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PHRASE -is a lg expression chich exists is made up of the HEAD= some

dependent element(noun ph.a tall bo!ad" phr.an ello# apple!$erb


phrase- must hale done%.&'A(SE- )a be independent or dependent*a lg
expression made up of a sub" and an agreeing $erb chich )a be
independent or dependent(She li+es music-indep.,-ill tal+ to him..ind/ 0f
0 meet him.dep/% SE12E1&E-is al#as dependent eg.expression(She li+es
music%3%S0)P'E-4consist of a single indep.clause4Has onl one $erb
eg.She li$es 0n P5oc+ 6%)('20P'E-must hale At least 6 clauses
a%&7)P7(1D-relation of &lausem is a coordination =6 clauses lin+ed b
coordination.8oth are indep.and e9uall important*are on the same
sntactic stages eg.She li+es :lms and often goes to the
ciemna.lin+ers;A1D 8(2*7R b%&7)P'E<- 6clauses lin+ed b
subordination.7ne clause is higher than the Rother eg.0=ll see him #hen 0
ha$e time.lin+ers;-HE1* 0> 2H7(?H.
VERBS;3%2RA1S020@E- al#as follo#ed bat least one ob"ect Aha$e
passi$e $oice a%)7172RA1S020@E-follo#ed b 3 ob".eg.0 li+e music
b%.D02RA1S020@E-foll.b 6 ob".e.g.0 #rote them a note.c%&7)P'E<
2RA1S020@E-foll b both-ob".and &omplement.eg.0 fund them interesting
d%&7P('AR,'01B01?- foll either b ob" or complement.27 8E /eg. She is
tired, She is 0n the hall 6%012RA1S020@E- hale no passi$e*arent follo#ed b
ob".-2he Sun is shining. SUBJECT- the 6nd element 0n the hierarch.
3%A?E120@E- doerdenotes an animato being- animal or person #ho does
sth. -ho #illingl perform the action.@erb is al#as transiti$e.e.g She is
Reading the boo+C2he dog is buring the bone 6%E<2 &A(SER.-action is
performer* $erb is transiti$e but inanimate beong* no idea of free #ill. 2he
a$alanche +illed four D%01S2R()A122- inanimate ob"ect used b the
agent+o perform the action.@erb transiti$e. 2he +e opened the door.
E%A>>E&2ED- $erb transiti$e or popular-He is sleepingCHe is m
friendF%RE&0P0E12- animato being used #ith $erbs of
4sensation4possesion4emotion4cognition-0 can hear ouC0 hale a house. A
pen is laing on the sofa aG%P7S02071ER-connected #ith position*animato
being*$erbs transiti$e-4li$e*sta*stand*sit*Dell*lie
etc.4carr*hold*+eep*#ear.- She is laing on the sofa H%'7&A20@E-a
place*location*space- P5oc+ is great.I%2E)P7RA'-time*date*month*#ee+ A
Jesterda #as as nice as toda.K%E@E120@E-e$ent*+oncert*part*x-mas
#eeding 3L%PR7P-02- 4time4distance4#eather OBJECT DIRECT (+ogoM
coM%3%A>>E&2ED(if 7d is a person it=s al#as aN.O%-animate or inanimate
entit* aNected b the action(passi$el%- 0 li+e those peopleC 0 sent his
lester.6%'7&A20@E- A P'A&E (SED A>2ER A @ER8 7> )720714S-0) ?7
-A'B &R7SS PASS P()P- She s#am the la+eC the "umped the
fenceD)RES('2A12-thing chich is the result of acti$it aNected b the
$erb- She #rote a boo+- the boo+ #as created.E%&7?1A2Emorphological
and semantical extension of the $erb-:ght a :ght*sing song.F%E@E120@E-
+ind of collocation*7d carries the meaning*a collocation #ith a $erb of
general meaning repleceable b a $erb-ta+e a breathe* ha$e a bathe*
ma+e an escape. G%01S2R()E12A'- instrument used b the agent to
dosome action- 0 used a +omputer to sol$e the problem. OBJECT
INDIRECT- +omuMPERS71 A'-AJS 3% RE&0P0E12-a person #ho recei$es
the action- 0 sent him his note 6%A>>E&2ED- 7d is e$enti$e At the same
time- 0 ga$e him a push. COMPLEMENT- 3%IDE120>0&A2071- Bel$in is m
Rother 6%&HARA&2ER0SA2071- Qa#sQe prQmiotni+- Bel$in is nice.
