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MS ISO/IEC TR 10037 : 1995

STANDARDS & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA


MS 76 : 1972
ICS : 91.100.15
SPECIFICATION FOR BRICKS AND BLOCKS OF FIRED
BRICKEARTH, CLAY OR SHALE
PART 2 : METRIC UNITS
MALAYSIAN
STANDARD
Copyright
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SIRIM. No part of this publication may be photocopied or otherwise reproduced
without the prior permission in writing of SIRIM
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SPECIFICATION FOR
B RICK S AND B L OCK S OF FIRED
B RICK EARTH , CL AY OR SH AL E
PART 2 . M ETRIC U NITS
M S 76:1972
Copyright
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MS 76: 1972
This Malaysian Standard, which had been approved by the Civil
Engineering and Building Construction Industry Standards Committee and
endorsed by the Standards Council, was published under the authority
of the Standards Council in June, 1972.
SIM wishes to draw attention to the fact that this Malaysian
Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of
a contract.
Malaysian Standards are subject to periodical review to keep
abreast of progress in the industries concerned. Suggestions for im-
provements will be recorded and in due course brought to the notice
of the Committee charged with the revision of the Standards to which
they refer,
The following SIM references relate to the work on this standard:
Committee Reference: SIM/I/7/018
Draft for Comment: D21(ISC 7)
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MS 76: 1972
CONTENTS
Page
Committee Representation ... 7
Foreword ... ... ... 8
SPECIFICATIQN
1. Scope 14
Chapter 1. Bricks and Blocks for Walling
Section One: General
2. General ... ... ... ... ... 114
3. Definitions ... ... ... ... ... 14
4. Formats ... ... ... ... ... 16
5. Patterns ... ... ... ... ... 18
6. Compliance for Dimensions (Bricks) ... 18
7. Compliance for Dimensions (Blocks) ... 20
8. Compliance for Out of Squareness (Blocks) 20
9. Compliance for Bowing or Twisting (Blocks) 20
10. Strength and Absorption ... ... ... 21
Section Two: Specific Clauses
Sub-Section A: Facing and Common Bricks and Blocks of
Ordinary Quality
11. Finish ... ... ... ... 23
12. Strength ... ... ... 23
13. Soluble Salts Content ... 24
14. Liability to Efflorescence ... 24
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MS 76: 1972
Sub-Section B: Facing and Common Bricks and. Blocks of
Special Quality
15. Finish ... ... ... ... 24
16. Strength ... ... ... 24
17. Soluble Salts Content ... 25
18. Liability to Efflorescence ... 25
Sub-Section C: Bricks and Blocks for Internal Walls
19. Finish ... ... ... ... 25
20. Strength ... ... ... 25
211. Soluble Salts Content ... 26
22. Liability to Elrlorescence ... 26
Chapter 2. Hollow Blocks for Structural Floors and Roofs.
23. General ... ... ... 26
24. Formats ... ... ... ... 26
25. Compliance for Dimensions ... 28
26. Compliance for Out of Squareness 28
27. Compliance for Bowing or Twisting 28
28. Finish ... ... ... ... 28
29. Strength ... ... ... 29
30. Soluble Salts Content ... 29
31. Liability to Efflorescence ... ... 29
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MS 76: 1972
Chapter 3. Sampling Procedure and Test Methods
32. General 29
33. Samples ... ... 29
34. Method of Sampling ... ... ... ... ... 31
35. Determination of Dimension (Bricks) ... ... ... 34
36. Determination of Dimension (Blocks) ... ... ... 34
37. Deterinination of Out of Squareness (Blocks) ... ... 34
38. Determination of Bowing or Twisting (Blocks) ... 35
39. Determination of Compressive Strength ... ... ... 35
40. Water Absorption Tests ... ... ... ... ... 45
41. Soluble Salts Analysis ... ... ... ... ... 48
42. Elllorcsccnce Test ... ... ... ... ... ... 53
43. Compliance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 55
44. Procedure in the Event of Dispute ... ... ... 55
45. Cost of Testing ... ... ... ... ... ... 56
Appendix A. Application of Works Quality Control Scheme
for Dimensions ... ... ... ... ... 57
Appendix B. Choice of Limits and Acceptance Clauses for
Dimensions of Bricks ... ... ... ... 64
Table 1. Standard Formats (Bricks) ... ... ... ... 17
Table 2. Standard Formats (Blocks) ... ... ... ... 17
Table 3. Dimensional Tolerances (Bricks) ... ... ... 1 8
Table 4. Dimensional Tolerances (B!ocks) ... ... ... 19
Table 5. Maximum Deviations on Dimensions 21
Table 6. Strength and Absorption ... ... 22
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MS 76: 1972
Table 7. Standard Formats (Floor Blocks) ... ... ... 27
Table 8. Limits for Use With Gauge Board ... ... 63
Table 9. Limits for Use With Alternative Scale for
Gauge Board ... ... ... ... ... ... 63
Figure 1. Arrangements for Measuring Clay Building Bricks
(a) for Length, (b) for Width, (c) for Depth ... 66
Figure 2. Determination of Out of Squareness and
Bowing or Twisting of Hollow Blocks ... 67
Figure 3. Apparatus for Vacuum Absorption Test ... 68
Figure 4. Apparatus for Efliorescence Test ... ... ... 68
Figure 5. Gauge Board for Measuring Bricks ... ... 69
Figure 6. Double Bricks Referred to in Note 3,
Clause 39 (d)(iv) ... ... ... ... ... 70
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MS 76: 1972
Committee Representation
The Civil Engineering and Building Construction Industry Stand-
ards Committee under whose supervision this Malaysian Standard was
prepared, comprises representatives from the following Government
Ministries, trade commerce and manufacturer Association and scientific
and professional bodies.
Association of Consulting Engineers (Malaysia)
Cement & Concrete Association, Malaysia
Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers
Institution of Engineers (Malaysia)
Institution of Surveyors, Malaysia
Malaysian Institute of Architects
Malaysian Scientific Association
Master Builders Association
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Technology Research, & Local Government
Ministry of Works, Posts and Telecommunications
(Public Works Department)
United Chambers of Commerce
University of Malaysia
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MS 76: 1972
FOREWORD
This Malaysian Standard has been prepared under the authority
of the Civil Engineering and Building Construction Industry Standards
Committee. It is based on BS 3921: Part 2: 1969 which has been
published in metric units, in view of the fact that the country is
contemplating changing over to metric. In the interim, however, values
given in imperial units within brackets may be used. But one system
of units should be adhered to throughout for consistency, and the
values within brackets have been extracted from the corresponding
BS 3921 : 1965 which has become Part 1 of the corresponding British
Standard.
The technical difficulties in the way of a standard which shall
give useful guidance on the quality of all the many varieties of fired
clay bricks and blocks are so great that it is still not possible to
specify completely every point of importance. Nevertheless, the com-
mittee considered that the standard should provide as much guidance
as possible, even though some of the quality clauses will require re-
vision in the light of further knowledge. The main issues raised by
this standard are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Attempts to ascertain the quality of clay bricks and blocks by
infrequent sampling and testing to a specification of isolated batches
are subject to uncertainty because the properties of clay products, like
those of other manufactured products, are liable to variations over a
long period, as a result of changes in the naturally variable raw materials,
as well as process variations of products made at any one time, it is
therefore good manufacturing technique to sample and test products
regularly and to record the results in the form of control charts on
the principles discussed in BS 2564, Control chart technique when
manufacturing to a specification and in Appendices A and B. Such
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MS 76: 1972
charts display the variation of properties with time and thus give more
information about a product than can be obtained by tests made on
a single occasion. It is recommended that manufacturers should make
their control charts available for inspection by users and that users
should recognize their value. This recommendation shall not preclude
users from taking samples in accordance with Clauses 33 and 34 for
testing in accordance with the remaining Clauses of Chapter 3. Any
such samples that users may require shall be taken before the bricks
or blocks are built into work, especially where tests for soluble salts
content or liability to efflorescence are in question.
The treatment of strength in the specific clauses reflects the fact,
still not as widely appreciated as it should be, that strength is not
necessarily an index of durability and may be very misleading if used
as such. The main use of the strength test is as a guide to permissible
pressure in brickwork.
In the past, the permissible pressures on brickwork have been
calculated, in accordance with British Standard CPI 11: 1948, Struc-
tural recommendations for loadbearing walls, in terms of the mean
strength of samples of twelve bricks taken at random and of the mortar
composition. Variation in the strength of bricks and mortar and in
workmanship have been allowed for by using high load factors. Re-
cently, calculated loadbearing brickwork has begun to be treated like
other structural engineering materials and designed to finer limits. Where
this is to be done, it is desirable that the bricks used should be
manufactured under a system of quality control on a sound statistical
basis which enables the manufacturer to satisfy the user that he can
supply consignments such that, when a sample is tested in accordance
with Clause 39, there is a specified probability, normally of not more
than I in 40, that the arithmetic mean of the sample will be below
a specified limit of compressive strength.
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MS 76: 1972
The water absorption test also is given less prominence than has
often been accorded to it. A low water absorption figure can be used
in defining engineering bricks and bricks for damp-proof courses but
water absorption, like strength, is not a general index of durability.
With many, but not all, clays, the more durable bricks absorb less
water than those that are not so durable, so long as a single variety
of bricks is considered. No limit can be set, however, that will dis-
criminate generally between durable and non-durable bricks. Recent
work has shown that the saturation coefficient, or ratio or 24-how
cold absorption to a total absorption by the boiling or vacuum methods,
is less useful as an index of durability than was formerly thought. II
has not, therefore, been included. The vacuum method has been spe-
cified as an alternative to the boiling method, since some laboratories
regard it as more convenient and the results are approximately equivalent.
The method of measuring 24-hour cold absorption has also been
included in Clause 40, since this may occasionally he found useful for
works control, but no specific requirements based on this test are in-
cluded in Section Two of Chapter 1.
The committee has given serious consideration to the problem
of framing a specification which is based on the knowledge that bricks
containing undue amounts of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium
suiphates are liable to produce complaints about walls built with them.
The complaints may be of two kinds: sulphate expansion of Portland
cement mortar and efflorescence on brickwork.
Although cause and effect have been established broadly, conS
siderable difficulty has arisen when trying to decide what are suitable
maximum limits for the permissible contents or calcium, magnesium,
potassium, sodium and sulphate individually or in toto. In some cir-
cumstances it would appear that bricks with a total soluble sulphate
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MS 76: 1972
content of well under 1% have given severe trouble in sulphate expan-
sion: in others, bricks with soluble salt contents of as much as three
times this amount have been used without arousing comment. The
same sort of evidence has been forthcoming on particular salts, e g
potassium sulphate. For instance there has been complete absence of
complaints over extended periods when bricks containing 0.25% soluble
potassium have been used. Elsewhere trouble has arisen with bricks
containing less than 0.25%. In these circumstances it has been con-
sidered unreasonable to set a maximum of 0.25% of soluble potassium
for bricks in general.
The explanation of this conflicting evidence remains a matter
of conjecture. It is well known, for example, that for sulphate ex-
pansion to occur it is necessary to have soluble suiphates, tricalcium
aluminate, and water in juxtaposition. Thus, sulphate expansion does
not occur in brickwork where the bricks have negligible sulphate content,
or the mortar has a low triealcium aluminate content, as in mortar
made from sulphate-resisting cement, or when water is largely excluded
by sound methods of building construction. Thus it is easy to visualize
service and other conditions in which bricks of less salt content could
have performed badly. There are many other factors too, which obscure
this issue.
