences
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Materials for Core and Center Experiences
Materials Books
Experience 6: Friction
1smooth-sidedboard
1rough-sidedboard
2same-sizeblockstosupportramps
2same-sizesmallblocks
What Is a Scientist?byBarbaraLehn
Experience 7: Introduction to Magnets
wandmagnets
magnettestobjects
chart
TheMysteryofMagnetsbyMelvinBerger
Experience 8: Magnets Can Repel
barmagnets
ringmagnets
dowelstand
oatingmagnetsillustration
The Mystery of MagnetsbyMelvinBerger
Magnets:PullingTogether,Pushing
ApartbyNatalieRosinsky
WhatMagnetsCanDobyAllanFowler
Experience 9: Experiment with Magnets
wandmagnets
barmagnets
horseshoemagnets
magnettestobjects
bookortable
WhatIsaScientist?byBarbaraLehn
The Mystery of MagnetsbyMelvinBerger
Magnets:PullingTogether,Pushing
ApartbyNatalieRosinsky
WhatMagnetsCanDobyAllanFowler
Experience 10: Introduction to Sound
assortmentofobjectstomakesoundssuch
aswoodenblocks,sticks,andspoons;
metalcans,bowls,andutensils;plastic
bottlesandbowls;cardboard
soundcanisters
materialsforsoundcanisters
TheListeningWalkbyPaulShowers
Max Found Two SticksbyBrianPinkney
Sing-Along SongbyJoAnnEarlyMacken
Tick-Tock, Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
TheVeryNoisyNightbyDianaHendry
Experience 11: Sound Waves
tuningfork
containerofwater
soundcanisters
materialsforsoundcanisters
AllSortsofNoisesbyHannahReidy
ChooChoo,Clickety-ClackbyMargaretMayo
TheListeningWalkbyPaulShowers
Tick-Tock, Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
7 7
Materials Books
Experience 12: String Telephones
twoormoreplasticorpapercups
cottonstring
paperclips
AllSortsofNoisesbyHannahReidy
PolarBear,PolarBear,WhatDoYou
Hear?byBillMartin,Jr.
SoundsAllAroundbyWendyPfeffer
Tick-Tock,Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
Zin! Zin! Zin! A ViolinbyLloydMoss
Experience 13: Introduction to Light
ashlights Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Very Lonely FireybyEricCarle
Flicker FlashbyJoanBranseldGraham
LightandDarkbyAngelaRoyston
Experience 14: Introduction to Shadows
ashlight
lamporotherlightsource
GuessWhoseShadow?
byStephenR.Swinburne
Bear Shadow byFrankAsch
MyShadowbyRobertLouisStevenson
Flashlight byBetsyJames
ShadowsandReectionsbyTanaHoban
Shadows Are About byAnnWhitfordPaul
Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Experience 15: Further Exploration of Shadows
ashlight
smallshadowtheatermade
fromcardboardbox,waxor
whitepaper,andtape
smallobjects
bagorbox
GuessWhoseShadow?
byStephenR.Swinburne
Bear Shadow byFrankAsch
MyShadowbyRobertLouisStevenson
Flashlight byBetsyJames
ShadowsandReectionsbyTanaHoban
Shadows Are About byAnnWhitfordPaul
Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Experience 16: Reflections
mirrors
ashlight
ISeeMyselfbyVickiCobb
Light:Shadows,Mirrors,andRainbows
byNatalieRosinsky
Shadows and ReectionsbyTanaHoban
Materials for Core and Center Experiences
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Introduction to Motion
Science Concept
Thingsmoveinmanydifferent
ways.
Aim
Childrenwilldescribeanddemonstratewaysinwhichpeople
andobjectscanmove.
Materials
varietyofobjectstodemonstrate
motion
Books
Go,Go,Go!:KidsOnthe
MovebyStephenR.Swinburne
WigglebyDoreenCronin
Move!bySteveJenkins
andRobinPage
Choo Choo, Clickety-Clack!
byMargaretMayo
Vocabulary
bounce
down
fast
motion
move
roll
slide
slow
still
up
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Approach
Askthechildrentoshowyouwhatitmeanstobestill.PlayagamelikeSimon
Saysanddirectthechildrentomoveincertainways
ortobestill.
Askthechildrentodescribeanddemonstratehow
theycanmove.Introducewordsthatcanbeusedto
describehowtheyaremoving,suchashopping,
dancing,fast,andslow.
Encouragethechildrentondsomeobjectsinthe
classroomthatcanbemovedsuchasachair,door,
oratoy:Can we see anything in the classroom that
can move? How does it move?
Does it roll? Can it bounce?
Can it move on its own or does
it need our help?
Comparehowdifferentobjectsmove.Talkabouthow
peopleandobjectscanmoveinsimilaranddifferentways.
11
Extension
Gooutdoorsandhavethechildrencompare
howliving(e.g.,birds)andnonlivingthings(e.g.,
vehicles)move.
Science Center
Gatheravarietyofobjectsthatmovein
differentwaysorhavemovingparts.Place
intheCenterandencourageexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy1:Havethechildrendrawapictureofthemselvesmovinginsomewaytheyenjoysuchas
dancing,running,orridingatricycle.Helpthemdescribetheirdrawing.
Literacy2:Placewordsthatdescribemotiononthewordwall.
Math1:Askthechildrentorepeatamovement(e.g.,sitdownandstandup)aspecicnumberof
times.Havethechildrencountaloudastheymove.
Math2:Performasetofmotionsinapattern(e.g.,wavehands,wigglehips,jumpupanddown,
wavehands,wigglehips,jumpupanddown)andhavethechildrenrepeatyourpattern.
CreativeArts(MusicandMovement):Playdifferentstylesofmusicandhavethechildrencreatetheir
owndances.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment1(GrossMotor):PlayagameofRedLight,GreenLightto
reinforcetheconceptofstayingstill.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment2(Health):Discusshowimportantitistolookaroundbeforeyou
movetomakesurethatnopersonorobjectisintheway.

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Push and Pull
Science Concept
Objectsneedapushorpullto
start,stop,orchangetheir
movement.
Aim
Childrenwilldistinguishbetweenpushandpull.
Materials
largeitemtomovesuchasa
blockortoytruck
ball
varietyofobjectsthatcanbe
pushedorpulled,orhaveparts
topushorpull
Books
PushandPullbyMarciaFreeman
TheGiganticTurnipbyAlekseiTolstoy
And Everyone Shouted, Pull!
byClaireLlewellyn
Vocabulary
away
pull
push
towards
Approach
Inlargegroup,showthechildrenanobjectsuchasablockortoytruck.
Encouragethechildrentotalkaboutwhatittakesfortheobjecttomove:Is this
moving? Can it move? What can we do to make it move?
Demonstratehowtomaketheobjectmove.Introducethetermspushand
pull.Talkabouthowpushingmovestheobjectawayfromyouandthatpulling
movestheobjecttowardsyou.
Askthechildrentothinkofother
objectsthattheymovebypushing
andpulling.Goaroundthe
classroomandlookforobjectsthat
youpushandpullsuchasdoorsand
windows,drawers,computermouse,
andtoys.
Arrangethechildreninacircleon
theoorandreviewtheconceptsof
pushingandpullingbyrollingaball
backandforth.
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Extension
Goforawalkaroundtheschoolandlookfor
otherexamplesofthingsthatwepushandpull
suchasdoors,wagons,mops,andswings.
Science Center
PlaceintheCenterobjectsthatrequire
pushingandpullingtooperate(e.g.,cash
register,wagon,phone).
Integrated Experiences
Literacy1:Havethechildrendrawapictureofsomethingfamiliarthatrequiresapushorapull(or
both)tomove.Helpthemwriteadescriptionoftheirdrawing.
Literacy2:Labelthedoorsintheclassroomwithpushandpullsigns.
Literacy3:Placethewordspushandpullonthewordwallalongwiththenamesforobjectsthat
beginwiththeletterPthatcanbepushed/pulled(e.g.,plate,puppy,pants).
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment1(GrossMotor):Havethechildrenpairupandsitontheoor
facingoneanotherwiththeirarmsextended,holdinghands.Havethechildrenalternatebetween
pushingtowardsandpullingawayfromeachother.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment2(GrossMotor):Encouragethechildrentoparticipateinavariety
ofactivitiesthatinvolvepushingandpulling(e.g.,pull-ups,push-ups,pushingafriendontheswings).
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Wheels
Science Concept
Simplemachineshelpmove
objects.
Aim
Childrenwilllearnhowwheelshelpmoveobjects.
Materials
blocks
containerforblocks
3dowels
1pegboard
toywagon
varietyofwheels
Books
What Do Wheels Do All Day?
byAprilJonesPrince
OneWheelWobbles
byCaroleLexaSchaefer
TheRedRacerbyAudreyWood
What Is a Wheel and Axle?
by LloydG.Douglas
Vocabulary
axle
dowel
wagon
wheel
Approach
Inadvance,llasmallcontainerwithblocks.Makesurethatitistooheavyfora
childtopushwithonenger.
Showthechildrenthecontainerofblocks.Askavolunteertotryandmoveit
forwardseveralfeetjustbypushingwithonenger.Ask:Did you have to push a lot
or a little to move the blocks?
Showthemthedowelsandboardandask:How can we use these tools to help us
move the blocks? Exploretheirsuggestions.Allowthechildrentimetoexplorehow
theboardanddowelsmakethingseasiertomove.Ifneeded,guidethechildren
towardsusingthedowelsandboardasillustrated.