ADVERBIALS- PABM?R0EMB0EDJMthe #idest group much more
copmrehensi$e.2he=re optional*sou )a use as man ad$erbials as
possibile 0n one sentenc"e.I.ADJUNCTS-?rammatical cathegor the most
commonl used.4e9ui$alent to other clause elements4elicited b
9uestions(the occur 0n the ans#er%4replaceable b pro-forms 3%OF
SPACE-a%SPA&E P7S02071( -HEREM%- 0n P5oc+* At school* b%D0RE&2071
(-H0&H -AJM%-across the street*along.to#ard c%S7(R&E (-HERE >R7)M%
from P5oc+. d% ?7A'(-HERE 27M%- to P5oc+ e%D0S2A1&E (H7- >ARM%- A
>E- B)SHe came a fe# steps to me 0n the roomT. Pro-
>orms;here*there6%OF TIME a%P7S02071l(-HE1M-HA2 20)EM%ast #ee+ At
Dp.m b%D(RA2071! (H7-'71?MS01&E -HE1M-HE1M%bac+#ard=for D
ears*Since D #ee+s* for#ard- 0n a fe# das* next #ee+. &%>REU(E1&J
(H7- )A1J 20)ESMH7- 7>2E1M% de:nite- eter #ee+* e$erda.
0nde:nite- usuall* sometimes*al#as.Pro->orms!no#* thanD%OF
PROCESS a%)A11ER(H7-,%-He loo+ed at me in a friendl #a. b%)EA1S
(8J )EA1S 7> -HA2M%She came here b bus.C2he paid b credit card.
&%01S2R()E12A'- (-02H -HA2M%She li+es eat chopstics.D%A?E1&J (8J
-HA2M%- 0t #as done bpeter. Pro- >orms- li+e that-in his #a.E%
CONTINGENCY- a%&A(SE- (8E&A(SE 7> -HA2M% b%REAS71-refers to the
past(-HJM%- She #as tired because she had been #or+ing all da.
&%P(RP7SE- re#ers to the future(-HA2 >7RM%She is going to 'ondon to
stud At uni$ersit d%RES('2-(-HA2 -AS 2HE RES('2M%- -e paid him a
lot so He felt happ. E% &71D02071 (-HA2 0>M%-0f 0 #ere Jou* 0 -ould bu
2his House(Qdania #arun+o#e.% f% &71&ESS071-(DESP02E -HA2M%-
although she #as ill* she +ept #or+ing. F%RESPECT (-02H RESPE&2 27
-HA2M% She tal+ed to me abort musicC -ith regard to our opinion* 0=dV
II.SUBJUNCT-4no 9uestion #ords to elicie the sub"unct At the ans#er4 no
proforms 4 lo#er stages than Rother clause elements3)WIDE
ORIENTATION- the #hole sentenc"e a%of @0E-P7012- gi$es the ob"ecti$e
point of $ie# for the sentenc"e usuall placed At the beginning W follo#ed
b a comma! np.geographicall* #eather#ise* architectuall*
economicallb%&7(R2ESJ- #e ma+e a sntence polite- np. cordiall*
#holeheartl* +indl*V.*pleaseM 6%NARROW ORIENT.-reXected to a
sentenc"e element A%of 02E)- related to one sentenc"e element 4 S(8PE&2
related(#sQst+o oprYcQ S i 7% -1P. She bitterl burried the child(She #as
bitter% She intentionall forgot (She #as intentional-after the
Sub"ect%4PRED0&2071S relatedQa#sQe prQed prQecQeniami lub po
operatorQe np.still* alread* et* "ust. He #as alread come4@ER8 related 0
#ould rather sta.Jou had 8elter #atch out. 8% E)PHAS0SER- gi$es extra
emphasis to the S W @ , 6 or more elements- reall* de:nitel* absolutel*
simpl* indeed* actuall* b far* surel* b all means* certainl.
