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282

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008

Attenuation of Conducted EMI Emissions


From an Inverter-Driven Motor
Hirofumi Akagi, Fellow, IEEE, and Takayuki Shimizu

AbstractThis paper provides theoretical and experimental


discussions on conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI)
emissions from an inverter-driven motor rated at 400 V and
15 kW. It focuses on a line EMI filter and its combination with
a motor EMI filter, along with their effects on attenuation of
conducted emission voltage. When no EMI filter is connected,
the motor drive cannot meet the conducted emission limits prescribed by Category 3 in the IEC61800-3 regulations. The reason
is that the common-mode voltage generated by a voltage-source
pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter causes a common-mode
leakage current flowing into the ground wire lead through parasitic capacitors inside the motor. When the line EMI filter is
connected, the motor drive can meet Category 3. The motor EMI
filter eliminates the common-mode voltage from the motor terminals, thus bringing a drastic reduction to the leakage current.
The combination of the two EMI filters can comply with the limits
prescribed by Category 2, which are much stricter than those by
Category 3.
Index TermsElectromagnetic interference (EMI), leakage currents, motor drives, pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverters.

I. INTRODUCTION
N adjustable-speed motor drive by a voltage-source
pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter has made a
significant contribution to achieving energy conservation, as
well as to improving system performance and productivity.
However, the PWM inverter based on switching operation has
been considered as a representative noise source of conducted
and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions.
The conducted emission may interfere with other electronic
equipment through power lines, while the radiated emission
may bring malfunction, particularly to radio-controlled devices
in the vicinity of the noise source.
The international electro-technical commission (IEC) has
prescribed EMI regulations for motor drives on industrial
and commercial low-voltage networks. For example, the
IEC61800-3 Category 3 provides conducted emission limits
in a frequency range of 150 kHz to 30 MHz for low-voltage
motor drives with a nominal input current of less than 100 A
in an industrial area. The EMI regulations have encouraged
power electronics engineers to do further research on passive
and active EMI filters for mitigating conducted and/or radiated
emissions [1][22].

Manuscript received May 6, 2007; revised July 11, 2007. Recommended for
publication by Associate Editor P. Tenti.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan (e-mail:
akagi@ee.titech.ac.jp).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2007.911878

The authors have proposed a passive EMI filter having access to the ungrounded neutral point of an inverter-driven motor
[20][22]. To distinguish it from other passive EMI filters, it
is referred to as the motor EMI filter in this paper because it
is installed between the inverter and the motor. It is prominent in using the three-phase star-connected stator windings
as a part of the filter components. This results in making the
filter smaller in size, more effective in attenuation than other
filter configurations having no access to the motor neutral point.
The motor EMI filter can keep both shaft voltage and ground
leakage current in check, as a result of eliminating high-frequency common-mode voltage from the motor terminals.
This paper evaluates effects of passive EMI filters on attenuation of conducted EMI emissions from an inverter-driven motor
rated at 400 V and 15 kW. Measurement of conducted emission
voltages in a frequency range of 150 kHz to 30 MHz is carried
out by using a line-impedance stabilizing network (LISN) and a
spectrum analyzer in accordance with CISPR Pub. 16 [5]. Two
types of filters are designed, constructed, and tested. One is referred to as a line EMI filter because it is installed at the line
side of the motor drive. The line EMI filter meets the conducted
emission limits prescribed by Category 3 in the IEC61800-3 regulations. The other is based on a combination of the motor EMI
filter with the line EMI filter. This combination complies with
the conducted emission limits prescribed by Category 2, which
are much stricter than those by Category 3.
II. MEASUREMENT OF CONDUCTED EMISSION
VOLTAGES WHEN THE LINE EMI FILTER IS
DISCONNECTED AND CONNECTED
A. Experimental System Configurations
Fig. 1 shows the experimental system configuration when no
EMI filter is connected, while Fig. 2 shows that when a line EMI
transformer changes
filter is connected. A three-phase
the 200-V 50-Hz system with -phase grounding in Japan into
the worldwide 400-V 50-Hz system with neutral grounding. The
secondary of the transformer is connected to a three-phase diode
rectifier through a 440-V 30-A LISN (Kyoritsu: KNW-243C)
with a frequency band of 9 kHz to 30 MHz. The common-mode
H is intentionally installed between
inductor
the LISN and the diode rectifier. The reason for installation
from flowing into the
is to prevent an excessive current
LISN, thus brings correct measurement of conducted emission
voltage to a spectrum analyzer (Agilent Technology: E4411B).
A three-phase two-level voltage-source PWM inverter is operated at a switching frequency of 15 kHz. A 400-V 15-kW
four-pole induction motor with no load is driven at an inverter
frequency of 20 Hz because load conditions produce little effect

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AKAGI AND SHIMIZU: ATTENUATION OF CONDUCTED EMI EMISSIONS FROM AN INVERTER-DRIVEN MOTOR

283

Fig. 1. Experimental system when the line EMI filter is disconnected.

