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Abstract - This paper evaluates a new induction motor, the Electro-

static Shielded Induction Motor (ESIM). An ESIM reduces rotor


shaft voltages to levels below the bearing lubricant's electric field
intensity breakdown level and offers one solution to accelerated
bearing wear caused by fluting induced by Pulse Width Modu-
lated (PWM) inverters. The paper begins by reviewing shaft volt-
ages and the resulting bearing currents when operated on PWM
voltage source inverters. An example of bearing fluting is shown
and system models presented and discussed. The construction de-
tails and test results for several ESIMs are presented. Experimental
results show the ESIM solves the electrostatically induced rotor
shaft voltage and bearing problem without degrading the electro-
magnetic performance of the motor.
I. INTRODUCTION
Efficiency and productivity improvements attainable
through adjustable speed operation of process lines, air
handling systems, water treatment facilities, paper, and metal
lines placed ac Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) at the forefront
of motor control. Simultaneously, modern high frequency
switching power devices, employing Bipolar Junction
Transistors (BJT) and even faster switching Insulated Gate
Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), have produced unintended
consequences, generally described as Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).
Recently, problems were reported with ac machines operat-
ing on or in the vicinity of an ASD [1,2]. A few applications
recounted motor bearing failures after only a few months of
operation. Examination of the bearings indicated fluting in-
duced by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). Fluting is
characterized by the appearance of either pits or transverse
grooves in the bearing race, which with mechanical wear re-
sults in bearing failure. Fig. 1 shows an advanced state of
bearing wear, initiated by EDM [3].
The measured Rotor Shaft to Ground Voltage (Vrg) is an
indicator of the potential for Bearing Current (Ib). Mechani-
cal damage from fluting depends on the passage of electrical
current thru the bearing [4]. When Vrg exceeds a critical
value, the electric field intensity of the lubricant is surpassed
and an EDM occurs, potentially raising the bearing current
density to excessively high values; thus, the bearing's me-
chanical life is reduced. Current density (1) is defined as the
EDM current magnitude divided by the bearing contact area.
The Hertzian ellipse contact area is a measurement of the
plastic and elastic deformation of two contacting surfaces,
usually in mm
2
. A full explanation is provided in [5].
All rotating machines develop Vrg and bearing currents,
whether dc or ac, large or small horsepower. Most induction
motors are designed to have a maximum Vrg < 1 Vrms with
60 Hz ac line operation [6]. Three mechanisms can cause the
development of excessive Vrg - electromagnetic induction,
electrostatic coupling from internal sources, and external
sources. Historically, investigators were concerned with the
electromagnetic mechanism induced by magnetic dissymetries
in the construction of the motor, and only recently have fo-
cused on the electrostatic coupling phenomena [7].
The authors, in previous papers, demonstrated how modern
voltage source inverters serve as a source of Vrg through the
capacitive coupling of the common mode voltage from stator
to rotor [8-10]. With the bearing riding the lubricant and
forming a capacitor, the common mode source charges the
shaft to a voltage in excess of the lubricant's electric field in-
tensity, believed to be approximately 15 Vpk/m. With an av-
erage operating oil film thickness of 0.2 to 2 m [4], the Vrg
must exceed a threshold of 3 to 30 Vpk before the potential of
EDM exists. If an EDM occurs, the current density suddenly
increases, pitting the bearing and increasing mechanical wear.
Current Density =
EDMCurrent Magnitude ( Apk )
Contact Area (mm
2
)
( 1)
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
An Evaluation of the Electrostatic Shielded Induction Motor:
A Solution for Rotor Shaft Voltage Buildup and Bearing Current.
Doyle Busse, Jay Erdman, Russel J. Kerkman, Dave Schlegel, and Gary Skibinski
Rockwell Automation
Allen Bradley
6400 W. Enterprise Drive
Mequon, WI 53092
(414) 242 - 8263 (414) 242 - 8300 FAX
Fig. 1. Surface roughness of a bearing due to electrical fluting.