Showthechildrenthetoywagonandfocusthechildrensattentiononitswheels.
Explorehowthedowelsandthewheelsandaxlesarealikeanddifferent.
15
Science Center
Placewheelsofvarioustypesinthe
Centerforchildrentoexplore.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Makealistofobjectsthathavewheels.Havethechildrenillustratetheobjectsorsearch
fordrawingsorphotographsofobjectswithwheelsinmagazines.
Math1:Walkaroundtheclassroom(orschool)andcountthenumberofwheelsyound.
Math2:Collectwheelsfromdiscardedtoysandtoolsandhavethechildrensortthembysize.
CreativeArts1(Art):Paintwithsmallrollers.Drawthechildrensattentiontothefactthattherollers
operatelikewheels.
CreativeArts2(Music):SingTheWheelsontheBus.
CreativeArts3(DramaticPlay):Provideseverallargecardboardboxesforchildrentouseascars,
buses,ortrains.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment1(FineMotor):Havethechildrenplaywithclayusingrolling
cuttersandrollingpins.Helpthechildrenunderstandhowthecuttersandrollingpinsresemble
wheels.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment2(Health):Discusshowtobesafearoundvehicleswithwheels.
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Gears
Science Concept
Simplemachineshelpmove
objects.
Aim
Childrenwillexploregears.
Materials
gearset
Books
What Do Wheels Do All Day?
byAprilJonesPrince
WheelsAroundbyShelleyRotner
Alphabeep!AZipping,ZoomingABC
byDeboraPearson
Vocabulary
gear
turn
Approach
Inadvance,makeasimplegearsystemusing2-4basepiecesand2-6gears.
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutwheels.
Showthechildrensomegears.Introducethetermgearandencouragethe
childrentodescribehowthegear
issimilartoawheel:What shap
is a wheel? What shape is this
gear? How are they different?
Showthechildrenyoursimple
gearconstruction.Demonstrate
thatturningonegearcanmake
othergearsmove.
Insmallgroup,distributea
basepieceandseveralgearsto
eachchild.Encouragethe
childrentoexplorehowto
positionthegearssothatturning
onegearwillmakeothergears
move.
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Extension
Createacomplexconstructioninvolvingmany
gearsandmultiplelevelsforthechildrento
explore.
Science Center
PlacethegearsetintheCenterfor
thechildrentoexplore.Encourage
thechildrentoobservehowthe
gearsmove.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Takephotosofthechildrensgearconstructions.Addarrowsandwordstodescribehowthe
gearsturn.
Math:Duringtheexperience,havethechildrencountthenumberofgearsusedintheirconstructions.
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Ramps
Science Concept
Simplemachineshelpmove
objects.
Aim
Childrenwillcomparehowobjectsmoveonrampswith
differentslopes.
Materials
2smooth-sidedboards
2different-sizeblocksto
supportramps
ballsortoycars
Books
Roll, Slope, and Slide: A Book About
Ramps byMichaelDahl
SimpleMachinesbyAllanFowler
The Tall, Tall SlidebyMichaelDahl
Vocabulary
fast
high
low
ramp
roll
slide
slow
steep
Approach
Placeaballortoycaronaatsurface.Reviewwhatthechildrenhavealready
learnedabouthowobjectsmove.
Placeoneendofaboardontopofasmallblock(soitlookslikeaslide).Ask
thechildrentothinkaboutwhatwillhappenifyouputtheball/truckontheramp:
What will happen if I put it on here? Will it stay still or will it move? Why?
Askachildtodemonstratewhathappens.Introducethetermrampandexplai
thatrampshelpmovethings.
18
Makeasteeperrampusinganotherboardandalargerblock.Encouragethe
childrentothinkabouthowthesteepnessoftherampwillchangehowthings
move:Do you think it will go farther if the ramp is steep like this or more at like
this?Havethechildrenexplorehowthesteepnessoftherampaffectshowfarthe
objectswillgobeforestopping.
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Extension
Usingtheramp,explorehowfarroundobjects
suchaswheelsorballstravelcomparedtoat
objectssuchasblocks.
Science Center
Placetherampsandtoycarsintheblock
areatoencouragefurtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Helpthechildrenrecordtheirobservationsaboutrampsintheirjournalsusingdrawingsand
words,orcreateaclasssciencelog.Supplementwithphotographs.
Math:Markandmeasurehowfarcarstravelastheheightoftherampchanges.
CreativeArts(Art):Placeapieceofpaperatthebottomofaboxlid.Dipapingpongballinpaintand
letthechildrenturnthelidintoaninclinedplanebytiltingthelidindifferentdirections.Focustheir
attentiononthepaththeballtakesastheinclinechanges.
SocialandEmotional1:Goforawalkaroundtheschooltoseehowrampsareused.
SocialandEmotional2:Talkabouthowrampsareusefulforpeopleinwheelchairs.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment1(GrossMotor):Gotoaplaygroundorparkandhavethechildren
experiencegoingdownaramp(e.g.,aslide).
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment2(GrossMotor):Createanobstaclecoursewithoneormorelow
rampsthatchildrencannavigateontricycles.
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Friction
Science Concept
Frictioncanchangemotion.
Aim
Childrenwillobservethatfrictioncanchangehowfastan
objectmoves.
Materials
1smooth-sidedboard
1rough-sidedboard
2same-sizeblockstosupport
ramps
2same-sizesmallblocks
Book
What Is a Scientist?
byBarbaraLehn
Vocabulary
friction
ramp
rough
slide
slope
smooth
20

Approach
Inadvance,experimentwiththerampstodeterminethesloperequiredtoshow
theeffectsoffriction.Tobeeffective,agentleslopeisusuallyrequired.
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenalreadyhavelearnedaboutramps.
Drawthechildrensattentiontotheroughsideofaboard.Allowthechildrento
touchboththeroughandsmoothsidesoftheboards.Encouragethechildrento
describehoweachfeels.
Createtworampsonewithasmoothsurfaceandonewitharoughsurface
withequalslope.


21
Extension 1
Comparehowfastchildrenwithbarelegsversus
thosewearingpantstraveldowntheslide.
Science Center
Placetherampsandtoycarsinthe
blockareaforfurtherexploration.
Extension 2
Explorefrictionfurtherbyhavingthechildren
ridetricyclesonpavementandonsandorgrass.
Integrated Experiences
Math:Collectavarietyofsmoothandroughobjectsforthechildrentosort.
CreativeArts(Art):Mixsaltorsandinngerpaintandhavechildrencreateapaintingwithroughand
smoothparts.
Explainthatyouaregoingtocomparehowtheblocksmoveonthedifferent
surfaces.
Ask:Do you think the blocks will get to the bottom of the ramp at the same time,
or do you think one will get to the bottom rst? Why?
Puttheblocksontheramps,releaseatthesametime,andseewhathappens.
Explainthattheroughsurfaceslowstheblockdown.
Repeattheexperimentseveraltimestoconrmtheresults.
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Introduction to Magnets
Science Concept
Magnetsattractsomeobjects,
butnotothers.
Aim
Childrenwillexploremagnets.
Materials
wandmagnets
magnettestobjects
chart
Book
The Mystery of Magnets
byMelvinBerger
Vocabulary
alike
attract
different
iron
magnet
metal
steel
Approach
Inadvance,prepareachartlabeledyesornotorecordtheresultsofyour
investigation.
Introducethewandmagnets.Encouragethechildrentodescribewhatthey
alreadyknowaboutmagnets.Explainthatsomethingssticktomagnets,but
othersdonot.
Showthechildrenthe
magnettestobjects.
Explainthatyouaregoing
toinvestigatewhether
eachitemwillorwill
notsticktothemagnet.
Introducetheterm
attract.
Helpthechildrenname
eachitembeforeyoutest
it.Recordwhathappensto
eachonthechart.
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Extension
Havethechildrengatheradditionalobjectsto
testwiththewandmagnets.
Science Center
PlacethemagnetsandobjectsintheCenter
forthechildrentoexplorefurther.Beforethe
childrentesteachobject,encouragethemto
predictwhetherornotthemagnetwillattract
itandtoexplainwhy.
Integrated Experiences
Seepage25forsuggestions.
Talkabouthowmagnetsonly
attractobjectsthataremadeof
certainkindsofmetal,likeironor
steel.
Whenyouhavenishedtestingalloftheitems,havethechildrensortthembased
onwhethertheywereattractedtothemagnetornot.Examinethetwogroupsof
objectsandtalkabouthowthe
objectsineachgrouparealikeand
different.

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Magnets Can
Repel
Science Concept
Magnetsattractsomeobjects,but
notothers.
Aim
Childrenwilldemonstratetwomagnetsattractingorrepelling
eachother.
Materials
barmagnets
ringmagnets
dowelstand
oatingmagnetsillustration
Books
The Mystery of Magnets
byMelvinBerger
Magnets:PullingTogether,Pushing
ApartbyNatalieRosinsky
WhatMagnetsCanDo
byAllanFowler
Vocabulary
attract
blue
green
pole
red
repel
yellow
Approach
Inadvance,makeanillustrationofoatingmagnetslikethatshownbelow.
Reviewwiththechildrenwhattheyalreadyknowaboutmagnets.Askthe
childrentolistsomeoftheobjectsthatmagnetsattractandsomethattheydonot
attract.Ask:Do you think a magnet could attract another magnet?
Showhowtoholdthetwobarmagnetssothattheysticktogether(redtoblue).
Thendemonstratewhathappenswhenyoutryto
holdthetworedsidesortwobluesidestogether.

Passthepairofmagnetsamongthechildren
andencouragethemtomanipulatethemagnets
sotheycanfeelthemagnetspushingawayfrom
eachother.
Explainthatallmagnetshavetwodifferent
endsorpoles.Oppositepolesattract,whereas
likepolesrepelorpushawayfromeachother.
Encouragethechildrentocontinueinvestigating
andmanipulatingthemagnetstoexperiencethe
magnetsattractionorrepulsion.
Tofurtherdemonstratehowmagnetscan
repel,setuptheringmagnetsonthedowel
standasshown.

