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MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014

Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014



Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

Purpose
This assignment investigates fatigue failure theories. If you have difficulty with this assignment, you
should contact one of the course instructors or teaching assistants for help.

Problem 1 (20 Points)
A part is loaded with combination of bending, axial and torsion such that the following stresses are
created at a particular location:
Bending: Completely reversed, with a maximum stress of 60 MPa
Axial: Constant stress of 20 MPa
Torsion: Repeated load, varying from 0 to 50 MPa
Assume the varying stresses are in phase with each other. The part contains a notch such that K
f,bending
=
1.4, K
f,axial
= 1.1 and K
f,torsion
= 2.0. The material properties are S
y
= 300 MPa and S
UT
= 400 MPa. The
completely adjusted endurance limit is found to be S
e
= 200 MPa. Find the factor of safety for fatigue
based on infinite life. If the life is not infinite, estimate the number of cycles. Be sure of check for
yielding.

Solution: K
f,bending
= 1.4, K
f,axial
= 1.1 and K
f,torsion
= 2.0
S
y
= 300 MPa, S
UT
= 400 MPa and S
e
= 200 MPa
Bending: o
m
= 0, o
a
= 60 MPa
Axial: o
m
= 20 MPa, o
a
= 0
Torsion: o
m
= 25, o
a
= 25 MPa
( ) ( ) MPa 6 . 120 25 0 . 2 3 0 60 4 . 1 '
2 2
a
= + + = o
( ) ( ) MPa 35 . 89 25 0 . 2 3 20 1 . 1 0 '
2 2
m
= + + = o
Using modified Goodman eq. (6-46),
21 . 1 n
400
35 . 89
200
6 . 120
n
1
S
'
S
'
n
1
f
f UT
m
e
a
f
= + =
o
+
o
=
Check for yielding, using the conservation, MPa 210 ' ' '
m a max
= o + o = o
43 . 1
210
300
'
S
n
max
y
f
= =
o
=

Problem 2 (25 Points)
The shaft shown in figure is machined from AISI 1040 CD steel. The shaft rotates at 1600 rpm and is
supported in rolling bearings at A and B. The applied forces are F
1
= 2500 lbf and F
2
= 1000 lbf.
Determine the minimum fatigue factor of safety based on achieving infinite life. Use q = 0.75.









8 in 8 in 8 in
10 in 10 in 3 in
1 in
1 in
1 in 1 in 1 in
in in
F
1
F
2

A
B
All fillets 1/16 in R.
al
MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

Solution:
From a free-body diagram analysis, the bearing reaction forces are found to be R
A

= 2000 lbf and
R
B

= 1500 lbf. The shear-force and bending-moment diagrams are shown. The critical location
will be at the shoulder fillet between the 1 in and the 1 in diameters, where the bending
moment is large, the diameter is smaller, and the stress concentration exists. At that point,
moment,

M = 16,000 500 2.5 = 14,750 lbf.in





























With a rotating shaft, the bending stress will be completely reversed.
( )
kpsi psi
in
in lbf
d
M
I
Mc
ao
35 013 , 35
625 . 1
. 14750 32 32
3 3
= =

= = =
t t
o
This stress is far below than the yield strength of 71 kpsi, so yielding is not predicted.
For fig. A-15-9, 04 . 0
625 . 1
0625 . 0
d
r
= = and 15 . 1
625 . 1
875 . 1
d
D
= = , so K
t
= 1.95
Using given q = 0.75, we get, K
f
= 1 + q (K
t
1) = 1 + 0.75 (1.95 1) = 1.7125
Endurance, S'
e
= 0.5 S
UT
= 0.5 85 = 42.5 kpsi

8 in 8 in 8 in
10 in 10 in 3 in
in in
2,500 lbf 1,000 lbf
2,000 lbf
1,500 lbf
V(lbf)
M(lbf.in)
2,000

500

1,500

16,000

12,000

14,750

MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

Using eq. (6-19), 832 . 0 85 70 . 2 aS k
265 . 0 b
UT a
= = =


Using eq. (6-20), ( ) 835 . 0 625 . 1 879 . 0 d 879 . 0 k
107 . 0 107 . 0
b
= = =


Using eq. (6-26), 1 k
c
=
Using eq. (6-18), kpsi 5 . 29 5 . 42 1 835 . 0 832 . 0 ' S k k k S
e c b a e
= = =

o
a
= K
f
o
ao
= 1.7125 35 kpsi= 59.94 kpsi, o
m
= 0,
49 . 0 n
S
0
5 . 29
94 . 59
n
1
S S n
1
f
ut f ut
m
e
a
f
= + =
o
+
o
=

Problem 3 (35 Points)


Based upon the results of points A, B and C, determine the minimum factor of safety for fatigue based
on infinite life. If the life is not infinite, estimate the number of cycles. The force is applied as a repeated
load. The material is AISI 1018 CD steel. The fillet radius at the wall is 0.1 in, with theoretical stress
concentrations of 1.5 for bending, 1.2 for axial and 2.1 for torsion. F
y
= 500 lb, F
x
= 0, and F
z
= 300 lb.
Assume a notch sensitivity of q = 0.75.