The authors recently introduced an Electrostatic Shielded
Induction Motor (ESIM) to reduce the electrostatically cou-
pled Vrg and resulting Ib. The ESIM places a Faraday shield
in the air gap of the machine to interrupt the coupling be-
tween stator and rotor. This paper will report on the construc-
tion methods and experimental evaluation of the ESIM [8-10].
II. A REVIEW OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENT
Through improvements in steel and lubrication, bearing
manufacturers have dramatically increased bearing life over
the last fifty years. Steel metallurgy has improved in four ar-
eas: advances in melting practices for superior quality steels,
improved heat treatment, better testing and evaluation proc-
esses, and mechanized machining and finishing techniques.
Advances in lubrication technology have also extended bear-
ing life. Engineers related bearing fatigue and wear to lubri-
cation thickness, and developed an elastohydrodynamic theory
and increased the performance of lubricants and additives.
These advances led to a thinner layer of oil between the ball
and race which minimizes friction and maximizes perform-
ance. The bearing has been developed into an industry work-
horse with long life expectancy and limited failures [11].
A. Theory of EMI
Due to high speed switching of modern power electronics,
an ac Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drive's electrical signa-
ture is a source of EMI emissions. The drive enclosure, typi-
cally metal, is utilized to attenuate radiated noise, while
conducted noise is transmitted via power lines connecting the
drive to the ac source and load. The two forms of conducted
noise are differential (line to line) and common mode (zero
sequence) [12]. The common mode voltage - the dominant ex-
citation source - excites stray or parasitic coupling capaci-
tances and contributes to Vrg and consequential bearing
current discharge [5, 8-10].
B. System Description
An inverter produces zero sequence in addition to positive
and negative sequence voltages. These voltages are transmit-
ted to the load through system components (common mode
chokes, inline reactors, and cables), which present imped-
ances to the inverter voltages, including common mode im-
pedances Zseries and Zparallel. The three phase inverter
motor model is shown in Fig. 2, while the common mode
equivalent or zero sequence portion of the motor model is
shown in Fig. 3. Both models are discussed in detail in [5,8].
The load consists of two sets of three phase impedances, one
for the stator and the other for the rotor, presenting positive,
negative and zero sequence (ro and Lo) impedances to the in-
verter voltages. Finally, the zero sequence or common mode
circuit must incorporate the contribution provided by the bear-
ing [9,10].
Each turn of the stator contributes capacitance to frame; Csf
representing the aggregate stator to frame capacitance. Simi-
larly, the rotor serves to establish a capacitive return path; Crf
representing the aggregate capacitance from rotor to frame.
The coupling mechanism for Vrg is the stator to rotor capaci-
tance (Csr). At PWM frequencies, Csr presents a low imped-
ance path between the stator and rotor and allows the
charging and discharging of the rotor through the bearing ca-
pacitance (Cb).
The bearing model, however, is complex, with many char-
acteristics affecting the values of the model parameters. For
purposes of this paper, a simple model is employed; one com-
posed of a bearing resistance (Rb), in series with a capaci-
tance (Cb) which is in parallel with a nonlinear impedance
(Zl), representing the intermittent shorting of Cb through
point contact or bearing film breakdown.
Fig. 4 shows the physical construction of a test motor for
purposes of investigating bearing currents. Both the drive and
non drive ends were outfitted with an insulated bearing sup-
port sleeve, which isolated the rotor bearings from the motor
frame. A brush was mounted on the rotor shaft to measure the
Vrg. Grounding straps were available to short the outer bear-
ing race to frame, which simulates normal operation, and pro-
vide a mechanism for measuring bearing current.
C. Bearing Voltage Breakdown Mechanisms
A motor's shaft voltage is a quantity indicative of the pro-
pensity for EDM currents; Vrg serves as a signature of the ac
machine. As an example, Fig. 5 shows three different
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Rotor Stator
Zero Sequence
Source
Drive
Csf Crf
Csr
Cb
Rb
Z
Line to Neutral
Sources
Fig. 2. Three phase inverter motor model.
C
sr
V
sg
Z
series
C
sf
C
rf
C
b
R
b
Z
L
o
Z
parallel
r
o
i
( t )
V
source
V
sng
V
rg
I
b
Gnd
Fig. 3. Common mode equivalent model.
phenomena occurring in the bearing. In this figure, the Stator
Neutral to Ground Voltage (Vsng), Vrg and Ib are displayed.