25
Science Center
Placethebarmagnets,ringmagnets,
dowelstand,anddiagramintheCenter.
Encouragethechildrentoexplorehow
magnetsrepelandattract.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Helpthechildrendescribewhattheylearnedaboutmagnetsintheirjournalsusing
illustrationsandwords,orcreateaclasssciencelog.
Math:Attachmagnetstotheendsofshingpolesandpaperclipstocardboardshorother
objects.Preparenumberedcards.Havethechildrenpickacardandcatchthenumberofshthe
cardshows.
CreativeArts(DramaticPlay):Makeametaldetectoroutofabroomorsimilarobjectand
encouragechildrentopretendtosearchforburiedtreasureusingthemagneticdevice.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(FineMotor):Hidesmallobjectsthatareattractedtomagnetsin
thesandtable.Havethechildrengoonatreasurehuntwithsmallmagnetstondtheobjects.
CreativeArts(Art):Usingmagnetictapeandcardstock,havethechildrenmakeanddecorate
refrigeratormagnets.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(Health):Magnetscanharmcertainelectronics.Explainthat
whenexploringwithmagnets,itisimportantthatthemagnetsdonottouchthingsthatuseelectricity.
Explainthatlookingforanelectricplugorcordisonewaytotellifsomethinguseselectricity.
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Experiment with Magnets
Science Concept
Magnetscanattractthroughobjects.
Aim
Childrenwillexplorehowmagnetscanattractthrough
materials.
Materials
wandmagnets
barmagnets
horseshoemagnets
magnettestobjects
bookortable
Books
WhatIsaScientist?byBarbaraLehn
The Mystery of Magnets
byMelvinBerger
Magnets:PullingTogether,Pushing
ApartbyNatalieRosinsky
WhatMagnetsCanDobyAllanFowler
Vocabulary
magnet
strong
Approach
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutmagnets.
26
Explainthattodaytheyaregoingtoexplorehowmagnetscanattractobjects
throughothermaterials.Todemonstrate,placeamagneticobjectontopofa
bookortable.Usingoneofthemagnets,showthechildrenhowthemagnetcan
movetheobject,eventhroughasolidobject.
Next,distributethemagnetsandmagnettestobjects.Encouragethechildren
toexplorehowtomaketheobjectsmovewithoutmakingdirectcontact.Explain
thatwecannotseethepowerofmagnets,butthatitisstrongenoughtogo
throughwoodandothermaterials.
Extension
Exploremagnetstrengththroughothermaterials
(paper,fabric,foam)ortryexperimentingwith
differentthicknesses(e.g.,atable,astackof
books).
Science Center
Placethemagnetsandavarietyof
objectsintheCenterforchildrento
explorefurther.
Integrated Experiences
CreativeArts(Art):Linesmallboxlidswithpaper.Dipmagneticballsintempurapaintandplace
theminthebox.Havethechildrenusemagneticwandsunderneaththeboxtoslidetheballs
aroundonthepapertomakedesigns.
27


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Introduction to Sound
Science Concept
Soundisproducedbyvibrating
objects.
Aim
Childrenwillexploredifferentwaystomakesound.
Materials
assortmentofobjectstomake
soundssuchaswooden
blocks,sticks,andspoons;
metalcans,bowls,and
utensils;plasticbottles
andbowls;andcardboard
soundcanisters
materialsforsoundcanisters
Books
TheListeningWalkbyPaulShowers
Max Found Two Sticks
byBrianPinkney
Sing-Along Song
byJoAnnEarlyMacken
Tick-Tock, Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
TheVeryNoisyNight
byDianaHendry
Vocabulary
ear
hear
listen
sound
Approach
Beginbyaskingthechildrentoclosetheireyesandlistentosoundsinthe
classroom.Encouragethemtonamethesoundstheyhear.Helpthemidentify
whatmakesthesoundsbyaskingquestionssuchas:Can you hear the clock?
Who is talking outside? Is that a lawn mower that I hear?
Askthechildreniftheycanmakeanysounds.Encouragethechildrentomake
avarietyofsounds:Can anyone make a sound using their hands? Can you make
a sound using your feet? What kind of sounds can you make using your mouth?
Distributetheobjectsamongthe
children.Onebyone,askthechildrento
makeasoundusingtheirobject(s).
Whenpossible,usewordstodescribe
thesounds(e.g.,thud,sharp,musical).
Helpthechildrencomparethesounds.
Talkabouthowdifferentobjectsmake
differentkindsofsounds.
Concludebyplayingalltheobjects
togetherasifthechildrenwereaband.

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Extension 1
CollectanassortmentofsoundsontapeorCD.
Encouragethechildrentoidentifyeachsound.
Showtheactualitemsthatmadethesound,or
providephotographs.
Science Center
Maketwomatchingsetsofsoundcanisters.
Havethechildrenndthecontainersthat
makethesamesound.Changetheitemsin
thecanistersthroughouttheunit.
Extension 2
Explorehowdifferentkindsofmaterialsmake
differentkindsofsoundsbycomparingobjects
madeofplastic,metal,wood,andunderadult
supervisionglass.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy1:Havethechildrendrawpicturesofthemselvesmakingsounds.Helpthemwritewordsfor
thesounds(e.g,clap,bang,sing).
Literacy2:Asaclass,createalistofsoundsthatbeginwithdifferentlettersofthealphabet(e.g,
a=achoo!b=boo!)
Math:Produceapatternofsoundsusingbodymovements(e.g.,clappinghands,stompingfeet)for
thechildrentoreplicate.
Physical Health and Development (Safety):Discusshowcertainsoundsindicatedanger.For
example,arealarmmeansleavethebuilding,whileretruck,ambulance,andpolicesirensmean
getoutoftheway.

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Sound Waves
Science Concept
Soundisproducedbyvibrating
objects.
Aim
Childrenwillseethatsoundmakeswaves.
Materials
tuningfork
containerofwater
soundcanisters
materialsforsoundcanisters
Books
AllSortsofNoisesbyHannahReidy
ChooChoo,Clickety-Clack
byMargaretMayo
TheListeningWalkbyPaulShowers
Tick-Tock, Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
Vocabulary
tuningfork
vibration
wave
Approach
Inadvance,llabowlwithwater.
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutsound.
Havethechildrenplacetwongersontheirthroatandfeelthemovementas
theyspeak.Explainthatallsoundismadeofvibrations.
Showthechildrenthetuningforkandexplainthatyouaregoingtouseitto
exploresound.Strikethetuningforkontheedgeofatableandplacetheends
inthebowlofwater.Focusthechildrensattentiononthewavesinthewater.
Explainthatthevibrationsmakesoundmoveoutwardsinwaves.
Concludebyhavingthechildren
closetheireyesagainandfocuson
thedifferentsoundsthattheyhear.
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Extension
Exploresoundwavesinotherways.Stretch
apieceofplasticwrapacrossabowl.Secure
itwitharubberband.Placesomericeontop.
Strikethetuningforknearthericeandseewhat
happens.Thericeshouldmoveasaresultofthe
sound.Experimentwithothersoundssuchas
clapping,music,andtalking.
Science Center
Placeaguitar,drum,ormusicalinstruments
intheCenterforfurtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy 1: Havethechildrenaddajournalentrydescribingsomethingtheyliketolistento.
Literacy2:Createadisplayofphotographsthatshowobjectsthatmakesounds(e.g,.whistle,
musicalinstruments,hammer).Labelthephotographs.
CreativeArts1(Art):Playdifferenttypesofmusicandhavethechildrendrawpicturesofwhatthe
musicremindsthemof.
CreativeArts2(MusicandMovement):Makemusicalinstrumentswithemptyboxesandrubber
bands,oremptypaperrollslledwithbeansorrice.
CreativeArts3(DramaticPlay):Placeavarietyofmusicalinstrumentsinthedramaticplayareaand
encouragethechildrentopretendtobeinaband.
SocialandEmotional:Inviteamusicianormusicalgrouptodemonstratehowtheymakemusic.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(Health):Remindthechildrenthatloudsoundsarenotsafeforour
ears.Theyshouldnotshoutintoeachothersears.Practicethedifferencebetweenashoutanda
whisper.
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String Telephones
Science Concept
Soundcantravelthroughobjects.
Aim
Childrenwillexplorehowsoundtravelsalongastring.
Materials
twoormoreplasticor
papercups
cottonstring
paperclips
Books
AllSortsofNoisesbyHannahReidy
PolarBear,PolarBear,WhatDoYou
Hear?byBillMartin,Jr.
SoundsAllAroundbyWendyPfeffer
Tick-Tock,Drip-Drop!byNicolaMoon
Zin! Zin! Zin! A ViolinbyLloydMoss
Vocabulary
listen
speak
straight
stretch
telephone
tight
32
Approach
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutsound
vibrationsandhowvibrationstravel.
Showthechildrenthestringtelephoneandexplainthatyouaregoingtouseit
toexploresound.
Demonstratehowtousethetelephone.Haveachildholdonecuptohisear.
Holdtheothercupsothatthestringisstretchedtightinastraightline.Makesure
nooneistouchingthetautstring.Speakintothecup.
Allowthechildrentotaketurnsusingthestringtelephone.Askthechildrento
describewhathappenswhentheyspeakintothecup.Reviewtheconceptof
soundasvibrationsandexplainthatthevibrationstravelalongthestringfrom
onecuptoanother.
33
Extension
Experimentwithmakingphonesoutofother
materialssuchastincans,boxes,dentaloss,
ribbon,andyarn.
Science Center
Placethestringtelephonesinthe
Centerforfurtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
CreativePlay(DramaticPlay):Putplaytelephonesinthedramaticplayareaandencouragethe
childrentohaveconversations.
SocialandEmotional:Discussphonemannerswiththechildren.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(Health):Teachthechildrenhowtodial911inanemergency.
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Introduction to Light
Science Concept
Therearemanysourcesoflight.
Aim
Childrenwillexploredifferentsourcesoflight.
Materials
ashlights
34

Books
Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Very Lonely FireybyEricCarle
Flicker FlashbyJoanBranseldGraham
LightandDarkbyAngelaRoyston

Vocabulary
battery
beam
block
dark
ashlight
light
shine
straight
Approach
Beginbyaskingthechildrentosharetheirideasaboutlight:Is it light or dark
today? How can you tell? Why is it light in the room? Why is it light outside? Where
is the light coming from? Helpthechildrenunderstandthatlightcomesfrommany
sources--somenaturalandsomeman-made.
Asksomeonetoturntheclassroomlightsonandoff.Encouragethechildrento
lookforothersourcesoflightintheroomsuchasthecomputersorclock.Explain
thatman-madelightsusuallyneedelectricity.Notethatsometimeswecaneasily
seewheretheelectricitycomes
from(drawthechildrensattention
totheelectriccordsattachedtothe
machines.),butsometimesthe
wiresarehidden.
Showthechildrenabattery-
operatedashlight.Encouragethe
childrentosharewhattheyknow
aboutashlights:What is this?

