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(PhD), M.Tech.(urp), AIIA, Dip. Arch.

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Janardhan Malakapalli
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
Architect & Urban Planner
Utilitas, = Serve Purpose/Function
Firmitas, = Structurally Sound
Venustas = Aesthetic
An ancient Roman architect named
Vitruvius wrote that a building must be
considered "with due reference to

Utilitas, Plan
Firmitas, Section
Venustas Elevation

in his original Latin).

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The work of architecture is the result of the architect's
interpretation of program in relation to the client's
budget, the building's site, and the availability of
materials and structural technology.
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The plan diagrams function; the section (in part)
diagrams structure; the elevation evokes beauty (let us
hope it does, anyway).

The plan represents the client's needs; the section
tells the builder what structure to use; plan, section, and
above all elevation demonstrate the architect's design, his
formal solution to the building program.
http://architecture.about.com/cs/historicperiods/a/timeline.htm
3.The Roman engineer who
threw up the great vaults of the Baths
of Caracalla used structural potential
unknown to (or at least unused by) the
earlier Greeks. The architect stands in
for the artistic community as a whole.
2. A priest ordering
a chapel does so
for his
congregation, and
that congregation
is the creation of
historical forces.
The builder
embodies the
current state of
technology.
1. Client, builder, and architect represent
constituencies larger than themselves, and those
constituencies are shaped by time. The client stands in
for society as a whole or in its parts.
5. Although much of the rhetoric
around such "form givers" as the 20
th
century
American architect Frank Lloyd Wright denies
the fact, at any given time it would be
impossible for a successful designer to break
away from the social needs, technological
possibilities, or stylistic expectations of his age.
6. Architecture then, stands at the
intersection of societal need, available
technology, & artistic theory.
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4. Architecture is, or at
least it begins with, the
enclosure of habitable
space. We will refine and
extend that definition as
we proceed.
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The architectural features of any building or the
characteristic features any architectural style in
history of architecture is studied & expressed
by sketching Plan, Section & Elevation.

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http://www.greatbuildings.com/types.html

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http://www.essential-humanities.net/art-overview/western-architecture-timeline/



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http://www.essential-humanities.net/art-overview/western-architecture-timeline/

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Classical architecture relates to the style of
buildings constructed during the times of ancient
Rome and ancient Greece. There are many
variations of classical architecture, and in fact, rarely
does one building meet all of these requirements.

One could say that a Greek temple was a
classical building, a Gothic cathedral is a Medieval
building, and the cathedral in Florence is a
Renaissance building.



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SYMMETRY,
PROPORTION &
ORDER



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COLUMNS



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ACROTERIA
DOMES

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1. Symmetry
Like many forms of early architecture, classical
architecture usually involves symmetry. Notice
how the Temple of Aphaea feature centralized
entrances and equal spacing between
windows and pillars.
Various basilicas around the globe created in
the classical style also feature strong balance
and equal proportions of elements, both inside
and outside of the building.
2. Columns
Columns are a primary, visually defining element of
classical architecture. The Forum in Rome, various
classical temples, the Parthenon all feature
prominent columns at the front of the structure..
Originally, Egyptians and Persians used columns on
the interior of buildings to support the roof.
The Greeks and Romans, however, turned columns
into a decorative, ornate embellishment on the
outside of buildings as well.
3. Acroteria
An acroterion is a pedestal or
statue that is traditionally
placed atop a pediment in
Greek classical architecture.
Greek temples are especially
well known for the inclusion of
acroterion decorations.
Acroteria are typically solely
decorative or ornamental
rather than functional.
Acroteria were originally petal-
shaped ornaments, and then
developed into groups of
statues, such as on the Temple
of Apollo.