Region A depicts the shaft charging to a potential of ap-
proximately 20 Vpk. At the end of Region A, Vsng modulates
to a higher level causing the Vrg to increase. The oil film
breaks down at 35 Vpk creating a 3 Apk EDM pulse. The
voltage level required for an EDM current depends on many
factors, oil film thickness is one. Oil film thicknesses vary
from 0.2 to 2 m depending on oil temperature [4]. Lower
film thicknesses occur at higher bearing temperatures result-
ing in breakdown values decreasing to 6-10 volts.
Region B represents a charging and discharging of the bear-
ing without EDM current. The power device rise time deter-
mines dv/dt current levels. Low level currents coincident with
no charging of the rotor shaft are indicative of dv/dt currents
rather than the large magnitude EDM currents.
Region C shows the rotor and bearing charging, but to a
much lower voltage level before EDM discharge. Here, rolling
asperity contacts reduce the film thickness resulting in a lower
Vrg when compared to Region A, inducing an EDM dis-
charge. Regions of Vrg at 0 V with Vsng at high levels are ex-
plained by asperity contacts shorting out Cb to a low
resistance.
D. Design Tools for Determining Shaft Voltage Magnitudes
Knowing the relative weighting of the capacitances of Fig.
3, a design equation (2), the Bearing Voltage Ratio (BVR),
provides an estimate of Vrg given Vsng [9,10]. Induction ma-
chines typically have a BVR of approximately 0.17, regardless
of power rating [10]. Consequently, for 460 Vac systems,
most induction machines will exhibit a Vrg from 3 to 30 Vpk.
The BVR, although useful for establishing estimates of the
Vrg, is a steady state relationship. Often, the system configu-
ration invalidates this technique as pointed out in [9,10]. In
this case reduced order models employing the detailed model
parameters of Fig. 3 are effective. Such models provide an es-
timate of the Vrg to be expected when confronted with com-
mon mode chokes, inline reactors, and long cable lengths
[9,10].
E. Proposed Solutions to Rotor Shaft Voltage Buildup
With the recognition that PWM inverter drives can reduce
bearing life, numerous solutions have been proposed. One so-
lution incorporates a conductive agent with the lubricant. A
conductive grease is formed by suspending metallic particles
in the grease. Laboratory test data on a 4 ball wear tester indi-
cates the wear scar - mechanical surface damage - increases
by approximately 60 % when the conductive agent is added.
This indicates the conductive agent in the grease accelerates
mechanical wear and would shorten the life of a bearing [13].
Another solution attaches a mechanical apparatus to the ro-
tor shaft and "bleeds" the voltage with a brush. It is currently
used in numerous applications. This approach requires a low
resistance contact between the brush and rotor, a condition
that field experience indicates is difficult because of brush
wear and the build up of an oxide layer. A modified Shaft
Grounding Systems unit, purchased for evaluation on a 15 hp
ac machine, was $400.00 [14,15].
Another approach is similar to the test structure discussed
above and presented in considerable detail in [8]: An insulat-
ing layer is applied to the rotor shaft or bearing surfaces,
forming an additional capacitance (Cin) in series with Cb.
This additional capacitance will redistribute Vrg between the
two series capacitors. For this to be effective Cin << Cb, thus
reducing the voltage across the bearing relative to the stan-
dard machine construction. Thermal questions arise because
the rotor heat normally transmitted by the bearing now must
traverse the insulating layer before reaching the motor frame.
An active approach to reducing common mode voltage has
recently been proposed [16]. In this case, an additional pole is
BVR =
Vrg
Vsng
=
Csr
(Csr +Cb+Crf )
(2)
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
B C A
V
rg
I
b
V
sng
Fig. 5. Examples of bearing breakdown mechanisms.
Motor Frame
Rotor
Stator Laminations
Motor Frame
Stator Laminations
Outer
Race
Inner
Race
Inner
Race
Outer
Race
Insulating Spacer
Insulating Spacer
Carbon
Brush
Current
Probe
Grounding
Strap
Voltage Path
Fig. 4. Physical construction of the test motor.
added to the standard inverter topology. The fourth pole is
controlled to reduce the common mode voltage to acceptable
levels and requires additional power electronics, although at a
reduced power rating.
