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T )
(a) What are destructive test and non-destructive test?
(b) Describe two methods of destructive test and one method of non-destructive test.
Destructive Test
Destructive test is carried out on the pieces of specimen , which is subjected to damage during the process , to
know the mechanical properties of the specimen under test.
he various kinds D are!!. - ensile test - "ardness test
- #mpact test - $atigue test
- %end test - &reep test
Non-destructive test
'on-destructive test is carried out on the components onl( , not on the specimen . #t is done to detect flaws
during manufacture or service life. he test can not give the result of mechanical properties. #t onl( gives
indication of &racks, )orosit(, #nclusions and $atigue cracks with the si*e and position.
he various kinds of 'D are! - D(e penetrant test
- +adio graphic test
- ,ltrasonic test
- -agnetic crack test ( -agnum $lu. test )
Tensile Test ( D )
he tensile test is carried out to ascertain the strength and ductilit( of the materials.
/ speciall( shaped and si*e known , standard specimen is gripped in the jaws of testing machine. hen graduall(
appl( the load to draw the ends of specimen apart , that is , subjection to tensile stress. he specimen will be
found to have e.tended b( some small amount . #f the load is removed , the specimen will return to its original
si*e . /s the load increase, the elongation will uniforml( increase until the (ield point or elastic limit is reached.
#f be(ond the 0ield point, the specimen will neck or reduce its si*e in cross section until fracture. herefore , the
highest applicable load value is known as ,ltimate ensile 1trength of the test specimen.
Hardness Test ( D )
he hardness test is done to determine the material2s hardness propert( of the resistance to scratching , wear ,
penetration , machinabilit( and abilit( to cut .
here are man( kind of hardness test, such as - %rinell test , 3ickers p(ramid test , +ockwell test, ect ./mong of
them %rinell test is famous one.
/ harden steel ball , usuall( 45 mm dia., is forced into the surface of the metal under test with a standard load of
6555 kg , for 47 second duration. ( 4555 8g for &u , 755 8g for /luminium ). he thickness of the specimen
should not be less than 45 times of the depth of impression.
he diameter of the compression made is measured with microscope containing a measuring scale. he
diameter is compared to a standard table and reaod our hardness value. he smaller the diameter of
compression , the greater the hardness value.
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Liquid enetrant Test ( 'D )
#t is an important industrial method , used to indicate the presence cracks, laminations, laps and *ones of
surface porosit( , whether it is large or small, single or comple. configuration .
#t is emplo(ed for the wrought and cast products in ferrous metal , non-ferrous metals , allo(s, ceramics, glass
wares , some pol(mer components.
:i;uid penetrant process is ver( simple and no electronic s(stem is involved and cheaper than other
'.D. s(stems. he major limitation of this method is able to detect surface breaking onl(. he method is not
suitable for use with naturall( porous materials such as ungla*ed ceramics.
here are two different t(pes , $luorescent d(e method < /erosol d(e method .
#n $luorescent D(e method , the area to be tested is spra(ed or soaked with a low viscosit( li;uid ,
containing a fluorescent d(e and allow for a moment , to obtain penetration b( capillar( action. hen wipe out to
dr(. /nd view under ,3 light , an( fault will be shown up b( the glow of the penetrant in them.
#n /erosol D(e method, the first cleaning bottle is applied on the surface for cleaning purpose and second
bottle of powerful d(e is followed , allow for penetration to an( flaws or cracks. /fterwards, developer or chalk(
sediment is applied to reveal an( faults on the component under test. he penetrant stains the developer along
the line of crack , if an(.
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