The incidence of efflorescence is subject to similar uncertainties.
it has, however, been observed that the sulphates of sodium or magnesium
are more troublesome than those of calcium or potassium.
Bearing all these factors in mind the committee felt that, for
bricks of ordiiiary quality (Clause 3.1 (c)(ii) ) , although the etilorescence
test should be retained, it could not recommend the setting of limits
for the content of soluble salts.
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MS 76: 1972
However, for bricks of special quality (Clause 3.! (c)(iii), for which
higher standards of manufacture can be reasonably expected, the com-
mittee felt that the maximum quantity of soluble salts permissible should
be stated, although the limits must necessarily be tentative.
The provision in Clause 3.1 (d)(i) that bricks containing up to
25% of holes are to be considered as solid requires explanation It
has been included because it is known that bricks with not more than
this modest degree of perforation can be treated in the same way as
bricks without holes when calculating permissible pressures on brick-
work from the strengths of the bricks determined in accordance with
Clause 39, and this artifice should ensure that such bricks are auto-
matically so treated. It need not be concluded that similar relations
between the strength of bricks and the strength of brickwork do not
subsist when the bricks contain more than 25% of holes, but where
a designer feels any doubt it is always open to him to require tests
on walls in accordance with MS * Structural Recomniendations
for Loadbearing Walls. Possibly on a future revision of the codes it
may be more appropriate to deal with this situation in the code rather
than in the standard, but on the present occasion the method adopted
has seemed expendient.
The method of overall measurement of 24 bricks, which wt~s
used in BS 657 in checking conformity with the dimensional clauses
of the standard, has been retained for standard bricks and is recom-
mended for non-standard bricks.
The minimum strength for blocks for structural floors and roofs,
specified in Clause 29, differs from the minimum strength specified for
blocks for walling because the method of testing and the method of
expressing the results are different. The limit of 14 MNIm
2
(2,000
* In Preparation.
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MS 76: 1972
lbf/in
2
) is one that can reasonably be attained by most manufacturers.
It is lower than the limit 17.0 MN/rn
2
(2,500 lbf/in
2
) set in BS 1190,
but it is open to the structural engineer who wishes to take the strength
of the blocks into consideration in his design to specify a higher
strength where this is likely to be useful.
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MS 76: 1972
SPECIFICATION
1. SCOPE
1. This Part of the Malaysian Standard specifies bricks and blocks
manufactured from brickearth, clay, or shale.
CHAPTER 1. BRICKS AND BLOCKS FOR WALLING
SECTION ONE: GENERAL
2. GENERAL
2.1 Bricks and blocks for walling are units designed to be laid
in a bed of mortar.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1 For the purposes of this Malaysian Standard the following
definitions apply:
(a) Bricks and blocks.
(I) Brick. A walling unit not exceeding 337.5 mm
(131 in) in length, 225 mm (9 in) in width, or
112.5 mm (41 in) in height.
(ii) Block. A walling unit exceeding in length, width
or height the dimensions specified for bricks.
(b) Different varieties of brick and block may be more parti-
cularly defined as follows:
(i) Common. Suitable for general building work but
having no special claim to give an attractive
appearance.
(ii) Facing. Specially made or selected to give an
attractive appearance when used without rendering
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MS 76: 1972
or plaster or other surface treatment of the wall.
(iii) J~ngineering. Having a dense and strong semi-
vitreous body conforming to defined limits for
absorption and strength.
(c) Different qualities of brick and block may be defined
as follows:
(i) Internal quality. Bricks and blocks suitable for
internal use only.
Note: Bricks and blocks not attaining quality 3.1 (c)(iii)
may be suitable for internal use only.
(ii) Ordinary quality. Less durable than special quality
but normally durable in the external face of a
building.
(iii) Special quality. Durable even when used in situa-
tions of extreme exposure where the structure may
become saturated, e g retaining walls, sewerage
plants or pavings.
Note: Engineering bricks and blocks normally attain this
standard of durability. Facing and common bricks
or blocks may do so, but this should not be
assumed unless claimed by the manufacturer.
(d) Different types of brick and block may be defined as
follows:
(i) Solid. In which small holes passing through, or
nearly through, a brick or block do not exceed 25%
of its volume, or in which frogs (depressions in the
bed faces of a brick) do not exceed 20% of its
volume. For the purposes of this definition, a small
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MS 76: 1972
hole is a hole less than 20 mm (~in) wide or less
than 500 mm
2
(0.8 in2) in area. Up to three larger
holes, not exceeding 3250 mm
2
(5 in
2
) each. may
be incorporated as aids to handling, within the total
of 25%.
(ii) Perforated. In which holes passing through the
brick or block exceed 25% of its volume, and the
holes are small as defined in (i) above. Up to three
larger holes, not exceeding 3250 iiiiii2 each, may he
incorporated as aid to handling.
(iii) Hollow. In which holes passing through the brick
or block exceed 25% of its volume, and the holes
are not small, as defined in (i) above.
(iv) Cellular. In which holes closed at one end exceed
20% of the volume of the brick or block.
Note: Cellular bricks and blocks are normally made by
pressing, whereas perforated and hollow bricks
and blocks are normally made by extrusions. Per-
forations and hollows may be either perpendicular
to the bed face (V type) or parallel to the bed
face (H type).
(v) Special shapes. Shapes other than the normal rec-
tangular prism.
(vi) Standard specials. Special shapes that are in general
use may be available from stock.
4. FORMATS
4.1 The formats of bricks and blocks shall be designated in terms
of their nominal dimensions which, with the exception of the
widths of blocks include the thickness of a mortar joint. This
is taken, for the purposes of this Standard, as equal to 10 mm
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MS 76: 1972
(~in). The standard brick format is given in Table 1 and
the block formats in Table 2. Sonic considerations affecting
the design of any additional formats that may be required are
mentioned in Appendix C.
TABLE 1. STANDARD FORMATS (BRICKS)
(Dimensions are in millimetres, inches in brackets)
Designation
Actual dimensions
Length
Width Height
225 x 112.5 x 75
(9 x 41~x 3)
215
(8*)
102.5
(4k)
65
(2*)
Note 1: In accordance with modern terminology Actual di-
mensions should be replaced by Work sizes.
TABLE 2. STANDARD FORMATS (BLOCKS)
(Dimensions are in millimetres, inches in brackets)
t See Note 1 to Table
1.
Designation
Actual dimensioust
Width Height
300 x 62.5 x 225
(12 x 21 x 9)
300 x 75 x 225
(12 x 3 x 9)
300 x 100 x 225
(12 x 4 x 9)
300 x 150 x 225
(12 x 6 x 9)
Length
290
(11 ~)
290
(1 l~)
290
(111)
290
(1l~)
62.5
(2 ~)
75
(3)
100
(4)
150
(6)
215
(8~)
215
(Q5
215
(8k)
215
(8k)
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MS 76: 1972
In addition, half blocks, 140 mm (5~in) long, and three-quarter
blocks, 215 mm (8~~in) long, shall be available for bonding.
5. PATTERNS
5.1 Bricks and blocks may be solid, perforated, hollow or cavity.
Perforated and hollow bricks and blocks may be either V-type
or H-type.
6. COMPLIANCE FOR DIMENSIONS (BRICKS)
6.1 The bulk supply or load of bricks shall be deemed to comply
with Clause 4 if the overall measurements of the sample of 24,
taken in accordance with Clauses 33 and 34 and tested in
accordance with Clause 35 do not fall outside the tolerances
given in Table 3. If the measurements of the sample fall
outside those tolerances the bulk supply or load shall be
deemed not to comply. No testing of a second sample shall
be permitted.
TABLE 3. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES (BRICKS)
Specified dimension
(Fable 1)
Ovei~alI measurement
of 24 bricks
mm in
65 2*
1 0 2 . 5 4*
2 1 5 8*
mm in
1560 ( + 60 63 1*
( 30
2 460 45 99 l~
5 1 60 75 2 0 7 3
Note 1: This method of measurement is also recommended
for non-standard bricks. The tolerances applied to
the length, width and height dimensions should then
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MS 76: 1972
be directly proportional to those specified for the
corresponding dimensions of the standard brick.
Note 2: In the past certain manufacturers have, by special
arrangement, supplied bricks to closer tolerance than
those quoted. Where for special reasons closer
tolerances are required it is therefore suggested that
this can best be done by agreement between the
user and the manufacturer on the basis of the
latters routine control charts of. brick dimensions.
See also Appendixes A and B.
Note 3: For building construction the use of the term
tolerances is likely to be restricted to the per-
missible range between the maximum and minimum
limit of size, and the term permissible deviation
more accurately describes the permissible variations
in this Table
TABLE 4. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES* (BLOCKS)
Specified dimension
(Fable 2 or Table 7)
Tolerance for
single units
mm in
Less than 125 Less than 5
125 to 225 5 to 9
Greater than 225 Greater than 9,
mm in
2.5 3/32
+ 3.0 1/8
5.0 3/16
Note 1: This method of measurement is also recommended
for non-standard blocks.
*See Note 3 to Table 3.
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MS 76: 1972
7. COMPLIANCE FOR DIMENSIONS (BLOCKS)
7.1 If 3 or more of the 10 blocks selected in accordance with
Clauses 33 and 34 and tested in accordance with Clause 36
fail to meet the tolerances specified in Table 4, the bulk supply
or load shall be deemed not to comply. If 1 or 2 blocks
fail to meet the tolerance specified a further 10 blocks shall
be selected from the batch represented and the test repeated.
Failure of one of the blocks in the repeat test shall be taken
to indicate that the bulk supply or load does not comply with
this Standard.
8. COMPLIANCE FOR OUT OF SQUARENESS (BLOCKS)
8.1 Where adjacent faces are intended to be at right angles, the
amount by which they deviate shall be measured in accordance
with Clause 37. The distance between the inner edge of the
straight edge and the face of the block shall not exceed 5 mm
(3/16 in) per 300 mm (I ft) run.
The measurement shall be made on 10 blocks, and the method
described in Clause 7 shall be used to determine whether or
not the bulk supply complies.
9. COMPLIANCE FOR BOWING OR TWISTING (BLOCKS)
9.1 When measured in accordance with Clause 42, the deviation
from a straight line shall not exceed the figures shown in
Table 5. These measurement refer to the deviations at or
near the centre if the face is concave, and two equal measure-
ments between the straight edge and the corners of the block
if the face is convex.
The measurement shall be carried out on 10 blocks and the
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MS 76: 1972
method described in Clause 7 shall be used to determine
whether or not the bulk supply complies.
TABLE 5. MAXIMUM DEVIATIONS ON DIMENSIONS
of block
Max. deviation from
.
a straight line
mm in
225 x 150 (9 in
measured faces 3 1/8
the above but not
300 (9 in x 12 in) 5 3/1 6
225 x 300 (9 in x
6 1/4
10. STRENGTH AND ABSORPTION
10.1 In accordance with MS * or to comply with building
regulations, the classification given in Table 6 shall apply:
interpolation of classes of Ioadbearing bricks not given in the
above Table may be used for bricks having average crushing
strengths intermediate between those given in the Table. Thus
for instance Class 4.5 may be used to describe bricks with
an average strength of 31.0 MN/rn
2
(4500 lbf/in
2
) and Class 11
to describe bricks with an average strength of 76 MN/rn
2
(11,000 lbf/in
2
).
