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177

18 in. For the case of rectangular box sections having a wall thickness
less than x/4 = 18/4 = 4.5 in. but greater than x/l0 = 1.8 in., such as
in this design example (t = 4 in.), the factor L:x
2
y has to be multiplied
by 4h/x, where h is the wall thickness. For this example (x
2
y)(4h/y)
yields the value 5184 in) Thus, (0.5 4000 [5184]), where = 0.85,
results in a torsional moment of 139 k-in. Since 139 in.-k < 150 in.-k,
the torsional effects cannot be neglected in the design of this member.
The preliminary flexural design is essentially the same as the
one conducted for the Space Truss Model Approach.
consideration of shear and torsion effects should begin.
Then the
The member is divided into 12 design sections of 26/12 = 2.11
ft. each. However, following the ACI/AASHTO provisions the first
critical section is located at a distance d from the centerline of the
support (15.44/12 = 1.29 ft). The other sections are located at the
midpoints of the design sections at 3.25 ft., 5.42 ft., 7.58 ft., 9.75
ft. and 11.92 ft. from the centerline of the support, respectively.
Since the loading and structure are symmetrical, the design of the other
half of the member would be essentially the same. Table 4.11 shows the
design of the transverse and longi tud inal reinforcement for shear and
torsion in accordance with the ACI/AASHTO requirements. Table 4.11a
shows the design of the transverse reinforcement required for shear and
torsion. The ACII AASHTO design procedures (1,2) recogni ze a concrete
contribution to the shear strength V c and to the torsional strength Tc
at all load levels. The concrete contribution to the torsional
178
(ll
Dist.
from
C.L.
( ft)
d =
1.29
3.25
5.42
7.58
9.75
11.92
(2) (3) (4 ) (5) (6) (7) (8l (9) (10) (11) (12)
A{2S
Min. s 113
Vu Tu Te At/s Ve Vs A,/s + tIS A
X
l2S closed Max.
(1n
2
/1n)
+ !/s
hoop Spac.
(k1ps)(in-k)(1n-k) (In
2
/1n) (kIp) (kIp) ( In
2
/1n) (1n 11n) (In) (in)
41 150 56 0.008 15.3 32.9 0.036 0.026 0.003 4.25 3.75
34 lsb 67 0.007 15.2 25 0.027 0.021 0.003 5.25 7.5
26 150 84 0.006 14.8 16.4 0.018 0.015 0.003 7.3 7.5
19 150 112 0.004 14.2 8.2 0.009 0.009 0.003 12.2 7.5
11 150 163 0.001 12.4 1.0 0.001 0.001 0.003 110 7.5
4 150 241 6.1 0.003 110 7.5
(a) Dimensioning of the web reinforcement
(0
(2) (3) (4) (5 )
Distance
AL
'\
A
L [q. 4.35 AL reqd.
2A
t
/s due to
from supp.
Eq. 4.34 Ex. 4.35
b
C.L. w
shear and
=50 f torsion
( ft) On
2
)
( 1n2) ( ~ 2 (In2)
d =
1.29 0.51 0.29 0.59 0.51
3.25 0.45 0.48 0.12 0.48
5.42 0.39 0.13 0.91 0.13
1.58 0.26 1.14 1.19 1.14
9.15
0.01 1.82 1.61 1.61
11.92
1.81 2.65 1.81
(b) Dimensioning of the longitudinal steel
Table 4.11 Dimensioning of the reinforcement required
for shear and torsion in accordance with
AcriAASHTO requirements
(13)
Spacins
Prov1ded
(1n)
3.75
5.25
7.25
7.50
7.50
7.50
179
strength, Tc shown in column (4) of Table 4.11 a, is evaluated using
Eq. 4.32.
T =
c
2
0.8/f'LX Y
c
0.4V 2
[1+( u ) ]0.5
c T
t u
(4.32)
where C
t
is a torsional constant defined as Vu is the factored
shear force at the section and Tu is the factored torsional moment at
the section. The concrete contribution to the shear strength Vc is
related to the torsional strength Tc as Tu/Vu = Tc/Vc; thus Vc =
The values of the concrete contribution to the shear
strength of the member Vc are shown in column (6) of Table 4.11a. The
nominal torsional strength of the member Tn = Tu/, where = 0.85, is
given as Tn = Tc + Ts. Ts is the torsional moment that is carried by
of a closed stirrup resisting torsion within a distance s, sq. in., xl
is the shorter center-to-center dimension of the closed rectangular
stirrup, and Yl is the longer center-to-center dimension of the closed
rectangular stirrup. at is a coefficient of xl and Yl given as [0.66 +
0.33(Yl/xl )], fy is the yield strength of the closed stirrup used as web
reinforcement and s is the spacing of the torsion reinforcement in the
direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement. From the relation
for T
s
' the area of web reinforcement required to resist torsion can be
For the design example xl = Yl =
16.13", at = 0.99 and fy = 60000 psi. The required amounts of web
reinforcement due to torsion are shown in column (5) of Table 4.11a.
180
The nominal shear strength required of the section Vn = Vul ct,
where = 0.85, is given as Vn = Vc + Vs. Vc is the concrete
contribution to the shear strength of the member shown in column (6) of
Table 4.11 a, and V s is the shear strength as provided by the web
reinforcement. Vs = Avfyd/s, where Av is the area of shear
reinforcement within a distance s, fy is the yield strength of the shear
reinforcement, d is the effective depth of the section, and s is the
spacing of the shear reinforcement in the direction parallel to the
longitudinal axis. From the relation for V
S
' the area of web
reinforcement per inch of stirrup spacing, Avis, can be obtained as
For this design example, fy = 60000 psi and d = 15.44". The required
amounts of web reinforcement for shear are shown in column (8) of Table
4.11a. Column (9) shows the total amount of web reinforcement required
for shear and torsion. The amount of web reinforcement shown in column
(9) of Table 4.11 is the area of one leg of closed stirrup resisting the
combined shear and torsion per inch of stirrup spacing. Column (10)
shows the specified minimum amount of web reinforcement required for
shear and torsion. The minimum amount has to be provided at any section
where the factored torsional moment Tu exceeds (0.5 Jf[ LX
2
y). The box
section in this design example is subjected to a constant factored
torsional moment Tu = 150 in.-kip. (0.5.1f[ LX
2
y) is equal to 139 in.-
kips. Thus, a minimum area of web reinforcement at least
equal to (A
v
/2s) + (At/s) = 50 bw/fy would have to be provided at any