4. Domes
Domes are a key part of Roman
classical architecture. The
Panteon, for instance, is an
example of a dome on a
building constructed in the
classical style.
Legendary History
According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C.
Legend begins after AeneasTrojan War herosettles in Italy
The Founding of Rome
Aeneas descendantstwins Romulus and Remuswanted to found city
- twins fought over citys position; Romulus killed Remus
- Romulus traced Romes boundaries around Palatine Hill
Roman kings ruled city until conquered by Etruscans in 600s B.C.
Romans overthrew Etruscans in 509 B.C.
- formed republicgovernment in which people elect leaders
Romes Geographic Location
ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why was Romes location so favorable?
Hills and River
In reality, Rome was settled by Latins
- Rome was built on a spot that had mild climate, good farmland, strategic location
Built city on seven hills that could be defended
- farmed at base of the hills; lived on hilltops
City was close to Mediterranean Sea and its trade routes
- lay next to Tiber River, which aided trade and provided protection
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Italian Peninsula
Romes location on Italian Peninsula helped its development
- peninsulaland surrounded on three sides by water
Roman ships could sail to other lands surrounding Mediterranean
- helped in conquering new territories, developing trade routes
Alps, Apennines mountains protected Rome, but didnt isolate it
Italys large plains made farming easier than in Greece
Lives of Early Romans
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was life like for the early Romans?
Working the Land
Early Roman farmers had small plots of land for wheat, barley
- also grew beans, vegetables, fruit; later, grapes and olives
- worked with oxen and raised pigs, sheep, goats, chickens
Landowning farmers served in army
Some farmers grew rich, built estates
- gap was created between rich estate owners and small farmers
Farm Life
Early farmers lived in mud or timber homes with little furniture
Lived in extended families
Farmed with simple tools, produced enough food to feed family
Hard work, discipline, and loyalty became strong Roman qualities
- these qualities helped Roman army conquer Italy
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Temple Pantheon at Rome Place of Worship
Forum Forum Romanus or Forum of
Tarjan
(Agora)place where people
meet,
Bascilias Bascilia of Tarjan, Halls of justifce Merchant gatherings.
(Amphi Theatre) Collesium Rome Entertainment
Triumphal Arch Septimius Serverus in dedication to the kings or
generals who won wars
Pillars of Victory Tarjan Column in dedication to the kings or
generals who won wars
Roman Baths Therma at carcalla. Amenities for Public/Royalty
Aqueducts Pont du Gard Water supply system
Villa House at Pansa Residence
Seven Hills of Rome (ancient Rome)
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Italy is a peninsula
jutting out into the
Mediterranean west of Greece.
Unlike Greece, Italy is poor in
mineral resources and
surprisingly devoid of useful
harbors.
However, the most
stunning difference between
Greece and Italy is the larger
amount of fertile land. While
Greece is poor in fertile land,
Italy is wealthy in both land
and precipitation.
So the two peoples
developed very differently; the
Italians began and remained
largely an agrarian people.
Even in its latest stages, Roman
culture would identify its
values and ideals as agrarian.
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According to Roman
legend, the city was
founded in 753 BCE by
Romulus and Remus.
Rome developed because
of its strategic location
and its fertile soil. Rome
was built on seven rolling
hills at a curve on the
Tiber River, near the
center of the Italian
peninsula. It was midway
between the Alps and
Italys southern tip. Rome
also was near the
midpoint of the
Mediterranean Sea.
Religion.
The heathen religion of ancient
Rome being looked upon as part of
the constitution of the state, the
worship of the gods came
eventually to be kept up only as a
matter of state policy.

The emperor then received divine
honors, and may almost be
described as the leader of the
Pantheon of deities embraced by
the tolerant and wide-spreading
Roman rule.

Officialism therefore naturally
stamped its character on the
temple architecture.
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Greeks and Italians had separated
into distinct nations, and the
Italians had further split up into
separate nations among
themselves.
The common form of government
in ancient Italy resembled that of
Greece, consisting of towns or
districts joined together in leagues.

The government of Rome was
effected firstly by chosen kings,
aided by a senator and popular
assembly, but about B.C. 500 it
became Republican, and under
Augustus Caesar in B.C. 27 the
Empire originated.

