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June 17, 2004 19:46 Research Publishing: Trim Size: 8.50in x 11.

00in (IEEE proceedings) ieee-emc08:P150


Prediction oI Common Mode Conducted EMI in
PWM Inverter-Ied Machine System
Lei Zhang
1
, WeiMing Ma
2
, Jin Meng
3

Institute of Power electronics, Naval University of Engineering
WuHan, HuBei, P.R.C
1
leizhangtian@hotmail.com
2
maweimin@public.wh.hb.cn
3
mengjinemc@yahoo.com.cn
Abstract In ships, more and more power electronics converters
are used in the same power mains. Such power supply systemcan
be called an isolated power system. System-level EMI
prediction is necessary. All interference sources in the system
should be considered. But numerical simulation is time
consuming and need special software. EMC engineers need fast
prediction method rather than a very precise model. Based on
simple frequency domain calculation, a quickly prediction
method is proposed in this paper. Adopting this method, the
common mode interference in an inverter-fed machine system is
calculated. Prediction and experimental results about verify this
method.
I. INTRODUCTION
In ships, limited by volume and weight, electrical sources
with diIIerent Irequency/amplitude must be supplied by the
same power system. AC mains is integrated with DC mains,
such power supply system can be called an isolated power
supply system. Power electronic devices are indispensable to
this power system; unIortunately, they are also serious
electromagnetic pollution sources. From the economic point
oI view, EMI prediction is necessary beIore the system is
realized.
Many papers discussed the interIerence that generated by
power electronics device in recent years, but most oI them
investigated single device. In isolated power supply system,
multiple power converters should be taken into account. These
converts can be connected in parallel or cascade each other.
Thus, system-level prediction should be perIormed, more than
one interIerence source is considered. Traditionally,
time-domain numeric simulation is used Ior system-level
EMC analysis, such method is time-consuming and need too
many parameters, and another disadvantage oI this method is
that it needs special soItware. For EMI prediction, the
spectrum envelope is enough Ior designing. EMC engineers
need Iast prediction method rather than a very precise model.
A Irequency-domain prediction method is proposed in this
paper.
Based on the Irequency domain calculation, the
interIerence spectrum envelope in system, which includes
multiple power converters, can be calculated easily and
quickly. As an example, the common-mode conducted EMI in
a PWM inverter-Ied machine system is investigated in this
paper. The experiment results proved the validity oI the
proposed method.
II. THE SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT OF SYSTEM
In isolated power supply system, converters can be
connected in diIIerent way, parallel or cascade. Although the
connection mode is diIIerent, the reason oI the interIerence
generating is the same and the interIerence can be calculated
in the same way. Electrical propulsion system is a typical
cascaded system and is a serious electromagnetic interIerence
source. The common mode interIerence in such system is
predicted to illuminate the Irequency-domain prediction
method in this paper.
A. System Layout
The system layout is shown as in Fig.1. The system
consists oI three stages, a three-phase rectiIier, a PWM
inverter and a motor. For the sake oI study, the LISN is
connected in the system.

Fig. 1 System schematic circuit
Both the rectiIier and the inverter are interIerence source in
this system. In Iig.1 all interIerence path is shown, the
denotation dm means diIIerential mode interIerence, and cm
means common mode. Only the common-mode conducted
EMI is studied in this paper.
B. Equivalent circuit
Although the rectiIier and the inverter conducted at
diIIerent time and the switch Irequency is diIIerent, they can
be calculated in the same way. These non-linear devices can
be replaced by equivalent interIerence voltage/current source,
which deduced Irom switch waveIorm. Thus the interIerence
generated by rectiIier and inverter can be calculated separately.
The spectrum envelope is enough Ior designing, so these
results can be added directly to predict interIerence. The
common mode calculation equivalent circuit is shown in
Fig.2.
Project Supported by National Natural Science Foundation oI
China (50721063;50677070).
2008 Asia-Pacic Sympsoium on Electromagnetic Compatibility &
827 19
th
International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1922 May 2008, Singapore
June 17, 2004 19:46 Research Publishing: Trim Size: 8.50in x 11.00in (IEEE proceedings) ieee-emc08:P150
19
th
International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1922 May 2008, Singapore

Fig. 2 Common mode interIerence calculation equivalent circuit
III. INTERFERENCE CALCULATION
For system-level prediction, all interIerence sources should
be taken into account. In this part, both rectiIier-generating
and inverter-generating interIerence are calculated. First,
based on the switch waveIorm, these non-linear devices are
equivalent to voltage/current source. Then the interIerence
spectrum on the LISN can be easily calculated in Irequency
domain.
A. Interference Source in Rectifier
The DC output oI the rectiIier is connected with a large
capacitor, so the rectiIier should work in discontinuous way
and in continuos way (Fig.3). Since in our experiment system,
the rectiIier is working in discontinuous way, only this case is
discussed in this paper. When the rectiIier is working in
continuos way, the interIerence can be calculated in similar
way, only the equivalent current source is replaced by voltage
source.