Fig. 2. Experimental system when the line EMI filter is connected.

on the waveform of the common-mode voltage generated by the


PWM inverter.
The line EMI filter shown in Fig. 2 consists of a common, three differential-mode inductors , three
mode inductor
star-connected bypass capacitors
, and a bypass capacitor
. Here,
is made of a stack of five ferrite toroidal cores,
uses a single ferrite toroidal core per phase. Both inwhile
ductors have a single turn, thus resulting in simple structure.
and
keeps high-frequency differenThe combination of
tial-mode current from flowing into the three-phase ac mains.
The line EMI filter has flexibility in designing circuit paand
, to meet
rameters, including key components
the conducted emission limits prescribed by Category 3 in
the IEC61800-3 regulations. The larger the capacitance value
, the better the filtering performance. In addition, the
of
, the better the filtering
larger the inductance value of
performance. However, the capacitance value has a limitation
in avoiding malfunction of a protection relay against a fundamental-frequency (50 Hz) zero-sequence current higher than
10 mA. When the three-phase diode rectifier is connected to an
ac mains with -phase grounding, or a voltage sag occurs in an
ac mains with neutral grounding, such a 50-Hz zero-sequence
current may flow from the ac mains to the ground wire lead
. This paper assigned the capacitance value as
through
F to make the 50-Hz zero-sequence current
lower than 10 mA in the worst case. On the other hand, the inductance value has no limitation from a practical point of view,
unlike the capacitance value. In an actual system, however, a

compromise or tradeoff between cost and performance exists


in designing the inductance value. Hence, this paper assigned
H to meet the conducted
the inductance value as
emission limits prescribed by Category 3 under the capacitance
F. Increasing the capacitance value of
value of
could be accompanied by decreasing the inductance value
if no attention were paid to the 50-Hz zero-sequence
of
current.
B. Considerations on Measurement of Conducted Emission
Voltage
The LISN is indispensable for measurement of conducted
emission voltage in accordance with CISPR Pub. 16. It is
2 m metal plane connected to the neutral
put on a 2 m
point of the secondary of the transformer. No current is allowed to flow on the metal plane. In other words, the device
under test (DUT) is prohibited from grounding to the metal
plane. The safety ground terminal of the LISN is connected
to the ground terminal of a switchboard in the authors laboratory. The spectrum analyzer based on average detection
kHz,
is set as follows: RBW resolution band width
MHz, sweep time
s, and
VBW video band width
.
averaging number
C. Measurement of Conducted Emission Voltages and
Observation of Ground Leakage Currents
Fig. 3 shows measured frequency spectra of conducted emission voltages in Figs. 1 and 2. Figs. 4 and 5 show observed wave-

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008

Fig. 3. Conducted emission voltages measured from Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 5. Observed waveforms obtained from Fig. 2, where the line EMI filter is
connected. (a) With a switching frequency-based time scale. (b) With a timeexpanded scale.

Fig. 4. Observed waveforms obtained from Fig. 1, where the line EMI filter
is disconnected. (a) With a switching frequency-based time scale. (b) With a
time-expanded scale.

forms of the common-mode voltage and three leakage currents,


where
is the common-mode voltage appearing at the ac side

;
of the inverter with respect to the dc-link midpoint
is the ground leakage current flowing out of the motor

frame;
is the ground leakage current flowing into the LISN;

is the leakage current flowing into the heat sink;

is the leakage current flowing into the line EMI filter.