The "Building Acts of Augustus,
Nero, and Trajan had considerable
influence on the development in
Rome.
Climate - The north has the climate of the temperate region of
continental Europe , central Italy is more genial and sunny ;
while the south is almost tropical.





Rome
Max temp. 25 C
Min temp. 8 C
Avg. Rainfall 1000-1500 mm/annum.

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Rome
Climate - From the above slide we can infer that the climate of Rome
is temperate in classification and very comfortable for the inhabitants.
There is hardly any need to specialize the buildings to adapt to the
climate as there are no extreme temperatures.





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Therefore the
climate of Rome
would have been
almost like
Bangalore
without the
pollution and the
HOT summer
months.




TRAVERTINE TIIFA PEPERINO PUZZOLANA
In Italy marble, terra-cotta, stone, and brick were largely
used even for the more important buildings.
n Rome the following materials were at hand
1. Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli ;
2. Tiifa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are
mainly composed ; and
3. Peperino, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano.

Besides these, Lava and Puzzolana, derived from volcanic
eruptions, and excellent sand and gravel were plentiful, apart
from bricks.


The existence of Puzzolana (a clean sandy earth) found in thick strata in the
district, gave the Roman a material which contributed largely to the durability of
their architecture, for it has extraordinary properties of hardness, strength and
durability, when mixed into concrete with lime.
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1. Initially Romans
adopted the Trabeated
style of Greeks, arches
and domes from the
Etruscans. This union of
column and arch was
the earliest style of
Romans. Example: The
Coliseum at Rome.

2. The Romans used Arches
and Domes independently
without the union of
columns which became the
keynote style of their
Architectural Characteristic.
Picture of coloseium Rome illustrating the
columns that were used only for decorative
purpose, while the load was carried &
transferred in reality by Arches.
3. Greek buildings were normally only one story in height, but Romans
buildings were several stories in height, the orders superimposed lost the
structural significance and used only decoratively.
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1. The Greek built walls with large Blocks of stone, unconnected with
mortar, for important buildings.

2. The Romans were more practical and used materials economically.
They used concrete for the first time, a material consisting of small
fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or mortar.

3. These materials, not being special to any country, were used with
success in every part of the Empire, and gave a similarity to all Roman
buildings.

4. The craftsmanship required to construct these walls was simple and
required minimum supervision.

5. Only rough labour, was required" for mixing the materials of which
the concrete was made, and spreading it to form the walls. Rough laour
were available in plenty.

6. The structures could be erected by slaves, soldiers or sometimes
people who were sentenced to jail.
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The various kinds of walling may be divided into two classes :
1. Opus quadratum, rectangular blocks of stone with or without
mortar joints, frequently secured with dowels or cramps and
2. concrete un-faced or faced, used especially in Italy.
"Opus quadratum" at Mura Serviane (left)
and at Foro di Augusto (right).
Walls of cut stone, rectangular in form
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The concrete mixture used for building was formed of lime and lumps
of tufa, peperino, broken bricks, marble or pumice stone.
(a) Un-faced concrete was usually used for foundations, and

(b) faced concrete for walls, which had four varieties.

i. Concrete faced with "opus incertum, which was the oldest kind,
the concrete backing being studded with irregular shaped pieces of
stone, mainly used in the first and second centuries B.C.

ii. Concrete faced with "opus reticulatum, so called from its
resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) the joints being laid in
diagonal lines.

iii. Concrete faced with " opus latericium /brick , the walling was
faced with bricks, triangular on plan and usually about 1 1/2 inches
thick.

iv. Concrete with "opus mixtum, consisting of a wall of concrete
having in addition to the ordinary brick facing bands of tufa blocks at
intervals.