Other passive techniques use a potential transformer or cou-
pling L-C filter. In both of these approaches common mode
signals are formed and are either coupled to the line voltages
with opposite phase, reducing the common mode voltage, or
return common mode current to the inverter through an addi-
tional bridge rectifier. One disadvantage with passive solu-
tions: each application requires tuning the component values
to ensure adequate attenuation of the undesirable common
mode [17,18].
Finally, the Electrostatic Shielded Induction Motor (ESIM),
proposed by the authors, has an internally mounted Faraday
shield to diminish the coupling between the stator and rotor
(reducing Csr). With a shield, the electromagnetic torque is
unaffected and the machine's torque capability is not im-
paired. The shield's effect on electrostatic coupling, however,
is dramatic and nearly complete.
The shield functions in a manner similar to shields used to
reduce conducted EMI : A shield is typically inserted between
a radiating source (Vsource) and the area to be protected (Vrg)
along the conductive medium (Csr). The efficacy of the shield
is determined by its attenuation of Vsource. The expectant at-
tenuation ratio is the proportion of the area shielded to the to-
tal area between the source and receiver. The equation is as
follows:
The remainder of this paper will report on various construc-
tion methods and experimental results of the ESIM [5, 8-10].
III. CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR THE ESIM
Inserting a Faraday shield into the air gap of a motor must
be accomplished without short circuiting the stator lamina-
tions or bridging the air gap; shorting the stator laminations
would induce circulating eddy currents and cause localized
heating of the stator stack, bridging the air gap impedes the
mechanical rotation and magnetic induction or torque produc-
ing component. Several techniques were used to construct the
ESIM, each using a conductive copper surface to collect and
attenuate the electrostatically coupled voltage to ground.
The construction of the ESIM can be summarized through
Fig. 6, which demonstrates the application of the Faraday
shield. The Faraday shield is applied onto an insulating layer
in the air gap of the machine, and connected to ground.
A. Copper Foil Tape
A Faraday shield was constructed by installing copper foil
tape, similar to the tape used for EMI shielding. The foil
strips were prepared and adhered to the stator laminations,
forming a continuous copper surface between the stator and
rotor. A wire soldered to each strip was single point connected
to ground. To complete the shielding, the stator end windings
were covered with a circular nomex ring, which was lined
with copper foil tape and connected to ground.
B. Copper Foil Tape on the Slot Stick Covers
A second Faraday shield was constructed using copper foil
tape built into the slot stick covers. This is demonstrated in
Fig. 7. The copper foil tape was adhered to the nomex slot
stick cover and coated with a dielectric insulating layer. This
isolated the copper foil from the stator laminations during in-
stallation. To complete the Faraday shield, the copper foils on
each slot stick cover were single point connected to ground.
The end windings were shielded using nomex rings covered
with copper tape and connected to ground.
Attenuation ratio =
Shielded Surface Area
Total Surface Area
(3)
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Fig. 6. ESIM construction using conductive tape or spray.
Rotor
Air Gap
Dielectric Layer
Faraday Shield
Stator
Laminations
Copper Plated
Slot Sticks
Electroplated
Stator Teeth
Conductor Slots
Stator
Conductors
Fig. 7. ESIM construction using conductive slot stick covers.
C. Conductive Copper Paint Applied to the Stator Length
A third Faraday shield was constructed by spraying a con-
ductive copper paint to the entire length of the stator, includ-
ing end windings, and single point connected to ground.
Before applying the conductive paint, an insulating varnish or
dielectric layer was applied to the stator laminations and end
winding surface area. This provides extra protection from po-
tential voltage breakdown between the stator phase windings
and laminations to the Faraday shield.
To achieve sufficient conductivity, the copper paint contains
a high concentration of metallic particles held in suspension
by solvent and resin. The solvent evaporates to leave the me-
tallic particles bound by the resin. Several materials with high
conductivity could be utilized for this purpose, among them
copper exhibits a favorable cost vs. performance tradeoff. The
conductive copper paint was applied by Spraylat [19].