35

Extension
Exploremakingdifferentcolorswithlightby
placingcoloredcellophaneltersoverthe
ashlights,orbyshininglightthroughplastic
bottleslledwithcoloredwater.
Science Center
PlacetheashlightsintheCenter
forfurtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Makeaclassdisplaydepictingdifferentlightsources(e.g.,sun,streetlamp,candle).
Illustratewithphotographsorchildrensdrawings.Makeachartoflightsourcesandcategorize
thosethatarenatural(e.g.,sun,moon,lightning,re)andthosethatareman-made(e.g.,lamps,
ashlights).
CreativeArts(DramaticPlay):PlaceashlightsintheDramaticPlayareasothatthechildrencan
pretendtheyareonacampingtriporgoingonanighthike.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(Safety):Discusssafepracticeswhenusingobjectsthatproduce
light(e.g.,avoidelectricaloutlets,donottouchhotlightbulbs).
What does it do? When might we use it? How does it work?
Helpachilddemonstratehowtousetheashlight.Turnitoffandremovethe
batteries.Explainthatthebatteriesprovideenergytotheashlightlikethe
electricalcorddoestootherlights.
Remindthechildrennottoshinetheashlightsinpeopleseyes.Then
encouragethemtoexplorecastinglightbeamsusingtheashlights.Drawtheir
attentiontohowthelightbeamstravelinastraightline.Demonstratewhat
happenswhenthelightbeamisblocked.
Reviewthesourcesoflightyouhavediscussedsofar.Askthechildrenifthey
canthinkofanyotherobjectsthatprovidelight.(Ifyouarefortunateenoughto
liveinanareawithreies,talkabouthowsomeanimalsmaketheirownlight.)
Talkabouthowalllightneedsenergy.Concludewithadiscussionof
theimportanceofsavingenergybyturningofftheashlightsand
otherlightswhennotinuse.

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Introduction to
Shadows
Science Concept
Shadowsaremadewhenlight
isblocked.
Aim
Childrenwillexploretheirownshadows.
Materials
ashlight
lamporotherlight source
Books
GuessWhoseShadow?
byStephenR.Swinburne
Bear Shadow byFrankAsch
MyShadowbyRobertLouisStevenson
Flashlight byBetsyJames
ShadowsandReectionsbyTanaHoban
Shadows Are About byAnnWhitfordPaul
Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Vocabulary
behind
front
outline
shadow
Approach
Inadvance,practicemakingshadowsindoorswithaashlight.Searchyour
playgroundatdifferenttimesofdayforplacestoexploreshadowsoutdoors.
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutlight.Remind
thechildrenwhathappenswhenyouplaceyourhandinfrontoftheashlight.Using
theashlight,createashadow.Encouragethechildrentodescribeanyexperiences
theyhavehadwithshadows:Where have you seen a shadow? Can shadows
move? What makes a shadow move?
Explainthatashadowformswhenanobjectblockslight.
Gooutdoorsandhavethechildrenlookfortheirownshadows.Discusshowa
shadowshowstheshapeofanobject,butnotcolorsordetails(suchaseyes).
Outlineoneormoreoftheshadowswithchalk,orwithmarkeronasheetofpaper.
Havethechildrencomparetheshadows.Encouragethemtonoticedetailssuchas
hairstylesorclothingshapesthatletsthemknowwhoseshadowtheyareseeing.
Focusthechildrensattentiononhowtheirshadowschangewhentheymove.
Ask:How can you make your shadow small? Can you make it big?Encouragethe
childrentochangelocation.Ask:Where is your shadow now? Is it in front of you?
Behind you? Can you make your shadow move to a different place? Can you chase
your shadow?

Concludebyhavingthechildrenreportonwhattheydiscoveredaboutshadows.
37
Extension 1
Searchtheoutdoorsformoreshadowssuchas
thosemadebytreebranches,buildings,and
playgroundequipment.Comparethedifferent
sizesandshapesoftheshadows.
Science Center
Placetheashlight,lamp,orotherlight
sourceintheCenteralongwithan
assortmentofobjects.Encouragethe
childrentoexploremakingshadows
withtheirhandsortheobjects.
Extension 2
Gooutdoorsatdifferenttimesofdayand
comparethesizeandshapeofshadowsmadeby
thechildrenorobjects.Tracetheshadowseach
timeforeaseofcomparison.

Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Havethechildrendescribetheirdiscoveriesaboutshadowsintheirjournals.
Math:Duringtheexperience,measurethelengthsoftheshadowsandcompare.
CreativeArts(Art):Tracechildrenssilhouettesandcutthemoutofblackpaper.Havethechildren
decorateaframeorbackgroundforthepicture.
PhysicalHealthandDevelopment(GrossMotor):Havethechildrenobservetheirshadowsasthey
performactionssuchaswavingtheirarmsorjumpingupanddown.

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Further Exploration of
Shadows
Science Concept
Shadowsaremadewhenlight
isblocked.
Aim
Childrenwilluseshadowstoidentifyobjects.
Materials
ashlight
smallshadowtheatermade
fromcardboardbox,waxor
whitepaper,andtape
smallobjects
bagorbox
Books
Guess Whose Shadow?
byStephenR.Swinburne
Bear Shadow byFrankAsch
My Shadow byRobertLouisStevenson
Flashlight byBetsyJames
Shadows and ReectionsbyTanaHoban
Shadows Are About byAnnWhitfordPaul
Oscar and the Moth byGeoffWaring
Vocabulary
block
light
outline
shadow
38
Approach
Inadvance,createasmallshadowtheater:Cutoffthetopandbottomofabox.
Tapewhiteorwaxpaperoveroneopening.Practiceusingtheashlightwiththe
objectstoensurethattheobjectscastdistinctlydifferentshadows.
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenhavealreadylearnedaboutshadows.
Remindthechildrenthattheycouldtellwhichshadowbelongedtowhomby
comparingfeatures.
Showthechildrentheshadowtheaterandexplainhowitworks.Askonechildto
selectamysteryobject(hiddenfromviewinabagorbox)andholditinsidethe
theater.Shinetheashlightontheobject,
castingashadowonthepaper.
Encouragethechildrentotrytoidentifythe
mysteryobjectandexplaintheirreasoning:
What about the shadow makes you think it
is a horse?

39
Extension
Havethechildrenexploreshadowsfurtherusing
alargeshadowtheaterandlamporoverhead
projector.Hangawhitesheetontwochairsusing
clipsortape.Provideavarietyofstickpuppetsor
havechildrencreatetheirownwithpaper,craft
sticks,tape,etc.
Science Center
Placethesmallshadowtheater,
objects,andashlightintheCenter
forfurtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Math:Duringtheexperience,havethechildrenchangetheorientationofthemysteryobjectorthe
distancebetweentheobjectandthelightsourceandobservethechangesinsizeandshapethat
result.
CreativeArts(Art):Makeshadowpuppetswithpaperandcraftsticksandputonapuppetshow.



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Reflections
Science Concept
Lightisreectedbyobjects.
Aim
Childrenwillobservethatmirrorsreectlight.
Materials
mirrors
ashlight
Books
ISeeMyselfbyVickiCobb
Shadows and Reections
byTanaHoban
Mirror, MirrorbyAllanFowler
Vocabulary
bounce
ashlight
mirror
reect
Approach
Beginbyreviewingwhatthechildrenalreadyhavelearnedaboutlight.
Showthechildrenamirrorandaskthemtosharewhattheyknowabout
mirrors:What is this called? What do we use it for? Where do we nd mirrors?
Askforavolunteertostandwithhisbacktothegroup,facingthemirror.Ask
thechildren:What do you see in the mirror? Who is that?
Explainthatwecanseeourselvesinmirrorsbecausemirrorsreectlight.To
demonstrate,bouncelightoffthemirrorasshown:
Experimentwithmovingtheashlightandmirror.Trybouncingthelightfrom
onemirrortoanother.Askthechildrentosearchforthelightasitisprojectedon
theoor,walls,ceiling,orobjectsaroundtheclassroom.
Extension
Lookforreectionsintheclassroom(doorknobs,
shinytoys)andaroundtheschool(e.g.,windows,
puddles).
Science Center
PlacesafetymirrorsintheCenterfor
furtherexploration.
Integrated Experiences
Literacy:Havethechildrendrawapictureofthemselvesperformingatasksuchasbrushingteeth,
combinghair,ortryingonclothesinfrontofamirror.
CreativeArts(Art):Havethechildrenmakeacollageoutofdifferentreectivematerialssuchas
sequins,foil,orglitter.
41

MESS

Take-Home Kit Information/Experience Card


Physical Science
WelcometothePhysicalScienceMESS

Take-HomeKit.Thispagesuggests
waystofurtherexplorewhatyourchildhasbeenlearningatschool.
In this Kit you will find:
ISeeMyselfbyVickiCobb
Agirlexploreslightusingamirrorandobjectsfoundaroundherhouse.
Amirror
This month, your child is learning:

Weneedlighttosee.
Mirrorsreectlight.
How to use this book:
Asyouread,pointtothewordstoencourageyourchildtofollowalong.
Trysomeoftheactivitiesdescribedinthebook.
How to use the object:
Usethemirrortodosomeofthe
experimentsinthebook.Trylookinginthe
mirrorinadarkspacelikeacloset.
Getaashlightandtrytobouncethe
lightoffthemirror.
To further support your childs learning:
Withyourchild,lookforotherreective
surfacessuchasdoorknobs,thefrontof
thestove,andspoons.
42