Bricks to 5.2 MN/rn
2
(750 lbf/in
2
) and blocks to 2.8 MN/rn
2
(400 lbf/in
2
) in Clauses 12, 17 and 22 can also be loadbearing
e g as used in one- and two-storey dwelling houses, the
* MS , Structural Recommendations for Loadbearing Walls, In
Preparation.
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MS 76: 1972
TABLE 6. STRENGTh AND ABSORPTION
Designation Class
Average
compressive
strength MN/m~
not less th~
Average absorp-
tion boiling or
vacuum percent
weight not
greater han
Engineering brick
A
B
69.0 (10,000 lbf/in
2
)
48.5 ( 7,000 lbf/in
2
)
4.5
7.0
Loadbearing brick 15
10
7
5
4
3
2
1
103.0 (15,000 lbf/in
2
)
69.0 (10,000 lbf/in
2
)
48.5 ( 7,000 lbf/in
2
)
34.5 ( 5,000 lbf/in
2
)
27.5 ( 4,000 lbf/in
2
)
20.5 ( 3,000 lbf/in
2
)
14.0 ( 2,000 Ibf/in
2
)
7.0 (1,000 lbf/in
2
)
No specific
requirements
Bricks for damp-
proof courses
D PC as required 4.5
5.2 MN/rn
2
(750 lbf/in
2
) brick is not limited to non-loadbearing
uses.
Compliance with the requirements of the Clause shall be checked
by the methods set out in ~Clauses 39 and 40.
If the manufacturer works a quality control system that includes
strength testing, the results of the quality control tests may
be made the basis of acceptance.
Where loadbearing brickwork is not calculated, the only strength
requirements of this standard are those of Clauses 12, 16 and
20.
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MS 76: 1972
SECTION TWO: SPECIFIC CLAUSES
SUB-SECTION 4: FACING AND COMMON BRICKS
AND BLOCKS OF ORDI1NARY QUALITY
11. FINISH
11.1 Facing and common bricks and blocks of ordinary quality shall
be well-fired and shall be reasonably free from deep or extensive
cracks and from damage to edges and corners, from pebbles
and expansive particles of lime. They shall also, when a cut
surface is examined, show a reasonably uniform texture.
Note: It is not possible to define well-fired in a way that
would apply unambiguously to all types of brick and
blocks, though people with experience of particular
types soon come to recognize what is meant. It is
known that a brick or block has been well-fired when
an adequate ceramic bond has been formed within the
body, but it is not possible precisely to determine by
appearance or other simple test whether or not such
a bond has been formed, without reference to the type
of clay, the method of manufacture, and the format.
To people very familiar with a specific product, colour
can be a guide when considering that particular pro-
duct, but to the layman, colour alone can be completely
misleading. Similarly, hardness and hence ring when
struck can be a good guide to the expert, but clearly
this criterion cannot be applied to all bodies such as,
for example, those of low density.
12. STRENGTH
12.1 Unless a higher strength is agreed in accordance with Clause
10 the compressive strength of bricks of ordinary quality when
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MS 76: 1972
tested in accordance with Clause 39, shall be not less than
5.2 MN/m
2
(750 lbf/in
2
) and of blocks of ordinary quality shall
be not less than 2.8 MN/rn
2
(400 lbf/in
2
). These minimum
strengths are acceptable provided the bricks and blocks are
satisfactory in other respects.
13. SOLUBLE SALTS CONTENT
13.1 No requirements.
14. LIABILITY TO EFFLORESCENCE
14.1 When tested in accordance with Clause 42 no sample shall
develop efflorescence worse than moderate.
SUB-SECTION B: FACING AND COMMON BRICKS
AND BLOCKS OF SPECIAL QUALITY
15. FINISH
15.1 Facing and common bricks and blocks of special quality shall
be hardfired and shall be reasonably free from cracks and
from damage to edges and corners, from pebbles and expansive
particles of lime. They shall also, when a cut surface is
examined, show a reasonably uniform texture with no very
coarse particles.
Note: In interpreting the qualitative requirements of Clauses
11 and 15, a more exacting standard may reasonably
be set for bricks of special quality than for those of
ordinary quality
16. STRENGTH
16.1 Unless a higher strength is agreed in accordance with Clause 10.
the compressive strength of bricks of special quality, when tested
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MS 76: 1972
in accordance with Clause 39, shall be not less than 5.2 MN/m~
(750 lbf/in
2
) and of blocks of special quality shall be not less
than 2.8 MN/ni
2
(400 lbf/in
2
). These minimum strengths are
acceptable provided the bricks and blocks are satisfactory in
other respects.
17. SOLUBLE SALTS CONTENT
17.1 When tested in accordance with Clause 41, the contents by
weight percent of soluble sulphate, calcium, magnesium,
potassium and sodium radicals shall not exceed respectively
0.30, 0.10, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.03%. The sulphate figure to be
used for the purpose of this Clause shall be the acid soluble
sulphate determined in accordance with Clause 41 (c).
18. LIABILITY TO EFFLORESCENCE
18.1 When tested in accordance with Clause 42 no sample shall
develop elflorescence worse than moderate.
SUB-SECTION C: BRICKS AND BLOCKS FOR
INTERNAL WALLS
19. FINISH
19.1 Bricks and blocks for internal walls (loadbearing) and partitions
shall be reasonably free from deep or extensive cracks, from
damage to edges and corners, and from expansive particles of
lime. They shall also, when a cut surface is examined, show
a reasonably uniform texture.
Note: Such units unless otherwise specified will be suitable
for rendering but not necessarily for fair faced work.
20. STRENGTI-I
20.1 Unless a higher strength is agreed in accordance with Clause 10,
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MS 76: 1972
the compressive strength of bricks for loadbearing internal
walls when tested in accordance with Clause 39, shall be not
less than 5.2 MN/rn
2
(750 Ibf/in
2
) and of blocks for load-
bearing internal walls shall be not less than 2.8 MN/m
2
(400 lbf/in
2
). The compressive strength of bricks and blocks
for non-loadbcaring partitions shall not be less than 1.4 MN/rn
2
(200 Ibf/ in
2
). These minimum strengths are acceptable pro-
vided the bricks and blocks are satisfactory in other respects.
21. SOLUBLE SALTS CONTENT
21.1 No requirements.
22. LIABILITY TO EFFLORESCENCE
22.1 When tested in accordance with Clause 42 no sample shall
develop efflorescence worse than moderate.
CHAPTER 2. HOLLOW BLOCKS FOR
STRUCTURAL FLOORS AND ROOFS
23. GENERAL
23.1 The hollow blocks for structural floors and roofs covered by
this Standard are blocks designed to be used as filler blocks
in reinforced concrete floors.
24. FORMATS
24.1 The formats of blocks for structural floors and roofs shall be
designed in terms of their nominal dimensions which differ
from their actual dimensions except in the depth. The actual
length and width are 5 mm (3/16 in) less than the nominal
length and width. The standard formats are given in Table 7.
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MS 76: 1972
TABLE 7. STANDARD FORMATS (FLOOR BLOCKS)
(Dimensions are in millimetres, inches in brackets)
Designation
Actual climensions*
Length
Width Depth
300x 300x 75
(l2x12x3) 295
(11 13/16)
295
(11 13/16)
75
(3)
30 0 x 30 0 x
1 0 0 ( 1 2 x1 2 x4)
2 95
( 1 1 1 3/1 6)
2 95
( 1 1 1 3/1 6)
1 0 0
( 4)
30 0 x 30 0 x 1 2 5 ( 1 2 x 1 2 x 5)
295
(11 13/16)
2 95
(11 13/16~
1 2 5
(5)
30 0 x 30 0 x
1 5 0 ( 1 2 x 1 2 x 6) 2 95
(11 13/16)
, 295
(11 13/16)
150
(6)
30 0 x 30 0 x 1 75 ( 1 2 x1 2 x7)
2 95
( 1 1 1 3/1 6)
2 95
( 1 1 1 3/1 6)
1 75
( 7)
30 0 x 30 0 x 2 0 0 ( 1 2 x 1 2 x 8)
2 95
( 1 1 1 3/1 6)
2 95
(ii 13/16)
2 0 0
(8)
30 0 x
30 0 x 2 2 5 (12x12x9)
295 295
225
( 1 1 1 3/1 6) ( 1 1 1 3/1 6) ( 9)
300x 300x 250 (12x12x10)
295 295 250
(11 13/16) (II 13/16)
(10)
Note: Length is measured along the direction which is
normally parallel to the concrete reinforcing ribs
when the block is in the floor. Width is measured
in the direction which is normally at right angles
to the concrete ribs when the block is laid in the
floor.
* See Note I to Table I.
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MS 76: 1972
25. COMPLIANCE FOR DIMENSIONS
2 5 . 1 Blocks for structural floors and roofs shall be measured in-
dividually by the method laid down in Clause 36 for blocks
for walling.
The measurement shall be carried out on 1 0 b lo c k s and t h e
method described in Clause 7 shall be used to determine
whether or not the bulk supply complies.
26. COMPLIANCE FOR OUT OF SQUARENESS
26.1 Where adjacent faces are intended to be at right angles, the
amount by which they deviate shall be measured in accordance
with Clause 37. The distance between the inner edge of the
straight edge and the face of the blocks shall not exceed 5 mm
(3/16 in) per 300 mm (1 ft) run.
The measurement shall be carried out on 10 blocks and the
method of Clause 7 used to determine whether or not the
bulk supply complies.
27. COMPLIANCE FOR BOWING OR, TWISTING
27.1 When measured in accordance with Clause 38, t h e de v i at i o n
fro m a s t rai g h t e dg e s h all no t e xc e e d the figures shown in
Tab le 5 . Th e s e me as ure me nt s re fe r to the deviations at or
ne ar t h e c e nt re i f t h e fac e i s concave, and two equal measure-
ments between the straight edge and the corners of the block
if the face is convex.
The measurement shall be carried out on 10 blocks and the
method of Clause 7 used to determine whether or not the
bulk supply complies.
2 8. FINTSH ~
28.1 Blocks for structural floors and roofs shall be reasonably free
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MS 76: 1972
from deep or extensive cracks, from damage to edges and
corners and from expansive particles of lime. They shall also,
when a cut surface is examined, show a reasonably uniform
texture.
29. STRENGTH
29.1 The compressive strength of blocks for structural floors and
roofs, when tested in accordance with Clause 39, shall be not
less than 14.0 MN/rn
2
(2000 lbf/in
2
). Higher strengths may
be agreed between the supplier and the user if it is desired
to make use of the block strength when calculating the strength
of the floor for design purposes.
30. SOLUBLE SALTS CONTENT
30.1 No requirements.
31. LIABILITY TO EFFLORESCENCE
31.1 No requirements.
CHAPTER 3. SAMPLING PROCEDURE AND
TEST METhODS
32. GENERAL
32.1 Testing shall be carried out on samples which are taken in
accordance with Clauses 33 and 34.
33. SAMPLES
33.1 Samples may be required for:
(a) Routine quality control tests carried out by the manufac-
turer. For this purpose the number of units to be taken
as samples shall be at the discretion of the manufacturer
and shall be based on sound statistical principles*.
* Suitable expositions of statistics for this purpose are given in Appendix
A and in BS 2564, Control Chart Technique When Manufacturing to
a Specification.
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MS 76: 1972
(b) Tests carried out by the manufacturer or the customer
to determine compliance with specification. For this
purpose the number of units required for specific tests
shall be as follows:
(i) Compressive strength 10
(ii) Water absorption 10
(iii) Soluble salts 10
(iv) Efflorescent testt I 0
40
(v) Dimensions of bricks 24
(vi) Dimensions of blocks 10
Since the dimensional test can be carried out on units which
are used subsequently for other tests and since the 10 bricks
or blocks used for the water absorption test may be used
subsequently for the compressive strength test, the minimum
number of units required when all tests are to be made is
30, but a sample of 50 units provides a reasonable margin to
allow for loss and breakage and for simultaneous testing.