Solution:
Lets analyze the point A

MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan


Shear stress for torsion,
( )
kpsi
in
lb in
d
T
J
Tr
T
24
75 . 0
2000 16 16
3 3
=


= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]
Shear stress for A from F
z
,
( )
kpsi
in
lb
d
F
A
F
z z
Fz
9 . 0
75 . 0 3
300 16
3
16
3
4
2 2
=

= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]
So, total shear stress, kpsi psi kpsi
Fz T xz
9 . 24 9 . 0 24 = = = t t t

( )
kpsi
in
lb in
d
M
I
c M
A A
x
5 . 84
75 . 0
3500 32 32
3 3
=


= = =
t t
o

Lets analyze the point B



So,
( )
kpsi
in
lb in
d
M
I
c M
B B
x
7 . 50
75 . 0
2100 32 32
3 3
=


= = =
t t
o
Shear stress for torsion,
( )
kpsi
in
in lb
d
T
J
Tr
T
24
75 . 0
. 2000 16 16
3 3
=

= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]
Shear stress for B from F
z
,
( )
kpsi
in
lb
d
F
A
F
z z
Fz
5 . 1
75 . 0 3
500 16
3
16
3
4
2 2
=

= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]

So, total shear stress, kpsi kpsi kpsi
Fy T xy
5 . 22 5 . 1 24 = = = t t t








MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

Lets analyze the point C


So,
( )
kpsi
in
lb in
d
M
I
c M
C C
x
7 . 50
75 . 0
2100 32 32
3 3
=


= = =
t t
o [sign indicated]
Shear stress for torsion,
( )
kpsi
in
in lb
d
T
J
Tr
T
24
75 . 0
. 2000 16 16
3 3
=

= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]
Shear stress for C from F
z
,
( )
kpsi
in
lb
d
F
A
F
z z
Fz
5 . 1
75 . 0 3
500 16
3
16
3
4
2 2
=

= = =
t t
t [sign indicated]

So, total shear stress, kpsi kpsi kpsi
Fy T xy
5 . 25 5 . 1 24 = = = t t t



Table A-20: S
UT
= 64 kpsi, S
y
= 54 kpsi
From the above analysis, we get, the critical stresses are in point B, which are
o = 84.5 kpsi and t = -24.9 kpsi.

Since the load is applied and released repeatedly,
This gives o
max
= 84.5 kpsi, o
min
= 0 kpsi and t
max
= 0 kpsi, t
min
= -24.9 kpsi.
Consequently, o
m
= o
a
= 42.25 kpsi, and t
m
= -12.45 kpsi t
a
= 12.45 kpsi.

K
f
= 1 + q (K
t
1) = 1 + 0.75 (1.5 1) = 1.375

K
fs
= 1 + q (K
ts
1) = 1 + 0.75 (2.1 1) = 1.825

Obtain von Mises stresses for the alternating and mid-range stresses,

( ) ( ) kpsi
a
8 . 70 45 . 12 825 . 1 3 25 . 42 375 . 1 '
2 2
= + = o ,
( ) ( ) kpsi
m
8 . 70 45 . 12 825 . 1 3 25 . 42 375 . 1 '
2 2
= + = o ,

Check for yielding, using the conservative, kpsi
a m
5 . 84 ' ' '
max
= + = o o o
MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

Static factor of safety, 639 . 0
5 . 84
54
'
max
= = =
o
y
y
S
n

Yields on first cycle. No additional analysis required.


Problem 4 (20 Points)
The bar shown in figure is subjected to a repeated tension 0 s F s 10,000 lbf. The bar is a material with
S
UT
= 100 kpsi, S
y
= 90 kpsi, K
Ic
= 40 kpsi\in. Material tests on various specimens of this material with
identical heat treatment indicate worst-case constants of C = 4.2 10
11
(in/cycle) (kpsi\in)
m
and m = 3.
As shown, a nick (at the middle of the bar) of size 0.008 in has been discovered on the bottom of the bar.
Estimate the number of cycles of life remaining.






Solution:
The stress range Ao is always computed by using the nominal (uncracked) area. The stress range,

( )
kpsi 0 . 80 psi 000 , 80
in 5 . 0 in 25 . 0
lbf 000 , 10
A
F
2
= =

= = o A

which is below the yield strength. As the crack grows, it will eventually become long enough
such that the bar will completely yield or undergo a brittle fracture. For the ratio of S
y
/S
UT
, it is
highly unlikely that the bar will reach complete yield. For brittle fracture, designate the crack
length as a
f
. If | = 1, then from Eq. (537) with K
I
= K
Ic
, we approximate a
f
as,

in 08 . 0
80 1
40 1 K 1
a
2
2
max
Ic
f
=
|
.
|

\
|
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|o t
=

From fig. 5-26, we compute the ratio, 16 . 0
in 5 . 0
in 08 . 0
b
a
f
= = , 8
in 5 . 0
in 4
b
h
= =

This is off the graph, so we must approximate .

Assume | 1.07


MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Assignment #5 Due Date: 4/14/2014

Copyright 2014 Jobaidur Rahman Khan

We re-evaluate a
f
as,

in 07 . 0
80 07 . 1
40 1 K 1
a
2
2
max
Ic
f
=
|
.
|

\
|
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|o t
=

Thus, from Eq. (66), the estimated remaining life is,

( )
Cycles 10 9 . 100
a
634 , 13
a 80 07 . 1
da
10 2 . 4
1
N
3
07 . 0
008 . 0
07 . 0
008 . 0
3 11
f
=
(

(
=
t

=
}