When the line EMI filter is disconnected, the conducted emission voltage does not meet the limits prescribed by Category 3 in
a frequency range of 150 kHz to 3 MHz. In particular, it exceeds
the limit at 150 kHz by 20 dB, and the limits from 500 kHz to
1 MHz by 15 dB. A partial peak around 3 MHz appears in the
conducted emission voltage, and the resultant oscillations with
a frequency of 3 MHz are observed in the waveforms of
and
in Fig. 4(b). This means that the oscillations come from
resonance between stray inductors in the motor and ground wire
leads, and parasitic capacitors inside the diode and IGBT modules. The next section makes an intensive discussion on this interesting phenomenon. The conducted emission voltage in a frequency band higher than 4 MHz meets Category 3 with a margin
of 10 dB.
When the line EMI filter is connected, the conducted emission voltage complies with Category 3 in a frequency range of
150 kHz to 30 MHz, as shown in Fig. 3. Moreover, the waveand
in Fig. 5(b) show that the oscillations at
forms of

AKAGI AND SHIMIZU: ATTENUATION OF CONDUCTED EMI EMISSIONS FROM AN INVERTER-DRIVEN MOTOR

285

Fig. 6. Common-mode circuit equivalent to Fig. 1 at 150 kHz.

3 MHz are mitigated to some extent. In addition, the line EMI


filter brings sharp attenuation to a frequency band of 650 kHz
and a
to 750 kHz as a result of series resonance between
stray inductor of the filter wire lead. The next section gives a
theoretical discussion on the sharp attenuation.
are
Fig. 4(a) suggests that the peak and rms values of
1.78 A and 0.48 A, whereas those of
are 1.49 A and 0.52 A,
is similar to that of
. The
although the waveform of
and
results in
, where the peak
difference between
are 0.8 A and 0.09 A.
and rms values of
III. EQUIVALENT COMMON-MODE CIRCUITS AT 150 kHz
This section discusses effects of the line EMI filter on attenuation of the conducted emission voltage at 150 kHz that is the
lowest frequency in the frequency band prescribed by the IEC
regulations. However, the 150-kHz emission voltage may be the
most difficult frequency component to comply with the limits.

voltage with a frequency of 150 Hz (triple line frequency).


However, this 150-Hz common-mode voltage has no effect on
the conducted emission voltage.
Fig. 6 identifies the following common-mode leakage current
loops:1
Loop 1:
motor ground lead
heat-sink ground lead
parasitic capacitors
Loop 2:
motor ground lead
supply ground lead
Fig. 6 gives the following impedance to each path:

A. When the Line EMI Filter is Disconnected


Fig. 6 depicts an equivalent circuit for common-mode
and
voltage and current at 150 kHz to Fig. 1. Here,
are the common-mode inductance and resistance values of
, and
and
are the
the common-mode inductor
common-mode capacitance and resistance values between the
three-phase motor terminals connected together and the motor
,
,
, and
frame (the stator case). Note that
are parasitic capacitance values between the diode and IGBT
modules and the heat sink [21]. The use of the LISN enables
to consider the background system impedance upstream of
as the parallel circuit of
and
at 150 kHz, where a
is just the conducted
voltage appearing across
,
, and
are the
emission voltage. Although
stray inductance values of their individual wire leads, they are
small enough to be neglected at that frequency. The parasitic
capacitance values in Fig. 6 are not theoretical but measured
ones at 150 kHz by an LCR meter. The common-mode voltage
produced by the PWM inverter has a fundamental component
with the same frequency as 15 kHz (switching frequency) and
many harmonic components, including a 150-kHz component.
. MoreFig. 6 considers only the 150-kHz component as
over, the three-phase diode rectifier produces a common-mode

The ratio of

with respect to

is given by

(1)
, so
This equation suggests that almost no current flows in
is nearly equal to
. The assumption of
that
enables to neglect Loop 1. This makes simple the ratio of
with respect to
at 150 kHz:

(2)
On the other hand, the waveform of
includes high-frequency components, because the impedance of Loop 1 gets low

)
)

1Strictly speaking, the other Loop exists; v


3C
v
supply ground wire lead
heat-sink ground lead
. Howis 2.6 k
at 150
ever, this loop is negligible because the impedance of 3C
==R
is 69
at that frequency.
kHz, whereas the impedance of C

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008

Fig. 7. Common-mode circuit equivalent to Fig. 2 at 150 kHz.

in a range of higher than 1 MHz. In fact, an oscillating component with a frequency of 3 MHz is included in the wave, as shown in Fig. 4(b). This oscillating component
form of
,
,
, and
comes from a series resonance of
in Loop 1. The resonant frequency
can be calculated from
Fig. 6 as follows:

MHz

(3)

into Loops 2 and 3. Fig. 7 gives the


EMI filter divides
following impedance to each filter path:

The rms values of

and

have the following relation:


(4)

This frequency is nearly equal to the oscillating frequency of


.
The use of

expresses

as
(5)