When it is known that only certain of these tests are to be
made then the appropriate number of units required shall be
sampled instead of the 50 units.
t When the sample for soluble salts analysis is prepared by the method
of Clause 33.1(b)(iii), the 10 bricks or blocks from which the sample
has been taken may be used subsequently for the efflorescence test.
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MS 76 : 1972
When dimensional tests only are to be carried out on blocks,
since ten additional units may be required under the terms of
Clause 7, these must be taken at the same time as the first
sample of ten, unless it is known that the whole delivery will
be available for further sampling when the first part of the
test has been completed.
The required number of units shall be sampled from a discrete
delivery of not less than 2000 or more than 10,000 bricks,
or not less than 500 or more than 2,500 blocks.
When all tests are to be carried out, units for any one specific
test shall be taken at random from the sample of 50 units if
the latter are originally sampled at random from the delivery,
or where statistical representative sampling of the delivery is
carried out the required number of units shall be taken at
random from each of the representative sub-samples (See
Clause 34, Method of sampling).
Sample units remaining after allocating units for specific tests
shall be reserved either for reference or for other tests which
may be required.
34. METHOD OF SAMPLiNG
34.1 TI required sample may be drawn by:
(a) Random sampling.
(b) Representative sampling.
In random sampling the sample is taken in such a way that
e v e ry uni t i n t h e b ulk h as an e q ual c h anc e o f appe ari ng i n
the sample.
In representative sampling the bulk is divided into convenient
sections (real or imaginary) and the sample is taken so that
31
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MS 76: 1972
for each section of the bulk there is a corresponding portion
of the sample. The units in each of these portions must be
taken in a random manner (See (a) below).
The word Representative applied to sampling does not mean
that the sampler is to select units which lie thinks represent
the different colours, sizes, strengths, etc., of the bulk supply.
Any person bias in selection must be avoided.
The samples shall be taken by one of the methods set out
below, sampling being arranged SO as to yield the number
of units required.
(a) Sampling in motion. Whenever practicable a sample shall
be taken whilst the units are being moved, for example
during loading or unloading. 1n this case 2, 3, 4 or
5 units shall be taken at random from each of 10 ap-
proximately equal sections of the bulk to be tested de-
pending on whether one, two, three or four of the tests
(i), ( i i ), (iii), (iv) are to be carried out, with or without
test (iv).
If only test (v) is to be carried out it will be more con-
venient to take 2 units at random from each of 12 ap-
proximately equal sections of the bulk.
if test (v) is to be carried out and one, two, three or
four of the tests (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), then 24, 24, 30 or
40 is the minimum number of units required. To allow
for loss and breakage the number sampled shall there-
fore be 30, 30, 40 or 50. These units shall be obtained
by taking 3, 3, 4 or 5 units at random from each of 10
approximately equal sections of the bulk to be tested.
The sample of 24 units required for test (v) shall be
obtained by taking 2 units at random from each of 6
portions selected at random from the t O po rt i o ns c o rn-
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prising the main sample and 3 units at random from
each of the remaining 4 portions.
When 2 or more multiples of 10 units are sampled from
a bulk supply the sample of 10 units required for one
specific test shall be obtained by taking one unit at
random from the units in each of the 10 portions of
the sample. When sampling it will therefore be neces-
sary to identify the units in any 1 portion of the sample
by the same letter or mark which should be different
from the letters or marks given to the other 9 portions
of the sample.
(b) Sampling from a stack. When it i s ne c e s s ary t o t ak e a
sample from a stack the following procedure shall be
adopted:
The stack shall be divided into a number of real or
imaginary sections and the required number of units
drawn from each section as indicated under (a). For
this purpose units in the upper layers of the stack shall
be moved to enable units to be sampled from places
within the stack. Units shall also be sampled from
ac c e s s i b le s i de s o f s e c t i o ns which are at the edge of the
s t ac k .
Sampling from stacks may not be satisfactory when
testing for soluble salts and efflorescence because con-
tarnination from the ground and other sources may
occur.
(c) Sampling from lorries or trucks. When for any reason
sampling cannot be carried out in motion, units shall be
taken from a number of sections of the load as indicated
under (b), reading lorry or truck in place of stack.
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MS 76: 1972
35. DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONS (BRICKS)
35.1 When standard bricks are to be checked for dimensions the
method shall be the overall measurement of 24 bricks placed
in contact in a straight line upon a level surface in each of
the arrangements indicated in Fig. 1 Any blisters or small
projections or loose particles of clay adhering to the face of a
brick shall be removed before they are assembled for measure-
ment. The overall dimensions of the assembled bricks shall
be measured with. a steel tape or other suitable inextensible
measure long enough to measure the whole row at once.
Measurement by repeated application of a short rule or measure
shall not be considered satisfactory.
if for any reason, it is found impracticable to measure 24
bricks in one row, the samples may be divided into two rows
of 12, or three rows of 8, which shall be measured separately
to the nearest 2 mm and their measurements added. The
measurement of one row of 12 or 8 units and multiplication
by 2 or 3 shall not be considered satisfactory, because of
the probability that the mean dimensions of so small a sample
differ appreciably from the mean dimensions of the bulk supply.
36. DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONS (BLOCKS)
36.1 Standard blocks shall be measured individually, a sample of
10 units being measured. Each of the 3 linear dimensions
shall be measured with a ruler graduated at intervals of 1 mm
(1/32 in) and the results noted. The measurements shall be
carried out for each of the 10 units in turn.
37. DETERMINATION OF OUT OF SQUARENESS (BLOCKS)
37.1 The amount by which the angle between adjacent faces of
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MS 76: 1972
the block differs from a right angle ~haIl be determined by
placing a builders steel square against one edge and measuring
the distance between the inner edge of the square and the
face of the block (See Fig. 2).
38. DETERMINATION OF BOWiNG OR TWISTING (BLOCKS)
38.1 The blocks shall be placed between two parallel straight edges
running diagonally across the two faces of the unit as shown
in Fig 2. The distance between the straight edge and the
face of the block shall be measured at a point near the centre
on the side which is concave, and two equal measurements
shall be taken between the straight edge and the corners of
the opposite face of the block on the convex side.
39. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
(a) Test specimens. Ten whole units, taken as directed in
Claus e s 33 and 34, shall be used for determining com-
pressive strength.
(1) Bed face area. Bricks and blocks for w alli ng . Wh e n
testing bricks and blocks for walling, the overall
dimensions of each bed face shall be measured to
the nearest 1 mm (0.05 m) and the area of the
smaller of the two shall be taken as the area of
the unit for calculating t h e compressive strength.
This applies to all types of bricks and blocks, in-
cluding the divided-joint type, i e, the gap between
the twin strips of mortar on which the latter are
b e dde d i s i nc lude d i n t h e o v e rall are a.
(ii) Bed face area. Blocks for structural floors and roofs.
When testing flooring blocks the ends in which the
cavities appear shall be treated as the bed faces.
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MS 76: 1972
Th e ne t are a o f the material in the bed face shall
b e o b t ai ne d b y s ub t rac t i ng t h e area of the cavities
fro m t h e o v e rall are a o f t h e b e d fac e , and shall
be taken as the area of the block for calculating
the compressive strength.
(b) Preparation of specimens.
(i) Solid bricks without frogs, bricks with frogs intended
to be laid frog downwards, perforated bricks and
cavity bricks. Bri c k s o f s t andard s i z e . i nc ludi ng s o li d
b ri c k s w i t h o ut fro g s , pe rfo rat e d b ri c k s and c av i t y
bricks, shall be i mme rs e d i n w at e r at ro o m t e m-
perature for not less than 24 hours or saturated under
v ac uum o r b y b o i li ng , b e fo re t e s t i ng .
Th e s ame me t h o d s h all b e us e d fo r b ri c k s w i t h
ordinary frogs that are to be laid frog downwards.
Wh e n, fo r t h i s purpo s e , t h e s t re ng t h o f b ri c k s i s
de t e rmi ne d w i t h t h e fro g unfi lle d, t h i s fac t s h all b e
pro mi ne nt ly s t at e d i n t h e t e s t re po rt .
(ii) Bricks with frogs intended to be laid frog upwards.
Bri c k s with frogs shall be immersed in water at
room t e mpe rat ure fo r no t le s s t h an 2 4 h o urs , o r
saturated under vacuum or by boiling. They shall
then be removed and allowed to drain for about
five minutes, wiped free from surplus moisture, and
their frogs filled with mortar. (The requirement that
fro g s s h all b e fi lle d s h all no t b e t ak e n as re q ui ri ng
the filling of perforations in perforated bricks or
of the deep frogs in cavity bricks which are made
to give a lightweight wall when bedded frog down-
ward. These are to be prepared as prescribed in
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MS 76 : 1972
( h )( i ) above). Not less than four, and preferably
six cubes, approximately 75 mm ( 3 in) o n s i de ,
s h all b e made fro m e ac h b at c h o f mo rt ar and s h all
he stored under the s ame conditions as the bricks.
The mix used shall be capable of attaining the
strength specified below and, when set, there shall
he no concavity in the mo rt ar fi lli ng ( Se e No t e 1 ).
Singlc-frogged bricks shall be stored under damp
sacking or similar material for 24 hours after their
fro g s have b e e n t i lle d and t h e n i mme rs e d i n w at e r
unt i l t h e y are ready for testing.
Double-frogged bricks shall be prepared in two stages
not less than four nor more than eight hours being
allowed to elapse after filling the first frog before
filling the second, using a mortar with the same
composition as before. They shall be stored under
damp sacking or similar material for 24 hours after
filling the second frog, and then immersed in water
unt i l re ady fo r t e s t i ng .
Bricks with frogs shall be considered ready for
testing when tests on the cubes show that the com-
pressive strength o f the mortar is not less than
2 8. 0 MN/rn
2
( 40 0 0 lb f/i n
2
) and no t mo re t h an 42 . 0
MN/rn
2
(6000 lbf/in
2
). Single cubes may be used
t o i ndi c at e the growth of mortar strength, but the
fi nal t e s t s h all b e made w i t h t h re e c ub e s fo r e ac h
batch of mortar, the average strength of the three
c ub e s b e i ng t ak e n as t h e s t re ng t h o f t h e mo rt ar.
(iii) Hollow blocks, including floor blocks, and bricks
larger than 22S x .112.5 mm (9 x 4~in) (on bed face) .
The specimens shall be immersed in water at room
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MS 76: 1972
t e mpe rat ure fo r no t le s s t h an 2 4 hours, or saturated
under vacuum or by boiling. They shall t h e n b e
re mo v e d and allo w e d t o drai n fo r ab o ut fi v e mi nut e s ,
w i pe d fre e fro m s urplus w at e r and b e dde d i n a
mo rt ar c apab le o f at t ai ni ng t h e s t re ng t h s pe c i fi e d
below ( Se e No t e 1 ). Not less than four, and pre-
ferably six, cubes of mortar approximately 75 mm
(3 in) side, shall be made from each batch of
mortar and s h all b e s t o re d unde r t h e s ame con-
ditions as the specimens.