Recommended Books
Physical Science
Recommended Books
Lehn,Barbara.What Is a Scientist?Brookeld,CT:MillbrookPress,1998.Simpletextand
colorphotographsdescribehowscientistslearnfromtheirsenses,observedetails,ask
questions,communicatetheirndings,andhavefunastheyexperiment.
Motion
Cronin,Doreen.Wiggle.NewYork:AtheneumBooks,2005.Rhythmictextandcartoon-style
illustrationshighlightedwithbitsofphotographyencouragereaderstojoininasadogwiggles
throughhisday.Youngchildrenwilllaughathisanticsandbeanxioustoimitatehisactions.
Dahl,Michael.Roll, Slope, and Slide: A Book About Ramps.Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindow
Books,2006.Colorfulrealisticpictures,beginningwithafamiliarslide,showthemanywayswe
userampsinourdailylives.Text,whilesometimesample,isappropriatefortheillustrations.
Dahl,Michael.The Tall, Tall Slide.Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindowBooks,2005.Heightcan
beintimidating,butthedayishot,nothingelsehasbeensufcientlycooling,andthereisa
waterslideatthepool!Withsomehelpfromfriends,ayounggirlworksupthecouragetotryit.
Douglas,LloydG.What Is a Wheel and Axle? NewYork:ChildrensPress,2002.Simple
photographsandtextinthissmall-formattitleeffectivelyintroducethewheelandaxleviathree
exampleswheelbarrow,rollingpin,andwagon.
Fowler,Allan.Simple Machines.NewYork:ChildrensPress,2001.Numerousbooksdiscuss
individualsimplemachines,butthisauthorprovidesthebasicsaboutlevers,inclinedplanes,
wheels,pulleys,wedges,andscrews,allinasmall-formatbook.Photographsoffamiliar
objectsandappropriatelylimitedtextshowthemachinesineverydayuse.
Freeman,Marcia.Push and Pull.NewYork:Newbridge,1997.Thelargephotographsand
simpletextinthisbigbookshowpushingandpullingbydifferentforces(includingmagnets)
andtheimpactsofthepush/pull.
Jenkins,SteveandRobinPage.Move!Boston:HoughtonMifin,2005.Cut-papercollages
andsimpletextdescribethirteendifferentwaysthatanimalsmove.Eachoftheactionverbs
isprintedinlargetextandprovidesagreatopportunitytoteachaboutprint.Additional
informationabouteachoftheillustratedanimalsisincludedintheback.
Llewellyn,Claire.And Everyone Shouted, Pull!: A First Look at Forces and Motion.
Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindowBooks,2005.Thejourneytothemarketrequiresgoingupa
hill.Howwillthethefarmerandhisanimalsmanageit?Theirhardwork,illustratedwithcolorful
cartooncharacters,servesasasimpleintroductiontosomebasicscience.
43

Recommended Books
Physical Science
Mayo,Margaret.Choo Choo, Clickety-Clack!Minneapolis,MN:CarolrhodaBooks,2005.
Whilethetitlesuggeststhisisatrainbook,eachdouble-pagespreadfeaturesadifferentform
oftransportation.Colorfulillustrationsshowthemovementsandnoisesmadebyplanes,race
cars,boats,andhotairballoons.Textissimpleandrhythmic.
Pearson,Debora.Alphabeep! A Zipping, Zooming ABC.NewYork:HolidayHouse,2003.
Awholealphabetofvehiclesandroadsigns,withactivewordsandupper-andlower-case
letters,probablyensuresthesuccessofthisbookwithchildrenandteachers.Vibrantgeometic
illustrationshighlightthelivelytext.
Prince,AprilJones.What Do Wheels Do All Day?Boston:HoughtonMifin,2006.You
maythinkofwheelsonlyasinanimateobjects,butgreatdescriptivewordsandpaper-relief
illustrationsshowthatwheelsareveryactivepartsofourlives.
Rotner,Shelley.Wheels Around.NewYork:HoughtonMifin,1995.Afterestablishingthat
wheelshelpustoworkandplay,thesimpletextdetailsnumerousfamiliarwaysthatwheeled
vehiclesareusefultous.Colorfulphotographsrangefromstrollersandwheelchairstotrucks
andtractors.Lotsofdetailsinvitecloseobservation.
Schaefer,CaroleLexa.One Wheel Wobbles.Cambridge,MA:CandlewickPress,2003.
Paradingtothebiggestwheelofall,afun-lovingfamilyshowsofftheirvariousvehicles
eachwithadifferentnumberofwheels.Brightlycoloredillustrationscountoffsomestrange-
lookingdetailsthatinviteobservationandlaughter.
Swinburne,StephenR.Go, Go, Go! Kids On the Move.Honesdale,PA:BoydsMillsPress,
2002.Whatsyourfavoritewaytomove?Twirling?Rolling?Itisprobablydepictedinthe
colorfulphotographsandsimpletext.Comparativemovementswithmonkeysanddolphinsare
suggested,too.Photoswillnotonlystimulateimitation,butalsoserveasconversationstarters.
Tolstoy,Aleksei.The Gigantic Turnip.Cambridge,MA:BarefootBooks,2000.Thefolktaleisa
classicRussianone,illustratingpullingatitsfunniest.Itisacumulativetale(hencethetext
looksample)thatallowssomecounting,aplantlifecyclediscussion,multiplepredictionand
sequencingopportunities,andlotsofdetailedobservation.Thecolorfulillustrationsinthis
versionarejustrightforyoungchildren.AdaptationsincludeAubreyDaviss Enormous Potato,
CherieB.StihlersThe Giant Cabbage: An Alaska Folktale,JanPecksGiant Carrot,andDenia
LewisHestersGrandma Lenas Big Ol Turnip.
Wood,Audrey.The Red Racer.NewYork:Simon&SchusterBooksforYoungReaders,1996.
ThechainonNonasbicyclebreaks.Sheconcludessheneedsanewbike,butherparentsare
notconvinced.Wickedthoughtsencourageherplotstoloseherbike.Eventuallyherparents
showherthatthebikecanberestored.Activeillustrationsinboldcolorsaddtothedrama.
44
Recommended Books
Physical Science
Magnets
Berger,Melvin. The Mystery of Magnets.NewYork:NewbridgeEducationalPublishing,
1999.Largephotographsandlimitedtextinthisbigbookprovidebasicfactsaboutmagnets.
Questionstothinkaboutandfunfactsareincluded.
Fowler,Allan.WhatMagnetsCanDo.NewYork:ChildrensPress,1995.Thissmall-format
bookusesphotographsandinformativetexttoexplainseveralbasicconceptsaboutmagnets.
Includedaremagnetshapes,magnetic/nonmagneticdifferences,poles,andfamiliar-but-
unseenusesformagnets.Thefewpagesoncompassesandelectromagnetscanbeomitted.
Rosinsky,Natalie.Magnets: Pulling Together, Pushing Apart (alsobilingual: Imanes/ Magnets:
Atraen y Rechazan/ Pulling Together, Pushing Apart).Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindow
Books,2003.Theauthorintroducesmagnetsandencourageschildrentoexperimentwith
them.Greatillustrations,funfacts,experiments,andaglossaryareincluded.
Sound
Hendry,Diana.TheVeryNoisyNight.NewYork:DuttonChildrensBooks,1999.Sounds
duringthenightkeepLittleMouseawake.Mostofthesoundsarenaturalonesanowl
hooting,windblowingbutLittleMousesactiveimaginationcreatespossibilitiesthatBig
Mouseslogicalexplanationswillnotsatisfy.Thefamiliarsituationandfundrawingsshould
stimulateconversationwithyoungchildren.
Macken,JoAnnEarly.Sing-AlongSong.NewYork:Viking,2004.Fromthechirpingofthe
robinoutsidehiswindowinthemorningtoaquietgoodnighttothemoonandstars,alittle
boyrespondstoallthesoundshehearsduringoneday.Therhymingtextandenthusiastic
illustrationsmakereaderswanttosingalongtoo.
Martin,Bill,Jr.Polar Bear, Polar Bear, What Do You Hear? NewYork:HenryHolt,1997.Bright
cut-paperillustrationsandrepetitivetextareusedtoaskdifferentzooanimalswhattheyhear.
Intheend,thezookeeperisaskedwhathehearsandhisreplyinvolveschildren.Butthe
answersthroughoutaresocontagiousthatitisdoubtfulareadergetsthatfarwithouteveryone
imitatingtheanimals!
Mayo,Margaret.Choo Choo, Clickety-Clack!Minneapolis,MN:CarolrhodaBooks,2005.
Whilethetitlesuggeststhisisatrainbook,eachdouble-pagespreadfeaturesadifferentform
oftransportation.Colorfulillustrationsshowvariouswaystotravelandthenoisesmadeby
planes,racecars,boats,andhotairballoons.Textissimpleandrhythmic.
45

