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Controlling Methods of EM1 Noises Generated in Motor Drive Systems

Nobuyoshi Mutoh, Mitsukatsu Ogata, Gulez Kayhan and Fumio Harashima


To!qo Metropolitan Institute of Technology
6-6, Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo, 191-0065 Japan
Abstract - The paper describes methods that control EMI
noises generated in power converters (rectifier and inverter)
hy using power printed circuit techniques. Two kinds of
differential and common mode uoises are generated in the
motor drive system. A method is proposed that controls the
differential mode uoises by symmetrically forming the
structure of the positive and negative power transmission lines
of the power converter using a four-layer printed power circuit
technique. Simulations done using the method show that
differential mode currents appearing between the terminals of
the power converters and the smoothing capacitors can he
almost completely eliminated and the common mode cnrrents
are shunted into the artificial ground plane. Another method
is also proposed that controls the shunted common mode
currents so as to prevent series resonance phenomena by
inserting a damping impedance between the frame of the
machine and the ground. Experiments verify that the common
mode currents generated in the motor drive system can be
effectively reduced by the two proposed methods.
Key words: EMI noises, Common mode currents, Inverter,
Convener, Motor drive, Switching, Resonance
I. INTRODUCTION
Motor drive systems using power converters composed
of the PWh4 converter and inverter have been widely used
for various kinds of applications such as industrial machines
and transportation systems. Switching speeds of power
devices used in power converters have become higher and
higher due to requests for higher performance. This leads to
increased frequencies of EMI noises [I], and then they
easily diffise through not only power transmission lines of
power converters but also their converters into another
electric equipment. Thus, motor drive systems have the
potential of causing electromagnetic interference problems
between electric equipment. Especially, because common
mode noises are transmitted as common mode currents
through stray capacitors distributed between the ground and
the machine frame such as the cooling fin of power
converters or the frameof the motor, they have the ability to
make the influence of EM1 noises even larger. The methods
proposed until now have suppressed EM1 noises by
inserting control means such as active cancellers [2] or EM
filters [3] between the power converter and the motor (or
AC reactor). In these cases, there are possibilities to newly
generate from the inserted control means. So, other
methods must bestudied that can solve the problem.
E . CONTROL METHODS FOR EM NOISES
New methods proposed in this paper are comprised of
two techniques. One is a packaging technique that forms
power converters applied to motor drives using a 4-layer
printed power circuit board. The other is a method to
control common mode currents by shunting them into three
parts: i.e., the machine frame installed at the source side
like an AC reactor, the cooling tin of power converters and
the frame of the motor. The methods are based on the idea
that EM1 noises generated in power converters should be
suppressed within their system and common mode noises
transmitted to the frames of the AC reactor or the motor
from the terminal of the power converters should be
controlled between each frame and the ground. Methods are
studied based on the idea that the path of the common mode
current can be confined and EMI noises can be prevented
from diffusing into another apparatus.
A. Method to Conhol Differential and Common Mode
Currents by Packaging
Fig.1 shows the motor drive systemdiscussed here. Fig.2
shows the packaging structure when the motor drive system
illustrated by Fig.1 is formed using a multi-layer printed
power circuit technique. Power converters are comprised of
the P W M converter and P W M inverter using IPMs. The
size of the board is 48cm x l2cm (in length and breadth),
The power converters are laid out so that the distance
between the converter and the inverter is shortened as much
Fig. I Motor drive system using a power circuit board
07803-7262-Xx12/%10.00 Q 2W2 EEE. 1531
as possible. Moreover. the P-and N-power transmission
lines are laminated. As a result the line inductance between
the inverter and the soothing capacitor is 19.8nH and the
inductance behveen the converter and the soothing capacitor
is 58.9nH. As a result. differential mode noises generated
due to switching operations, i. e. Ldi/dt are expected to be
suppressed. On the other hand, as common mode noises are
produced by the differential of the voltage levels output
from PWM converter (or inverter), i.e. dddt related to
switching speeds of the power devices used, they cannot be
controlled by the wiring inductance. Thus, a method is
proposed in the paper that common mode noises generated
between the P- (or N-) transmission line and the ground are
controlled by newly installing the ground plane for each
1" ompm
(a) Outline ofthe proposed sWct ur e.
( r o AC SOURCE) (To MOTOR)
(a) Top surface of
P-transmission line
transmission lines in the 4"-layer of the printed power
board. The stmcture of the studied multi-layer is as follom:
first-layer. gate circuit, voltage source, and current and
voltage detectors; second-layer. P-power transmission lines;
third-layer, N-power transmission lines.