The bedding shall be carried out in the following
manner. Each specimen shall be bedded on a
s mo o t h ri g i d plat e , at le as t 40 mm (13 in) longer
and wider than the specimen, which, does not depart
fro m a t rue plane s urfac e by more than 0.05 mm
( 0 . 0 0 2 in) pi e c e s o f Plat e g las s , or machined steel
plat e s , are t h e mo s t s ui t ab le mat e ri als . Th e plat e
shall be firmly s uppo rt e d w i t h t h e mac h i ne d fac e
uppe rmo s t and le v e lle d i n t w o di re c t i o ns at ri g h t
ang le s b y me ans o f a s pi ri t le v e l. It s h all b e c o at e d
with a film of mould oil to prevent mortar adhering,
o r alt e rnat i v e ly a s h e e t o f t h i n pape r c an b e us e d
fo r t h e s ame purpo s e . A laye r o f mo rt ar 2 0 h i m
~ i n) and 40 mm ( 1 1 i n) t o 5 0 mm (2 in) longer
and wider than the specimen shall then be placed
on the plate and one bed face of the specimen firmly
pre s s e d i nt o i t s o t h at t h e v e rt i c al axi s o f t h e s pe c i -
men is perpendicular to the plane of the plate and
so that the bed is approximately 10 mm (~in)
thick and nowhere less than 5.0 mm (~in) thick
(See Note 2). Th~surplus mortar shall be trimmed
off flush with the sides of the block after it has
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MS 76: 1972
hardened sufficiently (See Note 1). The block shall
then be stoi ccl under damp sacking or similar ma-
terial for 24 hours before being carefully removed
from the plate, without damaging the mortar, and
i nv e rt e d.
The second bed face shall then be bedded in the
same way as the first using a mortar with the same
composition as b e fo re . Th e s pe c i me n shall be placed
on the bed of mortar and the face now uppermost
levelled in two directions at right angles by means
of a spirit level to ensure that the two mortar-faces
are parallel. After bedding the specimen shall again
he covered with damp sacking or similar material
for 24 hours and then immersed in water until tested.
The specimen shall he considered ready for testing
when tests on the cubes show that the compressive
strength of the mortar is riot less than 28.0 MN/rn
2
( 40 0 0 lb f/i n
2
) and not more than 42.0 MN/rn
2
(6000 lbf/in
2
). Single cubes may be used to indicate
the growth of mortar strength, but the final test
shall be made with three cubes for each batch of
mortar, the average strength of the three cubes being
taken as the strength of the mortar.
(iv) Divided-joint bricks and blocks. Bricks and blocks
designed to give a single-leaf wall with the mortar
joints divided into two strips (See Note 3) shall be
immersed in water at room temperature for not less
than 24 hours, or saturated under vacuum or by
b o i li ng . Th e y s h all t h e n b e re mo v e d and allowed
to drain for about five minutes, wiped free from
surplus water and bedded in mortar. The method
39
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MS 76: 1972
o f b e ddi ng s h all b e g e ne rally as de s c ri b e d in (iii)
ab o v e , b ut i ns t e ad of bedding the whole face of
the brick or block, the bedding mortar shall be
placed in two parallel strips of a uniform thick-
ness of 20 mm (~in) formed with the help of
a simple guide, described below. These strips of
mortar shall correspond with the parts of the brick
or block designed to carry the mortar bed, and
the brick or block shall be accurately placed on
them and pressed down to form a bed as uniform
as possible approximately 10 mm (~in) thick and
nowhere less than 5.0 mm (~in) thick.
The guide mentioned in the preceding paragraph
shall consist of a rectangular strip of wood of 20 mm
(~in) finished thickness, of width equal to the de-
signed gap between the mortar strips (for the V
double brick shown in Fig. 6. it may be taken as
75 mm (3 in) and 50 mm (2 in) to 100 mm (4 in) longer
than the brick. In use, the guide shall be placed
across the machined plate on which the bedding
is done, and level mortar strips somewhat longer
and wider than their finished dimensions placed on
either side of it. The guide shall be carefully re-
moved with the least possible disturbance of the
mortar bed before the brick or block is pressed
into position.
(c) Apparatus. The testing machine shall have adequate
capacity to crush all the test specimens but the scale used
shall be such that the ultimate loads on the specimens
exceed one-fifth of the full scale reading. The machine
shall be provided with a load-pacer or equivalent means
to enable the load to be applied at the rate specified
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MS 76 : 1 972
in (d) (iii). It shall meet the requirements for accuracy
of Grade B of BS 1610, Verification of Testing Machines,
Part I. The testing machine shall be equipped with two
steel bearing-platens with hardened faces. The platen that
normally will bear on the upper surface of the specimen
shall be fitted with a ball seating in the form of a portion
of a sphere. the centre of which coincides with the centre
of the face of the platen. The movable portion of the
hallseated platen shall be held on its scat hut shall h e
free to rotate and to tilt through small angles in any
direction. The other platen shall be a plain rigid hearing
block. The bearing faces of both platens shall be at
least as large as, and preferably larger than, the nominal
size of the specimen. The bearing surfaces of the platens
shall not depart from a plane by more than 0.05 mm
(0.002 in). (To meet this requirement, the platens, when
new, should be somewhat more accurate to allow for wear
and should be refaced when they approach this limit.)
(d) Testing procedure.
(i) General. When the requirements of Clause (b) have
been satisfied, the specimens shall be tested immedi-
ately on removal from the water.
(ii) Placing specimen in the testing machine. The bearing
surfaces of the testing machine shall be wiped clean
and any loose grit removed from the bed faces of
the specimen. The load shall be applied to the
specimen in the same direction as in service, and
the axis of the specimen shall be carefully aligned
with the centre of the ball-seated platen. As the
latter is brought to bear on the specimen the niov-
able portion shall be guided gently by hand so
that a uniform seating is obtained. Specimens pre-
41
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MS 76: 1972
pared in accordance with (b)(i) and (b)(ii) shall be
tested between two 3 mm plywood sheets which shall
be at least as long and as wide as the specimen and
shall be used once only. Specimens prepared in
accordance with (b)(iii) and (b)(iv) need not be tested
between sheets of plywood.
(iii) Loading. The load shall be applied without shock
and increased continuously. Initially the loading
may b e at any convenient rate up to 35.0 MN/m
2
(5000 lbf/in
2
) per minute but, when about half the
expected maximum load has been applied, the rate
shall be adjusted to 1 5 . 0 MN/rn
2
(2000 lbf/in
2
) pe r
minute and maintained until the maximum failing
load is reached. With some specimens the recorded
load may fluctuate before the maximum failing load
is reached. This will be indicated by a reduction in
lo ad as t h e s pe c i me n yi e lds fo llo w e d b y an i nc re as e
to a new maximum as loading is continued. This
t e mpo rary re duc t i o n may o c c ur s e v e ral t i me s b e fo re
the specimen finally fails. The maximum failing
load shall be taken as the load at which the specimen
no longer produces any further increase in the in-
dicator reading (See Note 4).
(iv) Calculation of results. The compressive strength of
t h e s pe c i me n s h all b e c alc ulat e d b y di v i di ng i t s
maximum failing load by its area as defined in (a)
and shall be expressed in MN/in
2
(lbf/in
2
) to the
nearest 0.5 MN/rn
2
(70 lbf/in
2
) for strengths of
7.0 MN/rn
2
and above and to the nearest 0.1 MN/rn
2
(10 lbf/in
2
) for strengths less than 7.0 MN/rn
2
.
The arithmetic mean of the compressive strength
of the ten specimens is the best unbiased estimate
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MS 76: 1972
o f t h e t rue consignment mean and shall be taken
as the compressive strength of the consignment
sampled, for purposes of Clauses 10, 12, 16, 20 and
29.
It. should be noted that manufacturers who use
quality control schemes for strength testing have
detailed information on the compressive strength of
their bricks and their variability, which can be made
available to users.
Note 1: The strength of mortar required for this test may
be obtained within a reasonable time (3 to 7 days)
by using a I : 1~mix of ordinary Portland cement
or rapid-hardening Portland cement complying with
MS ~, with clean well-graded sand, 3 mm
(-~ in) down. The water/cement ratio will usually
be not greater than 0.35 and, if the bricks are of
an open texture so that water drains from them
readily, it may be necessary to use a lower water/
cement ratio
If the sand available is relatively fine and/or contaminated
with silt or clay, a higher water/cement ratio will be required
to obtain satisfactory workability. It will then be difficult to
attain the required strength within a reasonable time when
using a 1 : l- mix with Portland cement. A 1 : 1 mix with
ordinary Portland cement or rapid-hardening Portland cement
or a 1 3 mix with a high-alumina cement complying with
MS t will then be found more satisfactory.
To obtain the specified strength without difficulty it is necessary
to use cement in fresh condition. This means that, if it is
* MS , Portland Cement (Ordinary and Rapid-Hardening).
t MS , High Alumina Cement.
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MS 76: 1972
no t us e d very shortly after manufacture, it should be preserved
in an airtight container.
When the mixes give the required strength in 3 to 7 days,
the mortar is usually sufficiently set to enable reversal of bricks
to be carried out in 4 to 8 hours as mentioned in (b)(ii) above
and trimming in accordance with (b)(iii) above.
To ensure that, as required in (b)(ii), there shall be no con-
cavity in the mortar filling of frogs, the mortar should not be
trowelled off flush with the surface of the brick immediately,
but after allowing it to stand for a period judged by experience,
usually between two and four hours.
Note 2: When bedding hollow blocks in mortar, (b)(iii), it
will be found an advantage to place a layer of
mortar about twice the required finished thickness
and to shape it so that it is a little thicker in the
middle than at the edges. This will ensure that air
is not trapped under the block when it is pressed
into the mortar. Some laboratories have found it
convenient to restrain the flow of the mortar by
a removable metal rim or frame slightly larger than
the block, but this is not necessary if the layer of
mortar is initially of the thickness indicated and
extends about 25 mm beyond the edges of the block
in all directions.
Note 3: The instructions for bedding divided-joint bricks and
b lo c k s i n ( b )( i v ) h av e been drafted with the double
bricks illustrated in Fig. 6 c h i e fly i n mi nd. Divided-
joint hollow blocks (H blocks) in which the width
of the strips of bedding mortar is defined by de-
pressions in the bed faces of the blocks, arc also
manufactured. These can be prepared for testing by
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MS 76: 1972
the method of Clause (b)(iii), the mortar beds being
divided into two strips by cutting away the surplus
with a strip of nietal when the mortar is trimmed
10 the edges of the blocks.
Note 4: Determination of the end point of the test presents
no difficulty to the person experienced in the strength
testing of bricks. The less experienced operator
should however appreciate that the indicator needle
may fall back at certain stages during the loading
operation, before the point of final collapse is
re ac h e d. Sh o uld this occur considerable judgement
is required in resetting the controls of the machine
in order to maintain smoothly the specified rate of
loading. At the final point of collapse, the indicator
needle will continue to fall back rapidly even though
every effort is being made to maintain the loading
specified. The pattern of final collapse will vary
with the type and thickness of the sample being
tested. With solid bricks of 65 mm (2~in) thick-
ness, for example, the final collapse occurs by shear
and is easily recognizable. With highly vitreous
vertically perforated specimens, however, final failure
is characterized by a complete shattering of the
sampie.
40. WATER ABSORPTION TESTS
40.1 Two alternative standard methods are specified for the deter-
mination of water absorption, the 5-hour boiling test (B) and
the vacuum test (V). The two forms of test give acceptable
agreement with the great majority of bricks, and the choice
of me t h o d is a mat t e r of convenience. Either method may
be used for the purposes of Clause 10. A method of test
45
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by 24-hour cold immersion (C) is also specified for use as works
control test only. The results by this method are always
lower than, and are not proportional to, those by the standard
methods.