Recommended Books
Physical Science
Moon,Nicola.Tick-Tock, Drip-Drop!NewYork:Bloomsbury,2004.ThisbedtimestoryofRabbit
andhisfriendMolesuggestthatitisthecommonnoisesinourworldthatcanbeboththemost
distractingandthemostsoothing.Atleastrabbitwasagoodlistener!Busypastelillustrations
tthesimplebutcumulativetext.
Moss,Lloyd. Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin.NewYork:Simon&SchusterBooksforYoungReaders,
1995.Jazzy,alliterativeverseintroducesorchestralinstrumentsandtheirsounds.
Opportunitiesforsimplecountingandobservationofthebusydetailedillustrationsabound,but
thegroupnounsthatendeachversewillbebeyondyoungchildrensmemories.Thisbookisa
greataccompanimenttoavisittoanorchestraconcertoramusiciansvisittoaclassroomor
both.1996CaldecottHonorAward
Pearson,Debora.Alphabeep! A Zipping, Zooming ABC.HewYork:HolidayHouse,2003.
Awholealphabetofvehiclesandroadsigns,withactivewordsandupper-andlower-case
letters,probablyensuresthesuccessofthisbookwithchildrenandteachers.Vibrantgeometic
illustrationshighlightthelivelytext.
Pfeffer,Wendy.Sounds All Around.NewYork:HarperTrophy,1999.Thiseasy-to-understand
explanationofsoundandhearingtalksabouthowsoundsareproduced,typesofsounds,and
howsoundsareimportanttodifferentanimals.Ifthetextistoolong,itcanbereadinsections.
Severalprojectsandwaystondoutmoreaboutsoundareadded.Cartoon-likeillustrations
showbothwordsforthesoundsandchildrenmakingsounds.
Pinkney,Brian.Max Found Two Sticks.NewYork:Simon&SchusterBooksforYoung
Readers,1994.Maxprovestobeagoodlistenerasheusestwotreetwigstoimitatethe
rhythmshehearsashedoessomeunusualtalking.Theoilillustrationsandappropriately
limitedtextshouldencouragecloseobservationandconversation.
Reidy,Hannah.All Sorts of Noises.Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindowBooks,2005.Colorful
cartoondrawingsshowchildrenandgrown-upsastheymakeandhearnoisesthroughoutthe
day.Wordsforsoundsaresplashedacrossthepages.Endingpagesaskchildrentoimitate
thenoisesmadebymanyfamiliarobjects
Robinson,Fay.SoundAllAround.Chicago:ChildrensPress,1994.Beginningwithsounds
peoplecanmake,photographsandlimitedtextthenexplainthebasicsofsoundinthissmall-
formatbook.Topicsincludevibrationsandwaves,pitchandvolume,andthevalueofvarious
sounds.
46
Recommended Books
Physical Science
Showers,Paul.The Listening Walk.NewYork:HarperTrophy,1993.OnaListeningWalkIdo
nottalk,butthatcertainlydoesnotmeantherearenosoundsinthisbook.Afatherandhis
youngdaughterwalktothepark,butsheadvisesintheendthatyoudonotevenhavetotake
awalktohearsounds.Allyouhavetodoiskeepstillandlisten.Herobservationsalongthe
wayinviteotherobservationsandperhapsimitation.
Light
Asch,Frank.Bear Shadow.NewYork:SimonandSchuster,1985.Thisbearobviouslydoes
notunderstandtheconceptofshadows!Bearsshadowscaresshawaysohetries
unsuccessfully,ofcoursetogetridofhisshadow.Simplesolidshapesandcolorsmake
theshadoweasytoseeinthissillystorythatsubtlyinviteschildrentoinvestigatetheirown
shadows.
Carle,Eric,The Very Lonely Firey.NewYork:Philomel,1995.Atdaysend,anewbornrey
searchesforotherbutteries.Itmistakesothersourcesoflightlightbulb,candle,ashlight,
lantern,animaleyes,headlights,andreworksforitsownkind.Therewardingconclusion
includesashinglightspoweredbyareplaceablebattery.
Cobb,Vicki.I See Myself.NewYork:HarperCollins,2002.Designedtoassistchildrenin
makingtheirowndiscoveries,thisbookrstinviteschildrentolookinthemirror.Fromthere,
simplelanguage/sentencestructureandcreativeillustrationsencouragechildrentoexperiment
withmirrorsontheirown.Readingthebookinpiecesallowsforparticipation.
Fowler,Allan.Mirror, Mirror.Chicago:ChildrensPress,1994.Inthissmall-formatbook,
photographsshowavarietyofreectionsfromstillwatertofun-housemirrors.
Graham,JoanBranseld.Flicker Flash.Boston:HoughtonMifin,1999.Twenty-threeshort,
creativelyarrangedpoemsaboutlightdescribeobjectsfrombirthdaycandlestothesun.Using
avarietyoftypesizesandstylesandcolorstrengths,illustrationssupporteachpoemstopic.
Hoban,Tana.Shadows and Reections.NewYork:GreenwillowBooks,1990.Withoutany
words,theauthorsphotographscallourattentiontotheshadowsandreectionsoffamiliar
objectsallaroundus.Youngchildrenmayneedsomeclaricationaboutthedifference
betweenashadowandareection.
James,Betsy.Flashlight.NewYork:AlfredKnopf,1997.Whilethisisreallyagentlestoryof
howagrandfathergiveshisfearfulyounggranddaughtercontrolofthedark,italsoprovides
awayforotherchildrentoexploredarkandlightusingaashlight.Nighttimecanbedifcult
toillustrate,butthesepicturesartisticallyshowtheburstoflightfromtheashlightandthe
shadowsproducedinthedarkroom.
47

Recommended Books
Physical Science
Paul,AnnWhitford.Shadows Are About.NewYork:Scholastic,1992.Poetictextandgentle,
mutedillustrationsshowthemanyshadowsintwoyoungchildrensdailyactivities.The
conclusion,thatshadowsneverstay...withoutalight,subtlyinviteschildrentotestthisby
lookingforshadowsintheirworld.
Royston,Angela.Light and Dark.Chicago,IL:HeinemannLibrary,2002.Theauthorraises
somebasicideasaboutlight,althoughsimplifyingacomplextopiclikelightisdifcult.
Particularlyusefularethephotographsillustratingthesourcesoflightandconceptslike
reectedlightandshadows.
Stevenson,RobertLouis.My Shadow. Thewonderofashadowfromachildspointofview
wasexpressedbyStevensonmorethanahundredyearsago.Todaythereareseveral
versions,mostlytruetotheoriginalpoem,butnowillustratedforchildren.Particularlyuseful
withyoungchildrenarethesethree:
IllustratedbyPennyDale.Cambridge,MA:CandlewickPress,1999.Ayoungchild,insoft
colors,playsabitmischievouslywithhisshadow.
IllustratedbyGlennaLang.Jaffray,NH:DavidR.Godine,1989.Alittlegirldiscoversher
shadowandplaysdreamilywithsomeanimalsandtheirshadows.Allareinstrongcolorsand
softlines.
IllustratedbyTedRand.NewYork:G.P.PutnamsSons,1990.Thisversionshowsan
internationalcastofactivechildrenwhoallhaveshadows.
Swinburne,StephenR.Guess Whose Shadow?Honesdale,PA:BoydsMillsPress,1999.
Shadowsareeverywhere.Theauthorsfocusedphotographsandbasictextmakeyouwant
tobemoreobservant!Simpleinformationllsthebookasitgivesseveralshadow/object
examplesandtheninvitesreaderstoguesswhatobjectmakeseachadditionalshadow.
Waring,Geoff.Oscar and the Moth: A Book About Light and Dark.Somerville,MA:Candlewick
Press,2008.Oscarisacuriouskittenwithlotsofquestionsaboutlightanddark.Mothshows
Kittenmanydifferentsourcesoflight,andexplainshowshadowsaremadeandwhydarkness
comesatnight.
Other Recommended Books
Motion
Butler,Daphne.What Happens When Wheels Turn? Chicago,IL:HeinemannLibrary,1995.
Clearphotographsofwheelsillustratewheelhistoryandnumerouswaysweusewheelstoday.
Althoughthebookissmall-format,thephotosencouragecloseobservationandconversation.
48
Recommended Books
Physical Science

Cronin,Doreen.Bounce.NewYork:AtheneumBooks,2007.ThissuccessortoWiggleinvites
readerstobounceontheirtoeslikeabunnyorafrog,onpoleswithhelpfulwordsof
cautionaboutpotentialproblemswithsomejumping.Readersshouldbeawareofthegeneric
meaningofbounce,however,sincebeesandbatsdonotactuallybounce.
Day,NancyRaines.Double Those Wheels.NewYork:PenguinPutnamBooks,2003.A
monkeyutilizesavarietyofvehiclesmostlywheeledandlearnstomultiplybytwosashe
triestodeliverpizzaforaparty.Rhymingtextisverysimple,butcountingsoongoesbeyond
youngchildrensabilities.Watchfortheinformationprovidedonlabels,sign,andcap!
Dodds,DayleAnn.Wheel Away.NewYork:HarperandRow,1989.Ohno!Thefrontwheelof
alittleboysbicyclecomesoffandimprobablyrolls(bouncesintheillustrations)throughtown
andupahill,untiliteventuallyrollsbacktohim.Gooddescriptiveandpositionalwordsand
somegoodscienceaboutwheelsandrampsmakeupforthewheelbouncingalongonits
journeyeventhroughthewater.
London,Jonathan.A Truck Goes Rattley-Bumpa.NewYork:HenryHolt,2005.Boldly-colored
illustrationsandsimple,rhythmictextdescribesomefeaturesoftrucksandhowtheycandiffer.
Theillustrationslendthemselvestocountingwheelsandmakingothercomparisons.
Murphy,PatriciaJ.Push and Pull.NewYork:ChildrensPress,2002.Thislimited-text,small-
formatbookexplainstheforcesofpushandpullthatareneededtostartobjectsinmotion.The
photographsshowfamiliaractivitiesandencourageyoungchildrentondotherexamples.
Murphy,Stuart.Beep Beep, Vroom Vroom.NewYork:HarperCollins,2000.Youngersister
Mollycannotresisttheappealofmovingaroundanolderbrotherscolorfulcarsandlearns
patternrecognitionintheprocess.
Rockwell,Anne.Big Wheels.NewYork:Walker&Company,1986.Brightcolorsandsimple
textmakethecasethatbigwheelsgettheroughjobsdone.Constructionandfarming
equipment,plussnowplowsandstreetsweepers,areallnamedandpictured.
Trumbauer,Lisa.What Is Friction?NewYork:ChildrensPress,2004.Ahard-to-understand
conceptisexplainedassimplyaspossible.Thephotographsofskatersandracecarsmake
thepointthatfrictioniswhatslowsdownmovingobjects.
Magnets
Bryant-Mole,Karen.Magnets.DesPlaines,IL:HeinemannInteractiveLibrary,1998.Clear,
focusedphotographshelpexplainadifcultsubjecttoyoungchildren.Textatrstappears
tobesubstantial,butastandardformathelpsandthetextcanbeabbreviatedasneeded.
Followingatwo-orthree-sentenceexplanation,thenextpagesuggestsasimpleactivitythat
demonstratestheconcept.Allmaterialsarecommononesthatcanbeusedbyyoungchildren.
49