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Opus incertum
Using irregualar shaped and random
placed uncut stones or fist-sized tufa
blocks inserted in a core of opus
caementicium, used from the
beginning of the 2nd century BC, later
superceded by opus (quasi)
reticulatum.
Un-faced concrete
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Opus (quasi)reticulatum
Small square tufa blocks placed
diagonally to form a diamond-shaped
mesh pattern, often supplemented by
other materials at frames of windows
and doors or at reinforcements at
corners of buildings with oblong tufa
blocks.
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Opus testaceum / latericium
Brickfaced masonry - kiln-backed
bricks; the dominant technique
throughout the imperial period.
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Opus mixtum
Oblong or occasionally square tufa
blocks intersected by one or more
brick bands, at regular or irregular
distances.
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The kinds of vault employed were as follows :
(a.) The semi circular or waggon-headed vault.
(b.) The cross vault.
(c.) The dome (hemispherical and semi domes).
The vault had been previously used by the Assyrians,
the early Greeks, and the Etruscans.
The Romans generalized vaulting as a structural
system. They made it simple & practical by the
employment of concrete, by which they covered the
largest areas even now in existence.
Thus they had the freedom in the planning of complex
structures, which were easily roofed, the vaults can
be of any form and easily constructed on rough
centres or temporary supports un-till the concrete
was set.
It will thus be understood that vaults of concrete had
a very important effect on the forms of Roman
buildings, and they were employed universally.
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(a.) The semi
circular or waggon-
headed vault.
The semi circular or
waggon-headed
vault resting on two
sides of the covered
rectangle was used
in apartments
whose walls were
sufficiently thick.
Windows can be placed at
any point. These vaults require
buttressing to counter-act the
downward thrust of weight.
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(b.) The cross vault or
Groin vault.
Also called a cross vault.
Needs less buttressing
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(b.) The cross vault
or Multi Groin
Vault.
A series of groin vaults can have open lateral arches that
form Clerestories.
Windows that allow light into the interior of churches.
These concrete windows are fire proof (an important
consideration since many early churches burned).
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(b.) The cross vault or Multi Groin Vault.
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D
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(c.) The Dome.
With the dome, the Romans
could surpass earlier cultures by
their ability to span space.
Light enters through
the oculus on top
Hemispherical domes or
cupolas (cupa cup) were
used for covering circular
structures as in the
Pantheon.
Semi-domes were employed
for exedrse and other
recesses.
Most of these were cast in one
solid mass with no lateral thrust
on the walls, thus having the
form, without the principle, of
the arch, which, if 'formed of
radiating voussoirs of brick or
stone, would possibly have
pushed out the walls.
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(c.) The Dome Different types.
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D
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The Decoration.
A Roman edifice built of concrete could receive a decorative lining of any
or every kind of marble, having no necessary connection with the general
structure, such decoration being an independent sheathing giving a
richness to the walls both internal and external.

Roman architecture had the character, therefore, of a body clothed in
many instances with rich materials forming a rational and appropriate
finish to the structure, and differing essentially from Greek architecture.

Colored Marbles, Cement & Stucco were used to decorate both intenal
and external walls.
Mural paintings were executed on
the prepared stucco, and may be
classified as follows :
(a.) Fresco painting,
(b.) Tempera painting,
(c.) Varnish painting, &
(d.) Caustic painting.
The glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures, were mostly used
to decorate the walls and vaults only, and not the floors.
R
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C
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D
e
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r
a
t
i
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.

The Decoration.
Mosaics on a Roman
Villa Floor
R
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C
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,

D
e
c
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r
a
t
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n
.

The Decoration.
Mosaics on a
Roman Villa Floor
Opus sectile
Decoration patterns and figures at walls (and floors) with precisely cut pieces
of polychrome stone, usually marble
Roman Innovation
Tuscan Order:

Like the Doric, except
this one has a base.
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C
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,

T
u
s
c
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o
r
d
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.

Roman Innovation
The Composite order
combined elements of
both the Ionic and
Corinthian.
It appears to be
Corinthian acanthus
leaves, supplemented
with volutes.
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C
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,

C
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p
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o
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.