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ESIM
Each ESIM was constructed with the intent that shield ef-
fectiveness could be evaluated as a function of surface area
coverage. Shield effectiveness was evaluated by selectively in-
creasing the coverage of the stator to rotor interface. First only
the stator lamination stack was shielded, with the stator end
windings unaltered. Next, both stator stack and end windings
were shielded. Each ESIM configuration was tested at no load
and loaded conditions and was evaluated for shielding, ther-
mal, and electromechanical effectiveness.
A. The ESIM-1: Copper Foil Tape
The 15 hp ac ESIM-1 with copper foil tape and standard
machine had a 6.875 inch stator stack length with 4.25 inches
of end windings. The standard machine was simulated by
floating the shield and connecting the bearing shorting straps
to ground. Reference measurements were made of Vsng, Vrg
(10 Vpk), dv/dt current (500 mApk), and EDM current (3.25
Apk). Fig. 8 demonstrates this mode of operation.
Further measurements of Vsng and Vrg were made with the
outer race grounding strap open circuited. This is shown in
Fig. 9. Note, Vrg tracks Vsng, confirming the capacitive cou-
pling (Csr) of Fig. 3. The stator shield produced a 56% reduc-
tion in Vrg (Vrg of 18 Vpk vs. 40 Vpk). By extending the
Faraday shield to encompass the stator end windings, a 95%
shielding of Vrg was observed (Vrg of 2.2 Vpk vs. 40 Vpk).
The residual voltage is due to the stray coupling from the end
windings to the rotor circumventing the shield. Compared to
the standard induction machine, the ESIM-1 reduced the open
circuit Vrg by 20 to 1 and maintains Vrg at levels comparable
to NEMA sinewave specifications. A summary of ESIM-1
with open bearings of [8] is presented in Table 1.
The ESIM-1, with stator lamination stack shield in place
and strap grounded, reduced dv/dt currents from 500 mApk to
18 mApk and no EDM currents detected. With the extended
end winding shields in place and connecting the grounding
strap, only 17 mApk of dv/dt current was measured and again,
no EDM current was detected. The ESIM has a 29 to 1 reduc-
tion in dv/dt current and eliminates the EDM current when
compared to a standard machine. A summary of the charac-
teristics of ESIM-1 and the standard or reference machine of
[8] is presented in Table 2.
B. The ESIM-2: Copper Plated Slot Stick Covers
The 15 hp ac ESIM-2 with copper plated slot stick covers
and reference machine had a 5.625 inch stator stack length
with an additional 4.25 inches of length due to the end wind-
ings. Using (3), the expected attenuation for a shielded stator
stack is 57 % of the excitation source. By shielding the end
windings, the expected attenuation is 100 %.
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Fig. 8. AC drive operation - normal bearings.
V
sng
V
rg
I
b
V
sng
V
rg
Fig. 9. AC drive operation - open circuited bearings.
1. No Load Operation of ESIM-2: The ESIM-2 was tested un-
der the same conditions as the previous machine, with the re-
sults shown in Table 1. The magnitude of the Vrg is used to
compare the operation of ESIM-2 with the reference machine.

2. System Components: To examine the effectiveness of
ESIM-2 with copper tape plated slot stick covers, tests were
performed using typical system components and applications.
Figs. 10-12 show experimental results of a 4 pole, 460 Vac,
15 hp ESIM-2 with a common mode choke, inline reactor,
and long cable respectively. Each figure shows traces of Vrg
with and without the Faraday shield active. The magnitude of
Vrg is a measurement of the potential for EDM discharge.
In each case, ESIM-2 reduces Vrg to approximately 5 - 10
% of the value without the Faraday shield. This demonstrates
the universality of the ESIM as a solution to the electrostatic
shaft voltage and bearing current problem. In addition, point
A of Fig. 11 corresponds to a partial EDM discharge (note the
abrupt discharge and lack of oscillation). In contrast, the
ESIM revealed no EDMs. ESIM-2 with copper tape plated slot
stick covers proved effective in eliminating EDM current and
reducing the dv/dt current to safe levels. The Vrg - rotor shaft
voltage - failed to attain an electric field intensity level to
breakdown the lubricant, thereby causing EDM currents,
while maintaining a Vrg close to NEMA acceptable limits of 1
Vrms [10].