&%012E1S0>0ER- re#ers to the @ increasing or dicreasing of its $alue
4A)P'0>0ERdo#n A0 agree* 0 >uld agree* practical* sort of* rather* 0n the
least* slightl* a bit. >7&(S01?- the fo+us on a sentenc"e element eVor
restricti$e. ADD020@E Ae$en* also*as #ell* too* either RES2R0&20@E- onl*
merel III.DISJUNCT 4subordinate to Rother clause elemens4higher 0n
the hierarch4seperated #ith comma4 gi$en seperate information4
usuall 3%of STYLE- pro$ide comment on H7- #e sa something4related
to the act of spea+ing- fra+nl* 0n brie* 2o out a long stor short* 0n a -ord*
?eneraln spea+ing 6%of CONTEXT- 4pro$ides comments on -HA2 #e
sa A% &ER2A012J- propabl* undoubtedl* mabe* perhaps* apparentl
8%E@A'(A2071- naturaln* foolishl* unexpectedl* stupidl* anxiousl*
predictabl* hopeful* unfortunatel. IV.CONJUNCTS-lin+ers of the
&lauses #chich at the same time Express semantic relationship
bet#een4higher 0n hierarch4comma* seperate information 3%LISTING
A%E1()ERA20@E- :rstl* secondl*next* :naln* e$entuall 6%ADDITIVE-
#hat is more* moreo$er* furthermore* 0n addition* similarl* li+e#ise.
Abo$e all.8% S())A20@E-all 0n all* in conclusion* to sum up* alltogether* 0n
sum* all things considered. &%APP7S020@E- namel* i.e* for examle*
speci:cal*0n other #ords * D%RES('20@E- as a result* 0n conse9uence*
accordingl* therefore that=s #h* soVE%01>ERE120A'- 0n that case* so*
other#ise* or else* 0n other #ords* chich means* >% &712RAS20@E- on the
contrar* 0n +ontrast* on the Rother hand* instead ?%&71&ESS0@E-
ho#e$er* et* still* ne$ertheless* all the same* H% 4 2E)P7RA'-
mean#hile* 0n the meantime* subse9uenc 4D0S&7(RSA' b the #a*
incidentallCONCORD- agrement bet#een sentenc"e elements
3%GRAMMATICAL- if S. is plural the $erb must be also plural, it=s a
concorde according to a grammatical master eg.-s,-es- endings of the
sub"ect. 2he bo is, 2he bos are &lausem chich are al#as singular- -hat
sou do doesn=t reall master me-the same abort prepositions and and
phrases6% NATIONAL po"Zcio#-according to the idea for pluralit
A%&7''E&20@E- depending ho# #e understand it- it=s a group of People or
indi$iduall.eg. 2he audienc"e*cre#* team* StaN* go$ernment-0S, ARE. 2he
doming, 872H Anna A1D Peter ARE.COORDINATION- Peter
(3%and 2om(6 %li+e ApiQQa. -hat sou do and #hat sou sa ARE
interesting, Jour problem and m problem ARE the same.
&77RD01A2071 APP7S02071- ) sister and her best friend is
#ith herKthe same person% U(ASS0 &77RD01A2071- 4not b
means of [and= but Rother lin+ers4-as #ell as, together #ith,
along #ith A &Qaso#ni+ siZ QgadQa Qa#sQe Q pier#sQm
rQecQo#ni+iem. His Rother* as #ell as his 8arents* #as there.