B. When the Line EMI Filter is Connected


Fig. 7 depicts an equivalent circuit for common-mode voltage
and current at 150 kHz to Fig. 2. Note that
and
are the
inductance and resistance values of the common-mode inductor
,
, and
are those of the differential-mode inductor
, and
is the stray inductance value of the filter wire lead.
Fig. 7 identifies the following common-mode leakage current
loops.
Loop 1:
motor ground lead
heat-sink ground lead
parasitic capacitors
Loop 2:
motor ground lead
supply ground lead

Substituting (5) into (4) yields the ratio of


as

with respect to

(6)
where

Let
in (6) be
, and moreover let
in
(2) be
. The ratio of
with respect to
expresses a factor of attenuation of
common-mode current at 150 kHz,
as

Loop 3:
motor ground lead
filter lead
The impedance of
is much higher than the series
impedance of
,
,
, and
at 150 kHz. Thus,
Loop 1 can be neglected from Fig. 7. The existence of the line

dB

is

(7)

The measured factor of attenuation, obtained from Fig. 3,


22 dB with a difference from (7) by 8 dB. The reasons

AKAGI AND SHIMIZU: ATTENUATION OF CONDUCTED EMI EMISSIONS FROM AN INVERTER-DRIVEN MOTOR

287

Fig. 8. Experimental system when both line and motor EMI filters are connected.

why the difference appears are as follows. One comes from frequency dependence of the passive components used in this experiment, along with measurement errors in the component parameters. Another is that the theoretical factor of attenuation,
given by (7), excludes an effect of differential-mode current on
the conducted emission voltage. Note that the conducted emission voltage measured by the LISN and the spectrum analyzer
includes both common-mode and differential-mode currents.
Unfortunately, it would be impossible to separate the commonmode current from the differential-mode current in the experimental system of Fig. 2.
Equation (6) suggests that sharp attenuation occurs at a frequency of
(8)
This means that the line EMI filter acts as a notch filter around
that frequency. It is easy to calculate (8) as
kHz from
the two parameters of
and
in Fig. 7. This theoretical frequency agrees well with an experimental frequency of
700 kHz, around which sharp attenuation occurs in the conducted emission voltage of Fig. 3.
IV. MEASUREMENT OF CONDUCTED EMISSION VOLTAGE
WHEN BOTH LINE AND MOTOR EMI FILTERS ARE CONNECTED
Although the line EMI filter can prevent high-frequency
leakage current from flowing into the LISN, it cannot mitigate
the common-mode voltage produced by the inverter and the ensuing leakage current flowing out of the motor. The motor EMI
filter proposed in [20][22] can eliminate the common-mode
voltage from the motor terminals, thus leading to a significant
. As a result, the combination of the line
reduction in
and motor EMI filters is expected to attenuate the conducted
emission voltage, particularly in a frequency range of 150 to
600 kHz.
A. System Configuration
Fig. 8 shows the experimental system configuration in which
both line and motor EMI filters are connected. The motor EMI
-reduction filter and a common-mode
filter consists of a

-reduction filter consists of three differenfilter. The


, three damping resistors
, and three
tial-mode inductors
, forming a low-pass filter to
star-connected capacitors
mitigate the rate of voltage change to time at the motor terminals. The common-mode filter forms a current loop from the
, the three-phase motor terminals
common-mode inductor
and the ungrounded motor neutral point to the dc-link midthrough a series-connected resistor and capacitor
point
. This current loop helps effectively in applying
the common-mode voltage produced by the inverter across the
, so that no common-mode voltage
common-mode inductor
,
appears at the motor terminals [20]. The 4.7-nF capacitor
that is connected between the heat sink and the dc-link midpoint, has the function of bypassing the high-frequency leakage
current flowing out of the heat sink into the dc-link midpoint,
as discussed later on.
The line EMI filter in Fig. 8 is the same as that in Fig. 2 except
H , to enhance
for the differential-mode inductor
attenuation of differential-mode current.
B. Conducted Emission Voltage and Leakage Currents
Fig. 9 shows the measured result of conducted emission
voltage in the case of using both line and motor EMI filters
and turning the switch
on, in comparison to that in the
case of using only the line EMI filter, along with the limits
prescribed by Categories 3 and 2. Note that low-voltage motor
drives should comply with Category 3 in an industrial area or
Category 2 in a commercial area.
Fig. 10 shows observed waveforms of the common-mode
, and the four
voltage appearing at the motor terminals,
leakage currents, where (a) is the case of disconnecting the
(the switch is turned off), and (b) is the
4.7-nF capacitor
case of connecting it (the switch is turned on).
It is clear from Fig. 9 that the combination of the line EMI
filter with the motor EMI filter produces an excellent attenuation
effect on the conducted emission voltage in a wide range of 150
kHz to 10 MHz, thus resulting in complying with Category 2.
In particular, the motor EMI filter achieves attenuation by 20
dB in a range of 150 to 400 kHz. This results from a significant
. However, no attenuation occurs in a
reduction in