Fig. 3 The rectiIier equivalent circuit
When the rectiIier working in discontinuous way, the DC
side current is discontinuous, the DC side voltage waveIorm is
shown in Fig.4.

aDC side current and voltagebAC side current and switch Iunction
Fig.4 The waveIorm oI rectiIier
The electrical source in Fig.3 can be expressed in Eq.(1)

=
=
=
)
3
4
sin(
)
3
2
sin(
) sin(
0
0
0
t e
t e
e
t E e
t E e
t E e
c
b
a
(1)
In Fig.5, take the period when the DC voltage is peak as
origin, i.e., 3 t e u = ' t . Then u and in Fig.5 can be
calculated as Iollowed
When
c ab
U e =
the DC side current
d
i begin Ilow, the
start angle oI the DC side current Ilowing is
)
3
arccos(
0
E
U
C

= o
(2)
The end angle oI the DC side current Ilowing is depend on
the diIIerential equation with initial condition, which is shown
in Eq.(3).

=
' =
'

0 ) (
cos 3 2
0
o
u
u
e
d
c
d
s
i
U E
d
di
L (3)
From (3),
o
e
o
e
u
e
u
e
u
s
c
s s
c
s
d
L
U
L
E
L
U
L
E
i
2
sin
2
3
2
sin
2
3
) (
0 0
+ ' ' = '
(4)
substitute 0 ) ( = |
d
i to (4),then
0
3
sin sin
E
U
c
=
+
+
| o
| o (5)
From Eq (2)~Eq(5), u and can be calculated, then the step
voltage in rectiIier can be obtained. For calculated the
common-mode current in rectiIier, the equivalent ground
should be deIined, the middle point oI the DC side (O in Fig.5)
is selected as ground in this part. Then the common voltage
can be calculated as Iollow.

Fig.5 Common-mode calculation in rectiIier
From Fig.5, the circuit equation (6) can be obtained, :

= + +
= + +
=
=
0
0
bN Ob NO
aN Oa NO
bN
b
s b
aN
a
s a
u u u
u u u
u
dt
di
L e
u
dt
di
L e
(6)
with
2
c
Oa
U
u =

2
c
Ob
U
u =
0 = +
b a
i i ,
2
b a
NO
e e
u
+
=
(7)
According above analysis, the
NO
u can be expressed in
several phase, which are shown in Table I.





828
June 17, 2004 19:46 Research Publishing: Trim Size: 8.50in x 11.00in (IEEE proceedings) ieee-emc08:P150
2008 Asia-Pacic Sympsoium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1922 May 2008, Singapore
TABLE I
EXPRESSION OF
NO
u
Time Interval Expression
t/3-ot/3
2
) 3 sin(
0
t e

t E

2t/3-o2t/3
2
) sin(
0
t e

t E

t-ot
2
) 3 2 sin(
0
t e t E

4t/3-o4t/3
2
) 3 sin(
0
t e

t E

5t/3-o5t/3
2
) sin(
0
t e

t E

2t-o2t
2
) 3 2 sin(
0
t e t E

B. Interference Generated by Rectifier
The rectiIier can be substituted as a norton equivalent
circuit and the interIerence calculation equivalent circuit is
shown in Fig.6.

(a) Norton equivalent circuit (b) InterIerence calculation equivalent circuit
Fig.6 Equivalent circuit oI rectiIier
In Fig.6, Z
cm
represents the common mode impedance oI
the rectiIier. It can be seemed as the 2 2
L LISN cm
Z Z Z + = ,
when the interIerence is measured by LISN. The current
source i
com
represent the common-mode interIerence source,
which is the short current between the AC side
middle-point(N) and the DC side equivalent ground(O). When
DC side current is Ilowing, the current is :
2 / 2 /
L LISN
NO
com
Z Z
u
i
+
=
(8)
When the DC side current is zero,
0 =
com
i
.
AIter get the equivalent current source, the common-mode
current can be calculated as Eq.(9)~(10).
1 2
1
e cm cm
cm
com cm
L j Z Z
Z
i I
e + +
=
(9)
) ( 1
2 2
2
2
1 2
c e m
m cm
cm cm
L L C
C j Z
I I
+

=
e
e (10)
The Z
cm2
represents the impedance oI the inverter side,
which can be calculated as Eq. (11).
) ( ) (
) ( 1
2 2
3
2 2
2
2
e c m p m p
c e m
cm
L L C C j C C j
L L C
Z
+ +
+
=
e e
e (11)
C. Inverter EMI Source
Inverter EMI source can be calculated in Fig.7, O is the
equivalent ground oI the DC side, R and L represents the
machine. N is the neutral point oI the motor.