3. Loaded Testing of ESIM-2: ESIM-2 was tested at rated
load, with the dc dynamometer's shaft insulated from the
ESIM's. Again, the magnitude of Vrg is used as a relative
measurement to compare operation of ESIM-2 with its refer-
ence machine. The results are shown in Table 1. The reduc-
tion in shaft voltage is consistent and predicted reasonably
well by (3).
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Test Machine Rotor
Voltage
Attenuation
Reduction
Expected
Attenuation
Rotor
Voltage
Attenuation
Reduction
Expected
Attenuation
Rotor
Voltage
Attenuation
Reduction
Expected
Attenuation
Standard
Machine
40 Vpk 0 % 0 % 19 Vpk 0 % 0 % 16 Vpk 0 % 0 %
ESIM with
stator shield
18 Vpk 56 % 62 % 12 Vpk 37 % 57 % 8.5 Vpk 47 % 57 %
ESIM with
full shield
2.2 Vpk 95 % 100 % 1.7 Vpk 91 % 100 % 1.5 Vpk 91 % 100 %
TABLE 1.
Rotor Shaft Voltage with Open Circuited Bearings: Shaft Voltage Comparison.
ESIM -1 with No Load ESIM -2 with No Load ESIM -2 with 100 % Load
Test Motor Rotor
Voltage
dvdt
Current
EDM
Current
Standard Machine 10 Vpk 500 mApk 3.5 Apk
ESIM-1 with stator shield 10 Vpk 18 mApk none
ESIM-1 with full shield 2.2 Vpk 17 mApk none
TABLE 2.
Effectiveness of ESIM: Voltage and Current Comparison.
Fig. 11. Inline reactor response with a standard motor and ESIM -2.
A
Standard
Motor
ESIM
Fig. 10. Common mode choke response with a standard motor
and ESIM -2.
Standar
d
ESIM
4. Heat Run of the ESIM-2: Because the life expectancy of or-
ganic insulations decrease 50 % for every 8-12
o
C rise, and
because of differing thermal expansions of the materials,
ESIM-2 was subjected to thermal tests. The tests' purpose
were to determine the heating characteristics of the ESIM and
establish the shield's electrical and mechanical performance.
For this purpose, seven thermal couples were placed on the
machine: Four on the stator stack, two on the end windings,
and one on the case. No load and full load tests were con-
ducted on ESIM-2. The ESIM-2 had class F insulation with a
maximum operating temperature of 155
o
C.
The results displayed in Fig. 13 show the thermal profiles of
ESIM-2. The unloaded ESIM-2 heated uniformly with a tem-
perature rise of less than 50
o
C, while the fully loaded ESIM-2
heated uniformly with a temperature rise of less than 75
o
C.
When compared to the thermal profile of a reference induc-
tion machine, no significant differences were observed.
ESIM-2 demonstrated uniform heating of the stator
laminations, Faraday shield and case. This uniform tempera-
ture rise indicates the shield has negligible effect on the elec-
tromechanical performance.
C. ESIM-3: Copper Conductive Paint
A 5 hp ac machine's stator stack and end windings were
coated with copper conductive paint. Vrg was measured before
and after the shield was installed. A peak voltage of 23 Vpk
was measured before installation of shield and 2.4 Vpk after
installation. The 90 % attenuation compares favorably with
the expected 100% attenuation.
To examine the effectiveness of ESIM-3, tests were per-
formed using typical system components and applications.
Figs. 14-16 show experimental results of a 4 pole, 460 Vac, 5
hp ESIM-3 with a common mode choke, long cables, and
combination common mode choke and long cables respec-
tively. Each figure shows traces of Vrg before and after the
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Fig. 13. Thermal profile of ESIM -2.