Wesimulate the proposed stmcture to suppress differential
and common mode noises at high frequencies between
lMHz and ISMHz, which generate series resonance
phenomena [ I ] to venfy the effects of the stmctu~. Fig.3
shows surface current distributions on the top surface and
under side of the P- and N- power transmission lines when
the differential mode noises of 15MHz are applied to the
terminals of the PWM inverter and PWM converter.
P trs"rmi.llon line
.. ,..
@) 3-dimensional s mmre of the printed board.
Fig.2 Smcturc of fully printed power converters in t he motor drive system shown in Fig.1.
su*e.rumnt
~ o,s ..... ....... .....................
0 0.25 0.75 1
P-termind of Converter
P-terminal of
P-lermind of I
(c) Top surface of
N-transmission line
@)Underside of
P-transmission line
(d) Under side of
N-transmission line
Fig.3 Simulations of surface current distributions on the power
transmission line.
(a) Under sideof P-transmission line
N-termind of Converter
._-________.__.______
N-t el mi nal of
N-terminal of Inverter
(b) Top surface ofN-transmission line
Fig.4 Simulations of the surface current flows on power
transmission lines.
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We find from Fig. 3 that the differential mode currents
generated by switching operations from the PWM converter
and PWM inverter are flowing only between the under side
of the P-transmission line and the top surface of the
N-transmission line and hardly any are on the top surface
(Fig.3 (a)) of the P-transmission line and the under side
(Fig.3 (d)) of the N-transmission line. Moreover. it is
proved from Fig.4 that the differential mode current on the
under side of the P-transmission Lineand the top surface of
the N-transmission line are flowing in the reverse direction
to each other. This means that the proposed strncture bas the
ability to cancel the magnetic fields produced by the
differential mode currents.
Next, the method is studied to control the common mode
currents. Fig.5 describes the capability of the ground plane
to control the common mode currents as shown by
simulations. FigS(a) is the current distribution when the
ground plane was laid out only just below the transmission
lines coMected with the PWM converter terminals. It is
found from FigS(a) that the differential modecurrents flow
into the installed ground plane where the symmetly between
the P- and N- transmission lines is collapsed change to the
common mode currents. As shown in Fig.5@), the
differential modecurrents also flow into the newly installed
ground plane near regions connected with the terminals of
the PWM iwerter as the common mode currents.
Finally, we control the collected common modecurrents
using the following method.
. . ....... ...
Ma elk
co"Etor
Smoo&g i bverteir :
Capacitor IPM j
. .
...... . . . . . . . . . . .........
..............
(8-1) P-transmission line (under side)
i c
or
(8-2) N transmission line (top surface)
(a-3) Ground plane (upper side)
B. A4erhod to Control Common Mode Currents bvblatching
Impedances Between the Machine Frame and the Ground
Our method controls common mode currents collected on
the ground plane by inserting impedance between the
ground plane and the ground that is large enough to
suppress series resonance phenomena generated in common
mode current paths. The method is proposed on the basis of
the idea that transient circuit loops which induce series
resonance are formed in common mode current paths every
time switching operations are repeated by PWM control.
We study a method that estimates parameters of transient
circuits in which series resonance phenomena are occurring
from analyzing waveforms of the common mode currents
using the FFT method. This method is applied to analysis of
waveforms of the actual common mode current flowing
between the frame of the motor (or AC reactor) and the
ground, as shown in Fig.6. Flows of common mode currents
are examined by separating the motor drive system into
three parts. the power converter side. the motor (load) side
and the AC reactor (source) side. Fig.7 shows FFI analyses
of common mode currents flowing on each side. As shown
by the figure, the frequencies of resonance components are
1.8MHz, 3.5MHzl 14.5MHz and 17MHz. which are
circulating as common mode currents in the motor drive
system.
s mo o t h i ~nverthr
Capadlor IpM
.. " ..........
@- I) P transmission line (under side)
(b-2) N transmission line (top surface)
(b-3) Ground plane (Upper side)
(a) Where t he ground plane is laid out only under transmission lines @)Where the ground plane is laid out under all transmission l i nes.
on the converter side.
Fig.5 Calculared resuI1s of t he surface current and flow on power transmission lines.
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Fig.6 Method to C O ~ W I corn" mode currents appe-g i n
the motor &i ve system.