(a) Test specimens. The test specimens shall normally con-
sist of whole bricks or blocks, but representative portions
being approximately a half or a quarter of the brick or
block may be used when testing large units. Ten whole
specimens, or representative portions from each of them
shall be tested.
(b) Accuracy of weighings. Specimens shall be weighed to
an accuracy. of 0.1% of the weight of the specimen, using
a suitable balance.
(c) Preparation of specimens. The test specimens shall be
dried to constant weight in a ventilated oven at I 10C
115C. When cool, each Specimen shall be weighcd*.
(d) Procedure for 5-hour boiling test. (B) . The Specinlens
shall be placed into a tank of water immediately after
weighing so that water can circulate freely on all sides
of them. The tank shall be provided with a grid to ensure
free circulation of water between bricks and the bottom
of the tank. The water shall be heated to boiling in
* it can be assumed that heating f~. at least 48 hours at 110C will
assure constant weight, but it should be noted that several hours may be
required before the specimens reach 110C if they are wet when put
into the oven. The 48 hours shall be reckoned from the time the
specimens reach 110C. Storage of bricks, unstacked, with spaces
between them, in a v e nt i lat e d room fo r a period of 4 hours, with a
current of air from an e le c t ri c fan passing over them continuously for at
least 2 hours, will cool the speciniens to approximately room temperature.
46
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MS 76: 1972
approximately one hour, boiled continuously for 5 hours,
and then allowed to cool to room temperature by natural
loss of heat. for not less than 16 or more than 19 hours.
Th e s pe c i me ns s h all b e re mo v e d, t h e surface water wiped
oil with a damp cloth, and the specimen weighed. When
wiping perforated bricks, water that might otherwise be left
in the perforations shall be displaced by shaking.
Weighing of any one specimen shall be completed within
2 minutes after its removal from the water.
The test may be carried out either on dry bricks, or
following the 24-hour cold immersion test if desired, pro-
vided that the specimens were in the first instance dried
and weighed in accordance with Clauses (b) and (c).
(e) Procedure ~or vacuum test. (V) . The apparatus consists
of a cast-iron or other suitable tank capable of holding
the required number of specimens connected through
stop-cocks to a vacuum pump and water tank (See Fig
3). Greased ground surfaces on the tank and lid ensure
an air-tight fit. The dry specimens, which have previously
been weighed, shall be placed on end in the tank, separated
from the base by a perforated zinc platform or similar
method, and so arranged generally as to allow free access
to all surface as far as possible.
With stop-cock B closed and stop-cock A open (See Fig.
3) the pump shall be started, continuing until the residual
pressure is less than 2700 N/rn
2
(0.39 lbf/in
2
) (20 mmHg).
Stop-cock A is then closed, and stop-cock B opened.
After the bricks have become completely immersed and
the water has ceased to flow, a period of 10 minutes
shall be allowed to ensure that penetration is complete.
47
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MS 76: 1972
The lid of the tank shall then be removed, and the
bricks wiped and weighed in the manner prescribed for
(d).
(f) Procedure for 24-hour Fcold immersion test (for works
control) . (C) . The dry specimens, which shall be at room
temperature,, shall be completely immersed, without zpre-
liminary partial immersion, in water at room temperature.
The water shall have free access to all surfaces as far
as possible. After immersion for 24 I hours the speci-
mens shall be removed and wiped and weighed in the
manner prescribed for (d).
(g) Calculation o. water absorption. The absorption results
shall be reported in terms of percentage increase by weight
on the dry specimens and shall be calculated to the
nearest 0.1%.
The arithmetic mean of the absorptions of the ten speci-
inens is the best unbiased estimate of t h e t rue c o ns i g n-
me nt mean and shall be taken as the absorption of the
consignment.
41. SOLUBLE SALTS ANALYSIS
(a) Preamble. The preparation of a powdered sample of
mineral substance such as brick for chemical analysis is
a w e ll unde rs t o o d t e c h ni q ue , as i s t h e analyt i c al de t e r-
mination of the radicals present in an aqueous solution.
It is the preparation of an aqueous solution from the
powdered bricks as a preliminary to soluble salts analysis
that calls for standardization, because widely divergent
amounts of soluble salts may be taken into solution de-
pending on the methods of extraction used.
(b) Preparation of sample. From the bulk sample of 10 bricks
48
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MS 76: 1972
or blocks a representative working sample of about 25 g
ground to pass a 150 micron MS * Test Sieve shall
be prepared. The following are the alternative methods:
(i) Fragments representative of the interior and exterior
of the bricks amounting to at least one-tenth of each
brick or block are crushed in hardened steel equip-
ment to produce about 5000 g of material passing
a MS * Test Sieve with an aperture not greater
than 3.35 mm. This is mixed and then reduced
by coning and quartering or other equivalent method
to about 300 g which is then all ground to pass a
MS * Test Sieve with an aperture not greater
than 710 micron. This finer sample is reduced to
about 25 g by coning and quartering or other
equivalent method and all is ground to pass a 150
nh,cron MS * Test Sieve.
A magnet is used to remove any iron that may have
contaminated the sample during crushing. The sample
shall then be dried at 110C.
(ii) Holes are drilled in 10 bricks or blocks with a
masonry drill not larger than 7 mm in diameter.
The holes are approximately equally spaced over
the bed-faces of each brick or the outer surface
of the block. They are carried to a depth appro-
ximately equal to half the depth of the brick or
half the thickness of the web of the block. The
number of holes is such as to give a sample of
approximately 25 g of powder passing a 150 micron
MS * Test Sieve. Material from the drillings
which does not pass the sieve immediately is ground
* MS Test Sieve. Under Preparation.
49
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in a suitable mortar until (he whole sample passes
through.
A magnet is used to remove any iron which may
have contaminated the sample during drilling. The
sample shall be dried at 110C.
(c) Determination o acid-soluble sulphate. Weigh 2 g of the
sample and transfer to a 250 ml beaker and cover with
a clock glass. Through the lip of the beaker introduce
150 ml of hydrochlori acid (1: 9) and heat to boiling
add half a Whatman ashless tablet or equivalent and
boil for 10 minutes, stirring to prevent bumping. Cool,
filter through a sintered glass buchner funnel and wash
thoroughly five or six times with hot distilled water. Add
one or two spots of methyl red indicator and ammonia
(1 : I) dropwise till just neutral then add immediately
25 drops hydrochloric acid (sp gr I . 1 8) followed by 3 ml
of bromine water (saturated). Heat to boiling, boil for
2 minutes and, while boiling, slowly add from a pipette
10 ml of barium chloride solution (10%). Continue boiling
for about 2 minutes, transfer to a steam bath for I hour
and allow to cool. Stand overnight and filter through a
slow filter papcr**. Wash with hot water until free of
chlorides. Transfer the precipitate and paper to a weighed
platinum crucible, heat gently to dry the residue and char
the paper, and finally ignite to 1000C for 30 minutes,
cool and weigh.
Weight of BaSO
4
x 0.4115 = weight of SO
4
Note: The acid soluble sulphate may be assumed to cor-
respond fairly closely to the total quantity of sulphate
** No. 42 Whatman or similar filter paper is suitable.
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MS 76: 1972
which could be obtained from the brick sample on
long continued extraction with water. This quantity
is therefore relevant to an assessment of the liability
of the brick material to cause sulphate expansion in
Portland cement
(d) Extraction of water-soluble salts The extraction of soluble
salts shall be carried out at room temperature, 10 -i--
0.05 g of the sample shall be weighed and transferred
to a 150 ml polythenc bottle,., 100 ml of cold distilled
water shall be added, the bottle closed with a screw-on
polythene top and the bottle shaken for 60 minutes. (A
rotary shaker revolving at about 30 revolutions per minute
is suitable or alternatively the contents of the bottle may
be stirred for 60 minutes by a magnetic stirrer using a
polythene covered follower). The suspended sample shall
be filtered and the filtrate collected in a clean dry flask.
The residue on the filter shall not be washed. Alterna-
tively a centrifuge may be used. The filtering means
employed shall be used dry. The alternatives are either:
(i) Sintered glass buchner funnel1~, porosity grade 4,
with suction.
(ii) Centrifuge.
(iii) Filter candle with suction.
(iv) Ordinary filter with. e g, a No. 42 Whatman or
equivalent filter paper.
It is essential that the filtrate shall be clear.
i~BS 1752, Laboratory Sintered or Fritted Filters.
51
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(e) Determination of radicles. Recognized analytical methods
shall then be used to determine the following radicles:
Calcium (Ca++), Magnesium (Mg~~)
Sodium (Nat), Potassium (K~)
The following analytical procedure has been found con-
venient and is recommended though it is not mandatory.
The results shall be reported to the nearest 0.01% by
weight.
Calcium. Pipette a 10 ml aliquot of the soluble salt
extract into a 500 ml conical flask. Add 20 drops of
hydrochloric acid (sp gr 1.18), followed by 10 ml of
potassium hydroxide solution (approximately 4 N), and
dilute to about 200 ml with water. Add about 0.015 g
of calcein indicators. Titrate with standard EDTA
solution from a 10 ml semimicro burette, the colour
change being from fluorescent green to pink.
Magnesium. Pipette a 10 ml aliquot of the soluble salt
extract into a 500 ml conical flask. Add 20 drops of
hydrochloric acid (sp gr. 1.18), followed by a 10 ml
of ammonia solution (sp gr 0.880) and dilute with to
about 200 ml. Add about 0.04 g of methyl thymol blue
complcxonc indicator. Titrate with the standard EDTA
solution from a 10 ml semimicro burette, the colour
change being from blue to colourless.
The volume of EDTA used lor the titration ol calciuiu
is subtracted from the volume of EDTA used for this
titration. The remainder represents the volume of EDTA
required for the titration of the magnesium.
~Screened Murexide or 2-hydroxyl- I -(2-hydroxy-4-sulpho- I -naphthylazo)-
3-naphthoic acid are also suitable indicators.
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Sodium and potassium. Compare a portion of the soluble
salt extract with standard solutions containing 5 ppm
of sodium, and 10 ppm of potassium in a suitable flame
photometer. Calculate the sodium and potassium contents
by reference to previously prepared calibration graphs.
Standard solutions. Calcium solution (1.0 mg CaO/ml):
Dissolve 1.78 g of dried (150C) calcium carbonate in a
slight excess of diluted hydrochloric acid (i), boil to expel
carbon dioxide, cool and dilute to one litre in a calib~ated
flask.
Magnesium solution (1.0 mg MgO/ml) : Dissolve 0.6032 g
of magnesium metal in a slight excess o. diluted hydro-
chloric acid and dilute to one litre in a calibrated flask.
Before weighing, etch the metal ribbon or foil in dilute
hydrochloric acid and then dry it with alcohol followed
by ether. Adjust the weight with scissors.
Standard EDTA (0.5%): Dissolve 5 g of diaminoe-
thane tetra-acetic acid (di-sodium salt dihydrate) in warm
water, filter if necessary, cool, and dilute to I litre. Store
in a polythene bottle. Standardize against the standard cal-
cium and magnesium solutions, calcein and methyl thymol
blue complexone, respectively, being used as indicators.
Indicators. Calcein indicator: Mix by grjnding together
0.1 g of calcein with 10 g of potassium chloride.
Methyl thymol blue complexone indicator: Mix by grind-
ing together 0.2 g of methyl thymol blue complexone with
20 g of potassium nitrate.