NDE SHIELD
NDE LAM
NDE LAM
DE SHIELD
DE LAM
DE LAM
100 % LOAD
CASE
NDE SHIELD
NDE LAM
NDE LAM
DE SHIELD
DE LAM
DE LAM
NO LOAD
CASE
100 % LOAD
NO LOAD
0
0.1 1 10 100
Standard
Motor
ESIM
Fig. 15. Long cable length response with a standard motor and ESIM -3.
Fig. 12. Long cable length response with a standard motor and ESIM -2.
Standard
Motor
ESIM
Standard
Motor
ESIM
Fig. 14. Common mode choke response with a standard motor and
ESIM -3.
Faraday shield was installed. The magnitude of Vrg is a meas-
urement of the potential for EDM discharge. In each case,
ESIM-3 reduces Vrg to 10 % of the reference machine's value,
with Vrg failing to attain an electric field intensity to break-
down the lubricant [8]. As a result, EDM currents were pre-
vented and Vrg maintained at approximately 1 Vrms.
1. Load Testing of the ESIM-3: The effectiveness of ESIM-3
was tested at rated load. Again, the magnitude of Vrg indi-
cates the susceptibility of the bearing to EDMs. Vrg without
the shield was 19 Vpk and 1.5 Vpk with the shield. At 92%
attenuation, ESIM-3's performance equals that of the other
ESIMs.
2. Heat Run of ESIM-3: ESIM-3 was subjected to thermal
tests comparable to ESIM-2. ESIM-3 was run for 9 hours at no
load, then for 200 hours under full load. Results of the heat
runs are displayed in Fig. 17. Unloaded, ESIM-3 had a tem-
perature rise of less than 25
o
C. When 100% loaded, ESIM-3
experienced a temperature rise of less than 75
o
C. The ma-
chine was disassembled and inspected with no discoloration of
the Faraday shield - an indication of locally elevated tempera-
tures. The original induction machine had a F insulation class
rating and maximum operating temperature of 155
o
C. The
ESIM was proven to have no performance degradation relative
to a standard motor.
V. CONCLUSION
The sources and coupling mechanisms for the occurrence of
rotor shaft voltage and the resulting bearing currents was pre-
sented. A review of the evolution of bearings - materials and
lubrication was presented. A brief theory of EMI was pre-
sented along with a zero sequence model to demonstrate the
capacitive coupling mechanism. The shaft voltage breakdown
mechanisms was presented along with design tools to aid in
the determination of potential failures, and a review of pro-
posed solutions.
The ESIM was proposed as a solution to the rotor shaft volt-
age and the resulting bearing current. Three potential con-
struction methods, each utilizing a Faraday shield in the air
gap, were presented and operation of each ESIM explained.
Experimental data presented on the unloaded and loaded per-
formance of each ESIM, indicated the attenuation of the shaft
voltage to levels approaching those of NEMA specifications.
Thermal performance and characteristics of each ESIM indi-
cated the application of a Faraday shield doesn't degrade the
performance of the motor.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank Greg Bell of DuPont, Dave Hyypio
of Marathon Electric, Jeff Gradeck and Jim Misch of NTN
Bearing, Sidney Bell, Steve Evon, Mike Melfi, Rich Schiferl,
and Stan Wallace of Reliance Electric, and Marius Schaf and
Richard Brander of Spraylat.
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IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996
Standard
Motor
ESIM
Fig. 16. Common mode choke and long cable length response with
a standard motor and ESIM -3.
Fig. 17. Thermal profile of ESIM -3.
NDE SHIELD
NDE LAM
NDE LAM
DE SHIELD
DE LAM
DE LAM
NO LOAD
CASE
NDE SHIELD
NDE LAM
NDE LAM
DE SHIELD
DE LAM
DE LAM
100 % LOAD
CASE
0 0.1 1 10 100 1000
100 % LOAD
NO LOAD
100 % LOAD
CASE
Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 2, March\April 1996, pp.
250-259.
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IEEE 21
st
Annual Industrial Electronics Conference, November 6-10, 1995, Vol.
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[19] Spraylat Corporation, Mount Vernon, N.Y., Part # 599-Z3000 Copper Con-
ductive Paint
IEEE IAS Conference San Diego, CA October, 1996