(a) 0-SMHz (a) 0-5MHz (a) 0-5MHz
(b) 12-20MHr (%)12-ZOMHz (b) 12-20MHz
(ii)AC reactor frame side. (i) Motor frame side.
Fig.7 FFT analyses of common mode currents i nmotor drive system.
(iii) Power Converter
frame side.
( c) 3.SMHz
+
m=w -
(d) ;;"M;;, (d) 14.5MHz (d) 14.5MHr
( i ) h<otorfrme side, (ii)AC reactor (iii) Powerconvertm
Fig.8 Transiem waveform separated from the common mode current
frame side frame side
using the FFT band-pass filtering technique.
First, the equivalent circuits of each side. motor side,
AC reactor side and power converter side, need to be
determined for controlling common mode cnrrents. The
equivalent circuits have various kinds of resonance
frequencies related to voltage fluctuations produced by
switching operations.
Parameters of equivalent circuits are estimated based on
the transient waveforms separated from the measured
common mode currents into resonance components using
the FFT band-pass fdtering technique. Fig.8 shows
transient waveforms obtained using the above method
Parameters of the distributed constant circuit for the
common mode current are determined by the following
method based on the separated transient waveforms.
Only the method to determine circuit parameters on the
motor frame side. which are related to the resonance
component of 1.8MHz is explained as the determination is
the same for the other resonance components. The envelop
of the separated transient wave is given by eq. (1).
The peak value of the transient waveform expressed by
eq.(l) isE/ L/C and its time constants W2L are 1.19[A]
and 0.76[pfispectively.'As the common mode voltage
is 350[Vl/3,,/E becomes 98.5. Here, assuming that the
due to series resonance phenomena, the resonance
frequency5 is given by eq. (2).
abmpt peak o f / the common mode currents is generated
Accordingly, the inductance L is expressed by eq. (3), as a
function of (LIC) and (W2L).
(3)
By substituting the above values 0.91 [p], (=2L/R):
9 8 . 5 ( = = ), and 1.8MHz(=5) into eq.(2), We obtain
8.67[pH] obtained as the inductance L . Using the numeric
values obtained, we can obtain other circuit parameters C
andR as 894[pF] and 19.0[n], respectively.
Also? as for the other separated transient wave of the
resonance components of other frequencies, wecan obtain
circuit parameters related to their separated waves by the
same procedure, as shown in Fig. 9(a). Moreover. the
distributed constant circuits for common mode currents
flowing out from the frame of the AC reactor and the
cooling fin of power converters are shown in Figs. 9(b)
and (c). respectively.
Next, the suppressing method is verified by experiments
and simulations. Fig.10 shows suppression effects of the
common mode currents when resistances inserted between
the ground and the machine frame are varied. All paths of
common mode currents must be controlled to completely
suppress common mode currents flowing in the motor
drive system. Todo so, we use the method shown in Fig.6.
Fig. 10 shows simulation results that examine effects of
the damping impedance of Fig.6 using the circuit of Fig.9.
It is found from Fig. 10 that the common mode currents
can be reduced by the increase in the damping impedance
and the fact can be proved by comparing with
experimental measurements in the actual motor drive
system. This means that we can find the most suitable
damping impedances to completely suppress common
mode currents flowing in the motor drive system by
optimizing them on each side using estimated distributed
constant circuits. These suitable impedances of the motor
side. the AC reactor side and the power converter side are
around 1.3 [kB], 450 [ 611, and 900[B], respectively.
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m. VERIFICATION OF THE PROPOSED METHODS BY
Crm" b W C EXPERIMENTS
A. Suppressing Effects of Differential and Common Mode
Current.r b.v Packaging
Weverify effects of the pmposed packaging method to
suppress differential mode cuwnt on DC power
transmission lines through experiments. The frequencies
obtained from FI T analyses of differential mode noises are
14.5MHz on the comJ erter side and 17.5MHz on the
inverter side. So. focusine on these two freuuencies.
(a) Distributed comtant circuit for the motor side.
o mo 400 6w Bw i w)
neslsrom",
(c) Dampmg impedance on the
power convater side.