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008

Fig. 9. Conducted emission voltage measured from Fig. 8, where the switch S
is turned on.

frequency range of over 10 MHz. This means that the conducted


emission voltage in that frequency range is dominated by differential-mode current. It would be impossible to gain better attenuation in such a high-frequency range because frequency dependence of passive components such as ferrite toroidal cores2 gets
significant.
The conducted emission voltage measured by the experimental system of Fig. 8 has a peak value around 600 kHz. This
peak value comes from differential-mode current because inreduces it, and no 600-kHz
creasing the inductance value of
in Fig. 10.
component is included in the waveform of
in Fig. 10 has an amplitude of 20 V,
The waveform of
that is much lower than that in Fig. 5. As a result, the rms values
and
are reduced drastically. The waveforms of
of
and
in Fig. 10(a) are similar but opposite in polarity.
to be a
Careful experiments identify the waveform of
pulse train with an oscillating frequency of 5 MHz from anin Fig. 10(a), which is
other time-expanded waveform of
excluded from this paper due to page limitation. The peak and
are 0.23 A and 0.02 A in Fig. 10(b).
rms values
C. Effect of the Motor EMI Filter on Attenuation of Conducted
Emission Voltage
Fig. 11 depicts a common-mode circuit equivalent to Fig. 8 at
150 kHz. Note that the
-reduction filter is eliminated from
Fig. 11 because attention is paid to common-mode leakage
and
are the inductance and resistance
currents. Here,
, and
, and
values of the common-mode inductor
are the common-mode inductance and resistance values
between the three-phase motor terminals connected together
and the motor neutral point. Let the following impedances be

First, attention is paid to Loops 1 and 2 in Fig. 11. The series


and
to the
impedance at 150 kHz from
dc-link midpoint in Loop 1 is given by

Fig. 10. Observed waveforms obtained from Fig. 8, where both line and motor
EMI filters are connected. (a) When the switch S is turned off. (b) When the
switch S is turned on.

The impedance of

at 150 kHz in Loop 2 is given by

The former impedance in Loop 1 is higher than the latter


impedance in Loop 2. Therefore, a large part of the 150-kHz
flows
component flowing in the common-mode inductor
as
in Loop 2.
Next, attention is paid to Loops 2 and 4. When only the line
EMI filter is connected, it is reasonable to neglect Loop 4. However, Loop 4 should be taken into account when the motor EMI
filter is combined with the line EMI filter. The reason is that the
is higher than that of
at 150 kHz. In
impedance of
is given by
fact, the impedance of
k
whereas the impedance of

2For

instance, the measured inductance and resistance values of


1.6 nH and 21
at 10 MHz.

is given by

are

AKAGI AND SHIMIZU: ATTENUATION OF CONDUCTED EMI EMISSIONS FROM AN INVERTER-DRIVEN MOTOR

289

Fig. 11. Common-mode circuit equivalent to Fig. 8 at 150 kHz.

TABLE I
MEASURED PEAK AND RMS VALUES OF i

,i

, AND i

Y: meet, N: not meet

When Loops 2 and 4 are taken into account, the ratio of


with respect to
is given by

(9)
,
The ratio of (9) with respect to (6), defined by
results in an effect of the motor EMI filter on attenuation of the
conducted emission voltage
dB

(10)