PR717(1 &71&7RD- E$erone #antedto ta+e their luggage-
neutral if tal+ing abort someone* e$erone* no one.etc.8(2O
71E should choose 71E=S friend carefull VOCATIVES
#o5acQ- usuall it=s a non phrase chich function either as a
callor address4 &A''- Peter* dinner=s read (to pa attention
to us* to call sb% 4 ADDRESS- ) bac+ aches* doctor.(to
address someone more politel*spea+ers relationship%
@ocati$es )a be- a name! Peter(#ith titles-Dr.%4famil terms-
mum 4 titles of respe+t4 )adam* Sir 4mar+er sof status-
)r.President 4 general nouns- ladies W gentleman4 pronouns-
ou* somebod 4 &lauses; #hoe$er said that. NEGATION-
Ho# it=s achie$edM A% \172]-inserted bet#een the operatorW
gredication4She doesn=tV 8%#ords negati$e 0n form W
meaningn-none* no one* nobod* nothing* no#here*
neither..not &% #ords negati$e onl 0n meaning- hard* barel*
seldom* scarcel* rarel* 'ittle* fe#.TYPES OF NEGATION -
3%&'A(SE 1E?A2071- b means of risingintonation sou ma+e
the #hole sentenc"e negati$e. ESJ12A&20& >EA2(RES-
4negati$e &lausem are follo#ed b positi$e 2ag 9uestiomnm-
1obod= doming* are theM4 follo#ed b negati$e
agreementresponces-Doesn=t He +no# suM- 1o* He doesn=t4
follo#ed b negati$e 2ag &lausem #ith additi$e meaning 0
can=t dance W neither He can.4no asserti$e items- an*
anone* an#here* man* much* At all* e$er* either*
anlonger.6%LOCAL NEGATION- onl 3 element is negated
#hile the Rest is not- 0 sa# him not long ago,She=s not
inteligent. SCOPE OF NEGATION- (RAS0^?%- stretch of lg
o$er #hich a negator Has semantic inXuence eg.#hich is
negated- usuall from the negator to the end of the clause-
She de:niteldidn=t sape+ to him(it=s de_nitel she didnt%,
She didn=t de:nitel sape+ to him(it=s not de:nitel she didnt%
FOCUS OF NEGATION- 4 one element is negated #hile the
Rest is not.4 mar+ed b intonation- 2he didn=t paint the hall
blue SJ12A&.-Declarati$e,0nterrogti$e, 0mperati$e,
Exclamati$e, Statement, Uuestion, Directi$e, exlamation
INVERSION- 0n declarati$e statements. 3%1E?A20@E 4appears
in all tenses4must be used if the conditionalis are4the S.ma
be a non or a pronoun 4appears after items #hich are
negati$e 0n form W meaning or "ust 0n meaning.
Sub"ect=operator in$ersion.-1e$er ha$e 0 seen C At no time
C7n no account C 1or do 0C Dunder no circumstancesC 1ot
until C1o sooner had 0..2HA1C
hard*8arle*Scarcel.6%'02ERARJ- S.-@ in$ersion4appears
malin after ad$erbials(of place%At m feet la a beautiful
stream. 4appears onl 0n 6 tenses-present Wpast simple.4the
S.must be a non.4it=s optional.D%&71D02071A'-3S2.SH7('D-
Should He come..61D--ERE--ere 0 ou.,0f He #ere to +no#-
-ere He to +no#.DRD HAD,-ERE Had He
forgotten..SENTENCES- 3%SYNTACTICALY (s+5adnio#o%-
4connected #ith the structure-A%DE&'ARA20@ES- S-@ order-
0li+e music 8%012ERR7?A20@ES-S-@ in$ersion- Do ou li+e herM
&%0)PERA20@ES-no S*@ i 8ARE in:niti$e-&7)E HEREO
D%E<&'A)A20@E- -hatCHo# introductor phrase ` S@order
.-hat a great time it isO 6%SEMANTICALLY(QnacQenio#o%-
connected #ith the meaning. A%S2A2E)E12S- used to con$e
come info. 8%U(ES2071S- used to see+ info on a speci:c
point. &%D0RE&20@ES- used to instruct Sb to do sth.
D%E<&'A)A2071S-used to Express uor being
impressed.D%PRAGMATICALLY-connected #ith the use W
spea+ers intention eg.'et=s goO-Snt.-0mperati$eCSemant-
Directi$eCPragm.-UuestionC4oNer*suggest*re9uest* in$itationV
QUESTIONS- 3%?E1ERA' JESC17- Do ou li+e itM6%SPE&0>0&
-H- U(ES2.-the expected ans#er is an out o fan open range
-hat music do ou li+eM D%A'2ER1A20@E-the expected ans#er
is one of those presented 0n the +uest.-hich music do ou
preferM roc+ o popM E%&71D(&20@E AA%P7S020@E-#ith
asserti$e items- did ou meet somebodM8%1E?20@E- Express
surprise W disbelief. Don=t ou +no# himO&%DE&'ARA20@E-
#ith no in$ersion but raising intonation-Jou ha$e got the
tic+etsM(up%.D%U(ES2071 2A?S- Jou +no# the ans#er*don=t
ouM(up%as+ing for $eri:cation because ou=re not sure.