42. EFFLORESCENCE TEST
42.1 Ten specimens shall be used for the eirlorescence test. Those
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MS 76: 1972
which have been used for the soluble safis analysis (Clause 33)
may be found a convenient sample but where any doubt exists,
ten whole bricks or blocks shall be used. Evaporation from
faces other than that which will appear as the exposed face in
the work shall be prevented by surrounding them with an
impermeable sheet, for example, of polythene. Each specimen
shall be placed with its exposed face uppermost and allowed
to stand in a warm well-ventilated room. A suitable flask
containing distilled water shall be inverted and its mouth placed
in contact with the exposed face of the specimen (See Fig. 4).
A quantity of distilled water capable of saturating the specimen
shall be used (See Note). If the distilled water is completely
absorbed within 24 hours a further quantity of distilled water
shall be used. After a few days, when the water has been
absorbed and the specimen appears to be dry, a similar quantity
of distilled water shall be used and a further drying period
allowed. The specimens shall then be examined for effhorc-
scence.
The liability to ciflorescence shall be described as nil, slight,
moderate, heavy, or serious, in accordance with the follow-
ing definitions:
Nil. No perceptible deposit of efflorescence.
Slight. Not more than 10% of the area of the face covered
with a thin deposit of salts.
Moderate. A heavier deposit than slight and covering up to
50% of the area of the face, but unaccompanied by powdering
or flaking of the surface.
Heavy A heavy deposit of salts covering 50% or more of
the area of the face but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking
of the surface.
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Serious. A heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering
and/or flaking of the surface and tending to increase with
repeated wettings of the specimen.
Note: it is not possible to specify precisely the quantity of
distilled water to be used since this will depend
on the size and porosity of the specimen being tested.
The object is to use sufficient distilled water to saturate
the specimen, dissolve soluble salts, and allow the salts
to crystallize at the exposed face.
As a guide, for the 225 x 112.5 x 75 (9 x 4~x 3) format, the
quantity of distilled water is about 300 ml. Obviously for
larger sizes, the quantity of distilled water will require to be
increased in proportion to the volume of solid material.
43. COMPLIANCE
43. I Bricks and blocks shall be deemed to comply with the require-
ments of this Standard when samples taken in accordance
with Clauses 33 and 34 and tested in accordance with the
appropriate clause for strength, dimensions, soluble salts,
elilorcsccncc, or water absorption, satisfy the appropriate re-
quirements of Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of the Standard.
44. PROCEDURE IN THE EVENT OF DISPUTE
44.1 Tt niay not always be convenient, or even necessary, for both
manufacturer and user to be present at the time of sampling
and testing. If in such a case a test result is obtained which
does not conform to the requirements of this Standard such
a result may then, and only then, lead to a dispute. In this
event sampling and testing shall be repeated, in the presence
of, and to the satisfaction of representatives of both user and
manufacturer, to conform fully with the requirements of this
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MS 76: 1972
Standard. The results of this second test, carried out to re-
solve the dispute, shall be accepted by both parties as deter-
mining whether or not the consignment complies with this
Standard.
45. COST OF TESTING
45.1 Where the goods have been supplied to conform with the
requirements of this Standard, the cost of carrying out
the first test of any one consignment shall be borne by the
purchaser. If a dispute arises, the cost of the second test,
made in accordance with the requirements laid down in
Clauses 43 and 44 shall be borne by the manufacturer, provided
that, if the result of this second test meets the requirements
of this Standard, the charge shall then be transferred to, and
borne by the purchaser.
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MS 76: 1972
APPENDIX A
APPLICATION OF WORKS QUALITY CONTROL
SCHEME FOR DIMENSIONS
Al. OBJ ECT OF SCHEME
Al .1 Compliance with the dimensional requirements of Clause 6
ol this Standard is based on the total length, width,and (lepth
of 24 bricks: the proposed scheme is intended as an aid to
procCs.s cotitrol Ill order that batches ol bricks shall be un-
likely to fail to comply with Clause 6. Samples should there-
fore be taken from current production. (It should be noted
that the principles underlying BS 2564: 1 955, Control Chart
Technique When Manufacturing to a Specification, cannot
readily be applied here, since BS 2564 envisages a specification
based on individual values rather than totals.)
The schcmc assumes that when production is stable the di-
mensional standard deviation within a batch of bricks is roughly
constant and can be estimated. Batches may fail Clause 6
because:
(a) The batch mean has drifted too far from the nominal
value. In this case, the scheme is designed to give warn-
ing of the drift.
(b) There is a sudden change of the batch mean to an un-
acceptable value. In this case, the scheme is designed to
draw attention to such batches.
(c) The batch standard deviation has increased appreciably.
The scheme incorporates a control chart which acts as
a check on the stability of the standard deviation.
The scheme is aimed chiefly at controlling a gradual drift,
as in (a). The control limits are set so that when a batch
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has a I in 75 chance of rejection by Clause 6, it has appro-
ximately a I in 17 chance of giving a point outside the limit
for means. Similarly when (lie chance of rejection is I in
20 by Clause 6, there is approximately a 1 in 8 chance of a
point outside the limit. Hence if the mean is drifting, the
drift should be detected before it causes serious trouble.
The occurrence of a point outside (lie limit is not a cause
for rej~ction of a batch; the latter is the prerogative of the
standard. When a point is outside (lie limit, the process should
be examined, action taken if necessary, and in any case sub-
sequent points should be watched.
It is possible to choose limits that will give more advanced
warning of a drift in the mean, if these are. required, but it
is important not to make them so stringent that they frequently
give false alarms. Such additional limits, known here as warn-
ing limits, have been calculated; their use is optional. A batch
with a I in 75 chance of rejection by Clause 6 would have
a I in 5 chance of giving a point outside a warning limit.
When the frequency of points outside the warning limits is
I in 20, the mean has already drifted a high proportion of
the way towards producing unsatisfactory material.
A2. CONTROL PROCEDURE: GENERAL
A2.1 The total length, width, and thickness of a group of 6 bricks
are measured: this can be done by packing the bricks end
to end, side to side, etc and measuring by means of an in-
extensible steel tape (Fig I) or by means of a gauge board
(Fig 5). The gauge board method is described in more detail
in the next section.
Two random samples, each of 6 bricks, are taken from each
batch that is sampled: it is recommended that a number of
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batches should be sampled daily. For each sample of 6, the
total length, width, and thickness are measured: and for each
batch the average of the two total lengths and the range, or
difference between (lie two total lengths, are Plotted on average
and range charts. Similar charts are plotted for width and
thickness. After a period of reasonably stable production,
covering at least 20 measured batches, the average range (W)
is calculated. This figure should be revised from time to time
as more results become available.
Control limits for the range charts are then inserted at 2.81
W for the I in 40 limit and at 4.12 W for the I in 1000 limit.
Provided that the points are not above the I in 40 limit, it is
customary to assume that the variability is reasonably stable.
Occurrence of an undue proportion of points above the I in
40 limit may indicate that (lie average range fIgure needs to
be revised or that the variability is unstable.
If the variability is stable, the within-batch standard deviation,
S. may be calculated from the average range by the formula:
W
S=
2.76
This is done separately for each dimension.
Limits may then be inserted on the average charts and the
occurrence of points outside these limits is interpreted as in-
dicated in the first section. It is convenient to give limits to
the nearest 1 mm; if this is done the probability levels given
in the first section are no longer strictly accurate, but are
sufficiently close for practical purposes. In any case it is
difficult to achieve an accuracy better than 2 mm in the actual
measurement of the totals. The control limits in millimetres
are:
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MS 76: 1972
1271 and I 309 (5 I and 52.50)
604 and 626 (24.30 and 25.20)
382 and 405 (15.30 and 16.20)
The algebraic expressions for the warning limits, based on the
appropriate standard deviations, S. are as follows:
Length 1271.25 + 1.27S and
1308.75 l.27S
( 51.00 + 1.27S and 52.500 + 1.27S)
Width 603.75
(24.312
+
+
l.27S
1.27S
and
and
626.25
25.188

1.27S
l.27S)
Thickness 382.50
(15.312
+

l.27S
1.27S
and
and
405.00
16.188
l.27S
l.27S)
The position of these limits is not very sensitive to small changes
in the value of S. Many users may prefer to employ fixed
warning limits calculated by giving S the values assumed in
deriving Clause 6, namely 1 .9 mm (0.075 in) lor length and
1 .27 mm (0.05 in) for width and thickness. The fixed warn-
ing limits, rounded to 1 mm (1/20 in) are
A3. CONTROL PROCEDURE : USE OF GAUGE BOARD
The measurement of each samp1e of 6 bricks is done by packing
them together, end to end, side to side, etc on a gauge board
having graduated brass plates set in to the frame and flush
with the surface: Each brass plate is graduated in a convenient
unit, such as 2 mm (1 / 10 in), the graduations running from,
say, + 15 to I 5. The plates are positioned so that the zero
mark on the scale is at a distance from a reference stop at the
end of the board corresponding to the nominal total for 6
Length
Width
Thickness
Length
Width
Thickness
1274 and 1306 (51.10 and 52.40)
605 and 624 (24.40 and 25.10)
384 and 403 (15.40 and 16.10)
A3. I
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bricks; 1290 mm (5I~in) for length, 615 mm (24~in) for
width, and 390 mm (l5~in) for thickness. Although the limits
are calculated to the nearest half unit, it is quite sufficient to
read each total for 6 bricks to the nearest unit.
The measurements are recorded directly in terms of gauge
units. (Care should be taken when manipulating negative
values. For example, if the two totals for samples of 6 bricks
are + I and 4 units, (lie average total is
_____ I ~ units and the range is I (4) = 5 units.
2
14
If the totals arc 1 and - 4 units, the average is =
2
2~units and the range is 1 (4) 1 + 4 = 3 units.
Note that the range is always positive.)
If it is desired to calculate the standard deviation S in millimetres,
this may be done by dividing the average range in gauge units
by 1.38. Otherwise no transformation to millimetres need be
done. The control charts can be plotted in terms of gauge
units and the limits may be determined from the average range
W, also in gauge units. The control limits for the range chart
are 2.81 W, for the 1 in 40 limit and 4.12 W for the 1 in 1000
limit. The appropriate values for (lie average charts, rounded
off to the nearest half unit, are:
Length 9~+ 9~ ( 74 + 7-1-)
Width 54 5- 1 - ( 4-4 + 4~)
Thickness 4 + 7-4 ( 4~+ 4~)
The warning limits may be calculated from the appropriate
average range W and are:
Length 9.4 + 0.46W and 9.4 0.46W
(7.5) (7.5)
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Width 5.6 + 0.46W and 5.6 0.46W
(4.38) (4.38)
Thickness 3.8 + 0.46W and 7.5 0.46W
(4.38) (4.38)
Fixed warning limits, assuming that (lie standard deviation is
of the order of 1.9 mm for length and 1 .27 mm for width
and thickness, are:
Length 8 and + 8
Width 5 and + 5
Thickness 3 and 6
These limits are summarized in Table 8.
A4. ALTERNATIVE GAUGE UNITS
A4.I There is no reason why (lie gauge units should necessarily be
2 mm (1/10 iii), as used in the previous example. If an alter-
native gauge unit is adopted, it will be necessary to recalculate
the limits using similar statistical principles and works quality
control charts may then b.c kept in a similar manner.
AS. ALTERNATIVE SCALE FOR GAUGE BOARD
A5.1 It is possible to avoid the use of negative numbers, and the
slight complications involved in their manipulation, by g.ra
duating the scale from 0 to 30 instead of 15 to + 15.