Fig.10 Estimated damping impedances to suppress common mode
current. appearing in the motor dri ve system.
measurements are perfcrmed with the ksonance
frequencies 14.5MHz and 17MHz, at which series
resonance phenomena occur due to switching operat~ons of
the converter and welter, respectively. Fig.11 shows
effects to suppress differential mode current estimated from
thesurface cuwnt flowing on the power transmission lines
which is measured using the magnetic probe for the surface
current. Measurements show they are rapidly reduced as
much as 30 [ dE3LI A/m] as the measuring point moves
farther away from point A or F which are near noise sources
around terminals of the com'erter and the inverter. As a
result. only the common mode current remains and they are
shunted to the ground plane of the fourth layer. Finally,
they flow into the ground via the frame of the machine as
common modecurrents without any suppressing means.
IPM
(a)Measuring point.. @) Magnetic field intensity.
Fig.11 Magnetic fields produced by high frequency currents flowing
i nthe power transmission l i es .
B. Effects of the Proposed Method to Suppress Common
Mode Currents
Weexamine effects of the proposed method to suppress
common mode current using suitable damping factors
obtained thmngh in the former session. As shown in Fig. 12,
analyses of the experiments show that the motor drive
system has two kinds of the common mode currents, i.e.
outer current loop circulating behveen the machine frame
outside of the power convertem and the system ground and
the inner current loop cuculating between the cooling fm of
the power converters and the system earth. Thus. the
damping factors should be adjusted so as to suppress the
common mode current appearing on each side. i.e. AC
rector, power converter and motor sides. Fig.12 shows
effects of the proposed method to control common mode
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currents when the damping factors are optimized on each
side. It is found from Fig.13 that each common mode
current can be almost completely suppressed by matching
impedances between the machine frame and the earth so as
to restrain series resonance phenomena produced by
common mode current paths.
Finally, effects of the proposed method to suppress EM1
noises transmitted to the AC source side using the
measurement system are shown by Fig.14. The evaultions
are done by measuring the zem phase current flowing to the
AC source side. As shown in Fig.15, hardly any EMI noises
which produce common mode currents are transmitted to
the AC source side.
Accordingly, the proposed methods have the ability to
effectively suppress EMI noises, i.e. differential and
common mode currents all over the motor drive systems.
Fig.12 Common mode current paths formed in the motor dive
system.
(a) Motor side.
o IO tm i m rm 110 XUI II IO ~m >io m 150 ~DD
-4 -1-i
(b1)Without control. (h-2) With control.
(b)AC reactor side.
1 i
(~-1)Witholrt control. (c-2) With mntrol.
Fig.13 Effects of the proposed method to suppress common
mode currents appekng in the motor drive system.
(c) Power converler side.
CONVERTER
Fig.14 Measurement system l o cmml common mode
currents leaking lo AC source.
(h) With control. (a) Without control.
Fig.15 Effect of the proposed contrd method lo prevent EM1
noises transmitted to AC soume side.
Tv. CONCLUSIONS
The control methods were studied to supress EMI noises
appearing in the motor drive system. Features of the
developed methods are summarized as followings.
(1) The differencia1 mode noise produced by switching
opreations could be suppressed by the multi-layer printed
power circuit technique.
(2) The common mode currents appearing in the motor
dnve system were almost completely controlled by
installing the damping factors between the frame of the
machines and the system ground so as to suppress series
resonance phenomena.
(3) The influence of E M noises transmitted to the AC
source side could be almost completely eliminated using the
above two methods
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[ I ] G. L. Skibinla, R. J. Kerkman, and D. Schelegel, EM
Emissions of Modern PWM AC Drives. IEEE L4 Magazine,
Nov./Dec. pp.47-81,1999
[2] S. Ogasawara, H. Ayano, H. Akagi, Active Cancellation of
the Common-Mode Voltageby a Voltage-Source PWM Inverter:
Trans. IEE ofJ apan, Vol. 117-D, N0.6, pp.565-571, 1997
131E. Zhong, T. A. Lipo, Improvement in EMC Performance
of Inverter-Fed Motor Drives, IEEE I A, Vo.31, N0.6,
pp1247-1256, 1995
[4] N.Mutoh, S. Shirakawa, K. Komatu, N. Ohnuma, S. Hokari, F
Harashima, Electromagnetic characteristics of a High Density
Motor Drive SystemUsing a Printed Circuit Board; Trans. IEE
ofJ apan, Vol.l21-D,No.l, pp.111-117,2001
[5] N. Mutoh, M. Ogata, K. Guler, F. Hamhima, New Methods
to Suppress EMI Noises in Motor Drive SystemEPE 2001
Graz-AUSTRIA, CD-ROM, SystemEngineerig-EMC, 2001
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