Recommended Books
Physical Science
Sound
Carle,Eric.The Very Quiet Cricket/El grillo silencioso.NewYork:PhilomelBooks,1990.A
youngmalecricketnallylearnshowtochirpwhenhemeetsabeautifulfemalecricket.The
principleofsoundmaybethesameforeverything,butitisexhibitedindifferentways.An
authorsnotepriortothetitlepageincludesspeciccricketinformation.
Coy,John.Vroomaloom Zoom.NewYork:CrownPublishers,2000.Anindulgentfathertakes
hisyoungdaughterforapre-bedtimeride,allwiththeintentionofhelpingherfallasleep.
However,thenoisysituationstheyencounterinsteadprovidewonderfulsoundsforchildrento
listentoandprobablyimitate.
Evans,David,andClaudetteWilliams.Sound and Music.London:DorlingKindersley,1993.
TherstquestionisCanyoumakesounds?Whatfollowsareeasy-to-doexperimentsabout
makingdifferentsoundsandhearingthem,alldemonstratedinphotographsofyoungchildren.
Thesevenconceptsthatchildrencanlearnfromtheexperiencesarelistedinaninitialnoteto
parentsandteachersandanendingguidetoexperiments.
Feiffer,Jules.Bark, George.NewYork,HarperCollins,1999.Georgeisadogwithaproblem.
Althoughavisittothevetseemstocorrectit,thetriphomecastsdoubtsagain.Theartand
textarequitesimpleandrepetitious,butthestoryisboundtobeaccompaniedbythesoundof
heartylaughter.
Fleming,Denise.BarnyardBanter.NewYork:HenryHolt,1994.Thenoiseinthebarnyardis
loud(andrhymes)andthebarnyardisbusyandcolorful.Childrenwillrecognizemostofthe
animals,andthepulppaintingsaddtothefun.Butwhereisgoose?
Hewitt,Sally.Hearing Sounds.NewYork:ChildrensPress,1998.Approachingtheconcept
ofsoundfromthehearingside,theauthorconveysthebasicscience:soundisproducedby
somethingvibrating,plusanumberofattributeslikehigh/low,andloud/quiet.Whatlookslike
lotsoftextcanbeselectivelyread.Photographsandactivitiesorideastotryoutandthink
aboutaddtothelearningopportunities.
Hubbell,Patricia.Trucks: Whiz! Zoom! Rumble!Tarrytown,NY:MarshallCavendish,2003.
Trucks(andtruckdrivers)ofalltypeswhizandzoomthroughvariedlandscapes,creating
wonderfulsoundstoimitate.Varyingfontsareusedtoaddvisualclues.
Lewis,Kevin.Chugga-Chugga Choo Choo.NewYork:HyperionBooksforChildren,1999.A
childstrainsetcomestolifeatnightwithallthewhistleblowing/chugga-chugga/whoowhooing
soundsthatcompleteatrain--andcanbeimitated,ofcourse!
50
Recommended Books
Physical Science
Llewellyn,Claire. The Best Ears in the World; A First Look at Sound and Hearing.North
Mankato,MN:SmartAppleMedia,2003.Alittlerabbitwhothinkshisearsaresillylooking
instigatesaconversationaboutsoundandthevalueofearswithhisfatherastheytravelto
theirburrow.Inadditiontotheconversationbubbles,anotherleveloftexttellsabouttheir
journey.Thegentle,cartoon-likeillustrationsdemonstratefatherrabbitsknowledge,too.
London,Jonathan.Crunch, Munch.Orlando:SilverWhistle,2001.Theemphasisinthisbook
isnotwhatanimalseat,butinsteadthesoundstheymakewhentheyeat.Someofthesounds
maybedifferentthanimagined(e.g.,peck,peck,peckforthewoodpecker),butnevertheless
willgenerateimitationandprobablylaughter.Thenalquestionevengeneratesdiscussion
aboutmanners!
MacDonald,Ross.Achoo!Bang!Crash!TheNoisyAlphabet.Brookeld,CT:RoaringBrook
Press,2003.Thecolorsaremuted,butthetypeisboldasthisbookillustratesthealphabet
fromachootozoom.Theold-fashionedwoodtyperequirescarefulobservationtoseeall
thevariationsindifferentletters.Childrenwillenjoyimitatingthesounds,butadultsmaybe
surprisedatsomeofthespellings.Canyouaddsoundstothelist?
Rosinsky,Natalie.Sound: Loud, Soft, High, and Low. Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindowBooks,
2003.Thisintroductiontosoundencourageschildrentoexplore.Greatillustrations,funfacts,
experiments,andaglossaryareincluded.
Rydell,Katy.WindSaysGoodnight.NewYork:HoughtonMifin,2000.Thesoundsofthenight
fromthecricket,frog,etc.arekeepingalittlegirlawake.Finallyahelpfulcloudandthewind
solvetheproblem.Repetitivelyricaltextandsoftlycolored,humorousillustrationsmakethisa
greatpre-naptimestory.
Schulman,Janet.Sergei Prokokievs Peter and the Wolf.NewYork:Knopf,2004.Thisisan
illustratedversionofamusicalstory(CDincluded)frequentlyusedtointroducechildrento
classicalmusic.Theideathatdifferentsounds(i.e.,differentinstruments)representdifferent
charactersinthestoryshouldgeneratediscussion,butmaybebeyondyoungchildrenwithout
multiplerepetitions.Somereaders/listenersmayndthenontraditional,kinderending
unsatisfactory.
Wolff,Ferida. It Is the Wind.NewYork:HarperCollins,2005.Theopeningquestionbecomes
thethemeforallthepossibleanswers:WhatisthenoiseIhearinthenight?Intheend,the
titleansweristheoneacceptedbytheyoungnarratorashefallsasleep.Almostmusicaltext
andshadowy,nighttimepaintingssetthemoodforcloseobservationandquietconversation.
51
Recommended Books
Physical Science
Light
Bulla,ClydeRobert.What Makes a Shadow?NewYork:HarperCollins,1994.Simpletextand
colorfulillustrationsanswerthetitlequestionandencouragechildrentomakemoreshadows.
Freeman,Don.A Rainbow of My Own.NewYork:PenguinBooks,1978.Animaginativeboy
triestocapturearainbowtokeepforhimself,andthenseesthesameeffectinotherplaces.
Thewatercolorillustrationsshowsomeofthecolorsinthelightspectrum,althoughthe
conceptisnotpartofthestory.
Jonas,Ann.Reections.NewYork:GreenwillowBooks,1987Pagesofthisremarkably
illustratedstoryshouldbereadtwice:onceasusualandonceasyouturnthebookupside
downtoviewthereectedillustrations.
Mallat,Kathy.Just Ducky.NewYork,Walker&Company,2002.Althoughthecovergivesa
hint,itisnotclearwhetherDuckyeverdiscoverswhothefriendiswhohastimetoplayinthe
waterwithhim.However,thesimpletextandgentleillustrationsaddtotheconclusionthatitis
funbeingjustDucky.
Michaels,William.Clare and Her Shadow.Hamden,CT:ShoeStringPress,1991.Black-and-
whitewoodcutprintsstarklyillustratethediscoveryClaremakesassheandhergrandfather
walktothepark:shehasashadow!Inmostcases,youngchildrenwillbeabletoseetheclues
thatindicatethatonlyClaresshadowhowevertall,short,oractiveitisispictured.
Rosinsky,Natalie.Light: Shadows, Mirrors, and Rainbows/La luz: sombras, espejos y arco iris.
Minneapolis,MN:PictureWindowBooks,2003.Avarietyoflighttopicsarepresentedinthis
informativebookwithcolorfuleverydayillustrations.Differentlevelsoftextallowareaderto
adjusttovariouscomprehensionlevels.
Sayre,AprilPulley.Shadows.NewYork:HenryHolt,2002.Twofriendsspendtheirday
searchingforshadowsand,intheprocess,discovertheirownshadowsandshadowsmadeby
otherthings.Colorsarebrilliantbutthemurkyshadowsaresometimeshardtodistinquish.
52
Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


LanguageDevelopment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Demonstratesincreasingabilitytoattendtoand
understandconversations,stories,songs,poems.

Showsprogressinunderstandingandfollowing
simpleandmulti-stepdirections.

Understandsanincreasinglycomplexandvaried
vocabulary.

ForNon-Englishspeakingchildren,progressesin
listeningtoandunderstandingEnglish.

Developsincreasingabilitiestounderstandanduse
languagetocommunicateinformation,experiences,
ideas,feelings,opinions,needs,questions,andfor
othervariedpurposes.

Progressesinabilitiestoimitateandrespond
appropriatelyinconversationanddiscussionswith
peersandadults.

Usesanincreasinglycomplexandvariedspoken
vocabulary.

Progressesinclarityofpronunciationandtowards
speakinginsentencesofincreasinglengthand
grammaticalcomplexity.

ForNon-Englishspeakingchildren,progressesin
speakingEnglish.

LITERACY
Showsincreasingabilitytodiscriminateandidentify
soundsinspokenlanguage.
Showsgrowingawarenessofthebeginningand
endingsoundsofwords.
Progressesinrecognizingmatchingsoundsand
rhymesinfamiliarwords,games,songs,storiesand
poems.
Showsgrowingabilitytohearanddiscriminate
separatesyllablesinwords.
Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


LITERACYCONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Associatessoundswithwrittenwords,suchas
awarenessthatdifferentwordsbeginwiththesame
sound.
Showsgrowinginterestandinvolvementinlistening
toanddiscussingavarietyofctionandnonction
booksandpoetry.

Showsagrowinginterestinreading-relatedactivities,
suchasaskingtohaveafavoritebookread;choosing
tolookatbooks;drawingpicturesbasedonstories;
askingtotakebookshome;goingtothelibrary;and
engaginginpretend-readingwithotherchildren.