Fig. 7 Inverter Equivalent circuit
From Fig.7:

= = +
= = +
= = +
NO CO CN
NO BO BN
NO AO AN
U U U i R
dt
di
L
U U U i R
dt
di
L
U U U i R
dt
di
L
3
3
2
2
1
1
(12)
When the system is symmetric,
0
3 2 1
= + + i i i
, then:
NO CO BO AO
U U U U = + + 3
(13)
Suppose the switch Iunction oI the IGBT T
a
is S
a

=
oII turn is T 0
on turn is T 1
a
a
a
S

Then, switch Iunction oI the T
a
*
is 1-S
a
,
2
) 1 2 ( )
2
( ) 1 (
2
dc
a
dc
a
dc
a AO
V
S
V
S
V
S U = + =
(14)
U
BO
U
CO
can be obtained in the same way. Thus common
interIerence source U
NO
is:

=
=
c b a i
i
dc
NO
S
V
U
, ,
) 1 2 (
6
(15)
When the inverter is nature sample, the common
interIerence source can be calculated as Eq.(16).

=
=

+
+ =
=
1
1 3 6
2
4 , 2
1
1 6
2 ) 1 (
3 , 1
0
2 ) 1 (
3 , 1
, ,
| ) 3 6 ( sin| )
2
( ) 1 (
2
) 6 cos( )
2
( ) 1 (
2
) cos( )
2
( ) 1 (
2
3
l
s l
n
n
dc
l
s l
n
n
dc
s
n
n
dc
c b a i
ih
dc
com
t l n
an
J
n
v
t l n
an
J
n
v
t n
an
J
n
v
S
v
v
e e
t
t
e e
t
t
e
t
t

(16)
D. Interference Generate by Inverter
The interIerence can be calculated in Fig.8.

Fig. 8 The Equivalent circuit oI inverter interIerence calculation
The common mode current can be easily calculated.
) ( 1
2 2
2
1
2
e c m cm m
m com
cm
L L C Z C j
C j V
I
+ +

=
e e
e (17)
) ( 2
1 1
1
2 1
e c LISN
cm
cm cm
L L j Z
Z
I I
+ +
=
e
(18)
Here,
829
June 17, 2004 19:46 Research Publishing: Trim Size: 8.50in x 11.00in (IEEE proceedings) ieee-emc08:P150
19
th
International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1922 May 2008, Singapore
) ( 2 2
) ( 2
1 1
2
1 1
1
e c p LISN p
e c LISN
cm
L L C Z C j
L L j Z
Z
+ +
+ +
=
e e
e (19)
AIter the interIerence generated by rectiIier and generated
by inverter is calculated, only take a simple addition, the total
spectrum envelope can be obtained.
E. Experiment Setup
To veriIy above analysis, an experiment system is build up.
The system input voltage is 205V, 50Hz, output voltage is
220V, 50Hz. The output current is 1.3A, the inverter switch
Irequency is 10kHz.
F. Experiment Results
The calculated results and the experiments results are
shown in Fig.(9)~(12).
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
I
cm1
I
cm2
Frequency( Hz)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e
dBA

Fig.9 InterIerence generated by rectiIier
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Frequency( Hz)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e
dBA
I
cm2
I
cm1

Fig.10 InterIerence generated by Inverter
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Frequency( Hz)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e
dBA
I
cm2
I
cm1

Fig.11 Total interIerence spectrum
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Frequency( Hz)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e
dBA
I
cm1
:Predicted Result and Measurement Result
Predicted Result
Measurement Result

aCommon current between inverter and LISN Icm1
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Frequency( Hz)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e
dBA
I
cm2
:Predicted Result and Measurement Result
Predicted Result
Measurement Result

bCommon current between machine and inverter Icm2
Fig.12 Measurement results and predicted results
IV. CONCLUSIONS
The interIerence oI power electronics system is more and
more serious. Prediction oI the interIerence is very useIul. A
new Irequency domain method is proposed in this paper, thus
the interIerence generated by diIIerent device can be
calculated separately, and the complexity oI the calculation is
decreased greatly. And this method can be easily spread to the
system EMC analysis. An inverter-Ied machine system is
calculated in this paper, the experiments results veriIied the
validity oI the prediction method.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by the National Natural Science
Foundation oI China under grant 5072106350677070.

REFERENCES
|1| Li RanSunil GokaniJon Clare etc. 'Conducted Electromagnetic
Emissions in Induction Motor Drive Systems Part II Frequency
Domain ModelsIEEE Trans. on Power Electronics vol.13 pp:
768-776, 1998.
|2| ZhongErkuanLipo Thomas A. 'Improvements in EMC perIormance
oI inverter-Ied motor drives IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications vol 31 pp:1247-1256, 1995
|3| Ma Weiming, Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Electronics,
WuHan, China: WuHan Hydraulic and Electric University Press, 1999
|4| Chen GuochengPWM Inverter and soft switching Power Converter
Technique, Beijing, China Machine Press,2003
830