Here the nominal average dimension will be 15. The dis-
advaiitage is that the values to be recorded for average are
usually double-figure numbers.
The limits for averages are determined from those previously
given by adding 15 units; the range limits are, of course, Un-
affected. Table 9 gives (lie required values for the average
charts.
62
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MS 76: 1972
TABLE 8. LIMITS FOR USE WITH GAUGE BOARD
.
Limits
,
Dimensions.
2 mm units (3
Lower
/32 inch units)
Upper
Control Length 95 ( 8)
+ 95 (+ 8)
Width 51 ( 4-i) + 51 (+ 41)
Thickness 4 ( 44) + 7~ (+ 41)
Warning Length 9.4 + 0.46W
9.4 0.46W
(8.00) (8.00)
Width
5.6 + 0.46W 5.6 0.46W
(-----4.67) (4.67)
Thickness 3.8 + 0.46W 7.5 0.46W
(4.67) (4.67)
Fixed Length 8 ( 7) + 8 (+ 7)
warning Width 5 ( 4) + 5 (+ 4)
Thickness 3 ( 4) + 61 (+ 4)
TABLE 9. LIMITS FOR USE WITH ALTERNATIVE
SCALE FOR GAUGE BOARD

Ltmits
.
,
Dimenswn
2 mm unIts (3/32 inch units)
.
Lower
Upper
Control Length 5-5 (7) 245 (23)
Width 95 (104)
204 (194)
Thickness ii (1OD
22~ (191)
Warning Length 5.6 + 0.46W 24.4 0.46W
( 7.00) (23.00)
Width 9.4 + 0.46W
20.6 0.46W
(10.33)
(19.67)
Thickness Il .2 + 0.46W 22.5 0.46W
(10.33).
(19.67)
Fixed Length 7 (8)
23 (22)
warning Width
10 (11)
20 (19)
Thickness 12 (lI) 2I~ (19)
63
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MS 76: 1972
APPENDIX B
CHOICE OF LiMITS AND ACCEPTANCE CLAUSES FOR
DIMENSIONS OF BRICKS
BS 657, Dimensions of Common Bricks, postulated that individual
brick dimensions should not differ from the nominal dimensions by
more than ~ in (6.4 mm) on length and 5/32 in (4.0 mm) on
width and thickness. This was a compromise between the require-
ments of the manufacturer and the user. The acceptance clause was
so drafted that Good batches, i e with less than 1 % of individual
brick dimensions outside these tolerances, had a very small chance
of rejection. These calculations were based on standard deviations of
0.075 in (1.9 mm) for lengths, and 0.05 in (1.27 mm) for width and
thickness, obtained from measurements of individual bricks made at
the British Building Research Station. Since the publication of
BS 657 : 1950 several British manufacturers have carried out measure-
ments on a statistical control basis and (lie results obtained indicate
that the original standard deviations are a reasonable estimate of (lie
average value to be found in practice. Some raw materials and pro-
cesses enable manufacturers to have smaller standard deviations whilst
others lead to somewhat larger standard deviations. In this respect
it is clear that the acceptance clause of BS 657, requiring measure-
ments to be made of total length etc. of a sample of 24 bricks, limits
both the variability of (lie batch and (lie movemelil of (lie batch average
away from the nominal dimensions. Manufacturers who produce batches
of larger variability that corresponds to a standard deviation of 0.075 in
(1.9 mni) for length, etc, are allowed less movement of the batch
average about the nominal dimensions. Conversely, the manufacturer
who is able to work with a smaller standard deviation than 0.075 in
(1 .9 mm) etc. can allow a greater movement of the batch average away
froni the nominal dimensions; however, this amount of movement is
64
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MS 76: 1972
limited and the probability of rejection may become appreciable even
when the movement is such as would lead to no more than I % of
the individual brick dimensions being outside tolerances of either +
~in (6.4 mm) or .~. in (6.4 mm) on length. etc.
65
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Buitders square
MS 76: 1972
I
FIGURE 2. DETERMINATION OF OUT OF SQUARENESS
AND BOWING OR TWiSTING 01? HOLLOW BLOCKS
1~~
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MS 76: 1972
Va c U U m
gauge
Tank
pcock B
Water
tank
Widemouthed bottle
or flask filled with water
Polythene bag
or folded sheet
Rubber band
or strin9
ock A
Pump
FIG. 3. APPARATUS FOR VACUUM ABSORPTION rfl~g~~
FIGURE 4. APPARATUS FOR EFFLORESCENCE TEST
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MS 76: 1972
{~~1~T7 . Y ~( (
-~ Total length of 6 bncks
+
I 111111 H I It H Ii lilt Hi 111111 I K
L~tO 5 0 5 tO ~J
Scale I Ill ill! I filM I MM I ill
Is tO 5 0 S iO is (units used 2mm)
Actual Ien~ths would be 127 1 1290 1309
+
Scale 2 I I I I I I I I I I 111 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
0 5 ID iS 20 25 30(Units used 2mm)
FIGURE 5. GAUGE BOARD FOR MEASURING BRICKS
69
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MS 76: 1972
FIGURE 6. DOUBLE BRICKS REFERRED TO IN NOTE 3.
CLAUSE 39 (d) (iv)
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3

TANDA-TANDA STANDARD SIRIM

Tanda-tanda Standard SIRIM seperti yang tertera di bawah adalah tanda-tanda pengesahan
dagangan berdaftar. Tanda-tanda ini hanya boleh digunakan oleh mereka yang dilesenkan
di bawah skim tanda pengesahan yang dijalankan oleh SIRIM mengikut nombor Standard
Malaysia yang berkaitan. Kewujudan tanda-tanda ini pada atau berkaitan dengan sesuatu
barangan adalah sebagai jaminan bahawa barangan tersebut telah dikeluarkan melalui satu
sistem penyeliaan, kawalan dan ujian, yang dijalankan semasa pengeluaran. Ini termasuk
pemeriksaan berkala kerja-kerja pengeluaran menurut skim tanda pengesahan SIRIM yang
dibentuk untuk menentukan bahawa barangan tersebut menepati Standard Malaysia.

Keterangan-keterangan lanjut mengenai syarat -syarat lesen boleh didapati dari:

Ketua Pengarah
Institut Standard dan Penyelidikan Perindustrian Malaysia
Persiaran Dato Menteri, Seksyen 2, Peti Surat 7035
40911 Shah Alam
Selangor Darul Ehsan













SIRIM STANDARD MARKS

The SIRIM standard marks shown above are registered certification trade marks. They may
be used only by those li censed under the certification marking scheme operated by SIRIM
and in conjunction with relevant Malaysian Standard number. The presence of these Marks
on or relation to a product is assurance that the goods have been produced under a system
of supervision, control and testing, operated during production, and including periodi cal
inspection of the producers works in accordance with the certification marking scheme of
SIRIM designed to ensure compliance with a Malaysian Standard.

Further particulars of the terms of license may be obtained from:

Director-General
Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia
Persiaran Dato Menteri, Section 2. P.O.Box 7035
40911 Shah Alam
Selangor Darul Ehsan
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INSTITU T STAND ARD D AN PENY EL ID IK AN PERIND U STRIAN M AL AY SIA
Institut Standard dan Penyelidikan Perindustrian Malaysia (SIRIM) telah ditubuhkan hasil dan cantuman Institut
Piawaian Malaysia (SIM) dengan Institut Negara bagi Penyelidikan Sains dan Perusahaan (NISIR) di bawah
Undang-Undang Malaysia Akta 157 pada l6hb. September 197 5:Akta Institut Standard dan Penyelidikan
Perindustrian Malaysia (Perbadanan) 197 5. Institut mi diletakhak dengan kuasa untuk memamju dan
menjalankan penyelidikan perindustrian dan untuk menyedia dan memajukan standard-standard bagi barangan-
barangan, proses-proses, amalan-amalan dan perkhidmatan-perkhidmatan; dan bagi mengadakan peruntukan
bagi perkara-perkara yang bersampingan atau berkaitan dengan maksud-maksud itu.
Satu daripada tugas-tugas Institut mi adalah menyediakan Standard-Standard Malaysia dalam bentuk
penentuan-penentuan bagi bahan-bahan, keluaran-keluaran, kaedah-kaedah ujian, kod-kod amalan yang
sempurna dan selamat, sistem penamaan dan lain-lain. Standard-Standard Malaysia disediakan oleh
jawatankuasa-jawatankuasa perwakilan yang menyelaras keupayaan pengilang dan kecekapan pengeluaran
dengan kehendak-kehendak yang munasabah dan pengguna. Ia menuju ke arah mencapai kesesuaian bagi
maksud, memudahkan pengeluaran dan pengedaran, kebolehsalingtukaran gantian dan pelbagai pilihan yang
mencukupi tanpa pembaziran.
Standard-Standard Malaysia disediakan hanya setelah penyiasatan yang lengkap menujukkan bahawa sesuatu
projek itu disahkan sebagai yang dikehendaki dan berpadanan dengan usaha yang terlibat. Hasil ml berasaskan
persetujuan sukarela dan memberi pertimbangan kepada kepentingan pengeluar dan pengguna. Standard-
Standard Malaysia adalah sukarela kecuali is dimestikan oleh badan-badan berkuasa melalui peraturan-
peraturan, undang-undang persekutuan dan tempatan atau cara-cara lain yang sepertinya.
Institut mi beroperasi semata-mata berasaskan tanpa keuntungan. Ia adalah satu badan yang menerima bantuan
kewangan dan Kerajaan, kumpulan wang dan bayaran keahlian, hasil dan jualan Standard-Standard dan
terbitan-terbitan lain, bayaran-bayaran ujian dan bayaran-bayaran lesen untuk mengguna Tanda Pengesahan
SIRIM dan kegiatan-kegiatan lain yang berhubung dengan Penstandardan, Penyelidikan Perindustrian dan
Khidmat Perunding.
STAND ARD S AND IND U STRIAL RESEARCH INSTITU TE OF M AL AY SIA
The Standard and Industrial research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) is established with the merger of the
Standards Institution of Malaysia (SIM) and the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR)
under the Laws of Malaysia Act 157 on ~ September 197 5: Standards and Industrial Research Institute of
Malaysia ~(Incorporation) Act 197 5. The Institute is vested with the power to provide for the promotion and
undertaking of industrial research and for the preparation and promotion of standards for commodities,
processes, practices and services; and to provide for matters incidental to or connected with those purposes.
O ne O f the functions of the Institute is to prepare Malaysian Standards in the form of specifications for materials
and products, methods of testing, codes of sound and safe practice, nomenclature, etc. Malaysian Standards are
prepared by representative committees which co-ordinate manufacturing capacity and production efficiency with
the users reasonable needs. They seek to achieve fitness for purpose, simplified production and distribution
replacement interchangeability, and adequate variety of choice without wasteful diversify.
Malaysian Standards are prepared only after a full enquiry has shown that the project is endorsed as a desirable
one and worth the effort involved. The work is based on voluntary agreement, and recognition of the community
of interest of producer and consumer. The use of Malaysian Standards is voluntary except in so far as they are
made mandatory by statutory authorities by means of regulations, federal and local by-laws or any other similar
ways.
The Institute operates entirely on a non-profits basis. It is a grant aided body receiving financial aid from the
Government, funds from membership subscriptions and proceeds from sales of Standards and other
publications, fees and licence fees for the use of SIRIM Certification Mark and other activities associated with
Standardization, Industrial Research and Consultancy Services.
L
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