Demonstratesprogressinabilitiestoretellanddictate
stories,toactoutstories,andtopredictwhatwill
happennextinastory.

Progressesinlearninghowtohandleandcare
forbooks;knowingtoviewonepageatatimein
sequencefromfronttoback;andunderstandingthat
abookhasatitle,authorandillustrator.

Showsincreasingawarenessofprintinclassroom,
homeandcommunitysettings.

Developsgrowingunderstandingofthedifferent
functionsofformsorprintsuchassigns,letters,
newspapers,lists,messages,andmenus.

Demonstratesincreasingawarenessofconceptsof
print,suchasthatreadinginEnglishmovesfromtop
tobottomandfromlefttoright,thatspeechcanbe
writtendown,andthatprintconveysamessage.

Showsprogressinrecognizingtheassociation
betweenspokenandwrittenwordsbyfollowingprint
asitisreadaloud.

Recognizesawordasaunitofprint,orawareness
thatlettersaregroupedtoformwords,andthatwords
areseparatedbyspaces.

Developsunderstandingthatwritingisawayof
communicatingforavarietyofpurposes.

Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


LITERACYCONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Beginstorepresentstoriesandexperiencesthrough
pictures,dictation,andinplay.
Experimentswithagrowingvarietyofwriting
toolsandmaterials,suchaspencils,crayons,and
computers.
Progressesfromusingscribbles,shapes,orpictures
torepresentideas,tousingletter-likesymbols,to
copyingorwritingfamiliarwordssuchastheirown
name.
Showsprogressinassociatingthenamesofletters
withtheirshapesandsounds.
Increasesinabilitytonoticethebeginninglettersin
familiarwords.
Identiesatleast10lettersofthealphabet,especially
thoseintheirownname.
Knowsthelettersofthealphabetareaspecial
categoryofvisualgraphicsthancanbeindividually
named.
MATHEMATICS
Demonstratesincreasinginterestandawareness
ofnumbersandcountingasameansofsolving
problemsanddeterminingquantity.

Beginstoassociatenumberconcepts,vocabulary,
quantities,andwrittennumeralsinmeaningfulways.

Developsincreasingabilitytocountinsequenceto10
andbeyond.

Beginstomakeuseofone-to-onecorrespondencein
countingobjectsandinmatchinggroupsofobjects.

Beginstouselanguagetocomparenumbersof
objectswithtermssuchasmore,less,greaterthan,
fewer,equalto.

Developsincreasedabilitiestocombine,separate
andnamehowmanyconcreteobjects.
Beginstorecognize,describe,compare,andname
commonshapes,theirpartsandattributes.

Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


MATHEMATICSCONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Progressesinabilitytoputtogetherandtakeapart
shapes.
Beginstobeabletodeterminewhetherornottwo
shapesarethesamesizeandshape.

Showsgrowthinmatching,sortingaccordingto1or2
attributessuchascolor,shapeorsize.

Buildsanincreasingunderstandingofdirectionality,
orderandpositionsofobjects,andwordssuchas
up,down,over,under,top,bottom,inside,outside,in
front,andbehind.

Enhancesabilitiestorecognize,duplicateandextend
simplepatternsusingavarietyofmaterials.

Showsincreasingabilitiestomatch,sort,putina
series,andregroupobjectsaccordingtooneortwo
attributessuchasshapeorsize.

Beginstomakecomparisonsbetweenseveralobjects
basedonasingleattribute.

Showsprogressinusingstandardandnon-standard
measuresforlengthandareaofobjects.
SCIENCE
Beginstousesensesandavarietyoftoolsand
simplemeasuringdevicestogatherinformation,
investigatematerials,andobserveprocessesand
relationships.

Developsincreasedabilitytoobserveanddiscuss
commonproperties,differencesandcomparisons
amongobjectsandmaterials.

Beginstoparticipateinsimpleinvestigationstotest
observations,discussanddrawconclusionsandform
generalizations.

Developsgrowingabilitiestocollect,describeand
recordinformationthroughavarietyofmeans,
includingdiscussion,drawings,mapsandcharts.

Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


SCIENCECONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Beginstodescribeanddiscusspredictions,
explanations,andgeneralizationsbasedonpast
experiences.

Expandsknowledgeofandabilitiestoobserve,
describeanddiscussthenaturalworld,materials,
livingthings,andnaturalprocesses.

Expandsknowledgeofandrespectfortheirbodyand
theenvironment.

Developsgrowingawarenessofideasandlanguage
relatedtoattributesoftimeandtemperature.
Showsincreasedawarenessandbeginning
understandingofchangesinmaterialsandcause-
effectrelationships.

CREATIVEARTS
Participateswithincreasinginterestandenjoyment
inavarietyofmusicactivities,includinglistening,
singing,ngerplays,games,andperformances.
Experimentswithavarietyofmusicalinstruments.
Gainsabilityinusingdifferentartmediaandmaterials
inavarietyofwaysforcreativeexpressionand
representation.
Progressesinabilitiestocreatedrawings,paintings,
models,andotherartcreationsthataremore
detailed,creativeorrealistic.
Developsgrowingabilitiestoplan,work
independently,anddemonstratecareandpersistence
inavarietyofartprojects.
Beginstounderstandandshareopinionsabout
artisticproductsandexperiences.
Expressesthroughmovementanddancingwhatis
feltandheardinvariousmusicaltemposandstyles.
Showsgrowthinmovingintimetodifferentpatterns
ofbeatandrhythminmusic.
Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


CREATIVEARTSCONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Participatesinavarietyofdramaticplayactivitiesthat
becomemoreextendedandcomplex.
Showsgrowingcreativityandimaginationinusing
materialsandinassumingdifferentrolesindramatic
playsituations.
SOCIAL&EMOTIONALDEVELOPMENT
Beginstodevelopandexpressawarenessofself
intermsofspecicabilities,characteristicsand
preferences.

Developsgrowingcapacityforindependenceina
rangeofactivities,routines,andtasks.

Demonstratesgrowingcondenceinarangeof
abilitiesandexpressesprideinaccomplishments.

Showsprogressinexpressingfeelings,needsand
opinionsindifcultsituationsandconictswithout
harmingthemselves,others,orproperty.

Developsgrowingunderstandingofhowtheiractions
affectsothersandbeginstoaccepttheconsequences
oftheiractions.

Demonstratesincreasingcapacitytofollowrulesand
routinesandusematerialspurposefully,safely,and
respectfully.

Increasesabilitiestosustaininteractionswithpeers
byhelping,sharing,anddiscussion.

Showsincreasingabilitiestousecompromiseand
discussioninworking,playing,andresolvingconicts
withpeers.

Developsincreasingabilitiestogiveandtakein
interactions;totaketurns,andtointeractwithout
beingoverlysubmissiveordirective.

Demonstratesincreasingcomfortintalkingwithand
acceptingguidanceanddirectionsfromarangeof
familiaradults.

Showsprogressindevelopingfriendshipswithpeers.
Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


SOCIAL&EMOTIONALCONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Progressesinrespondingsympatheticallytopeers
whoareinneed,upset,hurt,orangry;andin
expressingempathyorcaringforothers.
Developsabilitytoidentifypersonalcharacteristics
includinggender,andfamilycomposition.
Progressinunderstandingsimilaritiesandrespecting
differencesamongpeople,suchasgenders,
race,specialneeds,culture,language,andfamily
structures.
Developsgrowingawarenessofjobsandwhatis
requiredtoperformthem.
Beginstoexpressandunderstandconceptsand
languageofgeographyinthecontextsoftheir
classroom,home,andcommunity.
APPROACHESTOLEARNING
Choosestoparticipateinanincreasingvarietyof
tasksandactivities.

Developsincreasedabilitytomakeindependent
choices.

Approachestasksandactivitieswithincreased
exibility,imagination,andinventiveness.

Growsineagernesstolearnaboutanddiscussa
growingrangeoftopics,ideasandtasks.

Growsinabilitiestopersistinandcompleteavariety
oftasks,activities,projects,andexperiences.

Demonstratesincreasingabilitytosetgoalsand
developandfollowthroughonplans.

Showsgrowingcapacitytomaintainconcentration,
despitedistractionsandinterruptions.

Developsincreasingabilitytondmorethanone
solutiontoaquestion,taskorproblem.

Growsinrecognizingandsolvingproblemsthrough
activeexploration,includingtrialanderror,and
interactionsanddiscussionswithpeersandadults.

Head Start Domains and Indicators Associated with Core and Center Experiences

Domain & Indicators Experience


APPROACHESTOLEARNING
CONTINUED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 T-H
Developsincreasingabilitiestoclassify,compare,and
contrastobjects,events,andexperiences.

PHYSICALHEALTHANDDEVELOPMENT
Developsgrowingstrength,dexterity,andcontrol
neededtousetoolssuchasscissors,paperpunch,
stapler,andhammer.
Growsinhand-eyecoordinationinbuildingwith
blocks,puttingtogetherpuzzles,reproducingshapes
andpatterns,stringingbeadsandusingscissors.

Progressesinabilitiestousewriting,drawingandart
toolsincludingpencils,markers,chalk,paintbrushes,
andvarioustypesoftechnology.
Showsincreasinglevelsofprociency,controland
balanceinwalking,climbing,running,jumping,
hopping,skipping,marchingandgalloping.
Demonstratesincreasingabilitiestocoordinate
movementsinthrowing,catching,kicking,bouncing
balls,andusingtheslideandswing.
Progressesinphysicalgrowth,strength,stamina,and
exibility.
Participatesactivelyingames,outdoorplayandother
formsofexercisethatenhancephysicaltness.
Showsgrowingindependenceinhygiene,nutrition
andpersonalcarewheneating,dressing,washing
hands,brushingteethandtolieting.
Buildsawarenessandabilitytofollowbasichealth
andsafetyrulessuchasresafety,trafcand
pedestriansafety,andrespondingappropriatelyto
potentiallyharmfulobjects,substancesandactivities.