The attenuation factor obtained from Fig. 9 is 22 dB, thus


producing a difference by 9 dB between theoretical and experimental values. This difference comes from an effect of both
differential-mode current and frequency dependence of passive
components on the experimental value, as already described in
Section III-B.
D. Effect of the Capacitor

impedance of the three parallel-connected parasitic capacitors


as 50 at 5 MHz.
between the heat sink
Connecting the 4.7-nF capacitor
and the dc-link midpoint (turning the switch on) presents a
is
low-impedance path to Loop 3, where the impedance of
is one-seventh as low
6.8 at 5 MHz. The impedance of
. As a result, a large
as the impedance of
part of the high-frequency common-mode current flowing in
circulates around Loop 3 through the capacitor
. Thus,
makes a considerable contribution
connecting the capacitor
.
to reducing the peak and rms values of
Table I summarizes the peak and rms values of
,
,
, and whether each of the three filter configurations,
and
,
including connection and disconnection of the capacitor
meets the IEC61800-3 regulations. Although the line EMI filter
makes the conducted emission voltage meet Category 3, it in. The combination of the
creases the peak and rms values of
line EMI filter with the motor EMI filter can reduce the peak and
and
so drastically as to make the conrms values of
ducted emission voltage meet Category 2.

on Attenuation of

The motor EMI filter can reduce


drastically, as shown
in Fig. 10(a). However, it could not mitigate the common-mode
around Loop 4 through the
leakage current circulating as
, the heat sink and the line EMI filter,
parasitic capacitor
if the capacitor
were disconnected from Fig. 11 (the switch
were turned off). Note that the positive direction of Loop 4 in
in Fig. 8. Recalling that the
Fig. 11 is opposite to that of
is 5 MHz enables to calculate the
oscillating frequency of

V. CONCLUSION
This paper has focused on attenuation of conducted EMI
emissions from an inverter-driven motor rated at 400 V and
15 kW. Two types of passive EMI filters have been designed,
constructed, and tested. One is a line EMI filter placed at the
line side of the motor drive, and the other is a motor EMI
filter installed at the motor side. This paper has measured the
conducted emission voltage of the motor drive in accordance

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008

with CISPR Pub. 16. The contributions of this paper can be


summarized as follows.
The use of the line EMI filter has complied with the limits
prescribed by Category 3 in the IEC61800-3 regulations.
The combination of the line EMI filter with the motor EMI
filter has complied with the limits prescribed by Category
2, which are much stricter than those by Category 3.
Common-mode circuits equivalent to the motor drive have
provided intensive discussions about effects of the line and
motor EMI filters on attenuation of both conducted emission voltages and ground leakage currents.
From a practical point of view, it is important to discuss and
verify the effectiveness of the EMI filter configuration presented
in Fig. 8 (having the switch turned on), when the filter configuration is applied to motor drives with different current ratings,
but with the same voltage rating as 400 V. The authors understand that optimal filter parameters for the different current ratings lie close to the filter parameters presented in Fig. 8, because
conducted emission voltages depend mainly on the motor (or
dc-link) voltage. However, careful measurement and evaluation
are left as future work to verify the authors understanding.
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Hirofumi Akagi (M87SM94F96) was born
in Okayama, Japan, on August 19, 1951. He received the B.S. degree from the Nagoya Institute
of Technology, Nagoya, Japan, in 1974, and the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Tokyo Institute
of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in 1976 and 1979,
respectively, all in electrical engineering.
In 1979, he was with the Nagaoka University of
Technology, Nagaoka, Japan, as an Assistant and then
Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical
Engineering. In 1987, he was a Visiting Scientist at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, for ten months.
From 1991 to 1999, he was a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan. From March to August of 1996,
he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and then
MIT. Since January 2000, he has been a Professor in the Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology. He has made
presentations many times as a keynote or invited speaker internationally. He
has published more than 70 IEEE journal/transactions papers, including two
invited papers published in Proceedings of the IEEE in 2001 and 2005. According to Google Scholar, the total citation index for all his papers is more
than 5000. His research interests include power conversion systems, ac motor
drives, active and passive EMI filters, high-frequency resonant-inverters for induction heating and corona discharge treatment processes, and utility applications of power electronics such as active filters, self-commutated BTB systems,
and FACTS devices.
Dr. Akagi is currently the President of the IEEE Power Electronics Society.
He was elected as a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Power electronics
and Industry Applications Societies for 19981999. He received two IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS Prize Paper Awards in 1991
and 2004, and two IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS Prize
Paper Awards in 1999 and in 2003, nine IEEE Industry Applications Society
Committee Prize Paper Awards, the IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics
Award in 2001, and the IEEE Industry Applications Society Outstanding
Achievement Award in 2004.

Takayuki Shimizu was born in Annaka, Japan, on


6 May 1982. He received the B.S degree from the
Technical College of Gunma, Gunma, Japan, and the
M.S. degree from the Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Tokyo, Japan, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, both in
electrical engineering.
He is working for Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation (TMEIC).