(do#n%-for con:rmation onl. F%E<&'A)A20@E-41egati$e
JesC1o #ith falling intonation*pragmaticall eQclamation
Hasn=t he gro#nO G%RHE27R0&A'-#ith raising inton.to #hich
the ans#er is ob$ious.0f the 9uest.is Positi$e- the ans#er is
1egati$e-0 o#drotnie.H%E&H7-U(ES2.-repeat #hat has been
said for clari:cation or con:rmation a;2he=$e been
emigrating b%emigratingO PRO-FORMS-replacements*are
used to a$oid repetitionC redundanc4contribute to claritW
econom4 the ma be reco$erable.TYPES OF
RECOVERABILITY-3%2E<2(A'-the pro-form is reco$erable
from the neighbouring textA%A1APH7R0&- :rst #e ha$e the
full form and than the pro-formE?.Although Bate #as hurt*she
didn=t complain 8%&A2APH7R0&- :rs #e ha$e the pro-form and
than the full form eg.8efore he #ent to the arm* Pohn had
$isited his parents. 6%S02(A2071A'C&712E<2(A'- the
expression is reco$erable from the context 0s she badl hurtM-
#e +no# #ho is she from the
context.D%?RA))A20&A'CS2R(&2(RA'
a]athe +no#ledge of grammar He=s ben herea6 #ee+s(for%.
TYPES OF PRO-FORMS-3%DE2ER)01ERS-follo#ed b a
noun-A%PREDE2ER)01ERS- 4allCbothChalf 4)ultipliers-
once*t#ice..8%&E12RA'-
articles(a*an*the%*demonstrati$es(this*that%*
Possessi$e(m*our%1egati$e(no*neither%
inde:nite(some*an%&%P7S2DE2ER)01ERS-numbers-
ordinal*cardinal 6%PR717(1S-
4personal;sub"ecti$e*ob"ecti$e4demonstrati$e;this
that4possessi$e-mine*ours4inde:nite-
someone*anone4negati$e-none*neither 4reXexi$e-mself*
ourself D%72HER-4tha same* do so* so it* do that4 here*there4
then 4li+e this*in this #a4 so.RELATION BETWEEN FULL
FORM AND PRO-FORM- A%&71>ERE1&E-refering to the
same entit eg person*in the external #orld-)ar combed
herself(exactl the same person% 8%S(8S202(2071- using the
same name- 0 #on the 3
st
priQe last ear and she #on one
Fears ago(mabe it #as sth diNerent but still the 3
st

priQe%.ELLIPSIS-grammatical omission(Qero substitution%4she
ma come tonight but 0 doubt #hether she #ill
RECOVERABILITY - the same as pro-forms.TYPES OF
ELLIPSIS-3%PH717'7?0&A'- omission of a sound or a
sllable-cause. 6%2E'E?RAPH0&-bloc+ language. CRITERIA
FOR ELIPSIS- 3%)issing expression is precisel reco$erable
6%2he elliptical sentence is bdefecti$e] D%2he insertion of the
missing expression results in a grammatical and meaningful
structure. E%2he missing expression is reco$erable from the
COORDINATION- an e9ual relationship bet#een clauses in a
compound sentence.aaa3aaa....aaa6aaa(3*6-&71P701S%(V-
'01BERS= coordinator= coordinating con"unction-and* but*or%.
TYPES OF COORDINATION - 3%'01BED=sndetic A and 8
6%(1'01BED=unsndetic A*8-#ithout an lin+er. D% )('20P'E
A*8*& and D-a fe# con"oints more than 6O E%P7'JSJ1DE20&- A
and 8 and & and D SJ12A&20& FEATURES OF COORDINATION -
3%A1D*8(2*7R-can appear in the initil position of the second
clauseonl. Pohn plas the guitar and his sister plas the piano
6%.coordinated clauses are se9uenticall :xed W their order
cannot be re$ersed.D%coordinators can be preceeded b another
lin+er He learnta lot and et he failed.(#e ma after]and]put
anthing but not in front of it as in case of
bbacause]%.E%coordinators can lin+ clause elements eg.7i 7d..
F%coordinators can lin+ subordinate clauses He 9uit because(3%
he #as tired and because he #anted to rest.6THE USE OF
COORDINATORS-AND-3%SEU(E1&E- 0 #ashed the dishes and
dried them(chronological% 6%RES('2-He heard the explosion and
left home. D%&712RAS2- Peter is reser$ed and 8ett is
open.E%&71&ESS071- He tried hard and failed. F%&71D02071ED-
?i$e me the mone and 0 #ill do the shopping.G%S0)0'AR02J-0t
should be no problem and similarl all the rest should be
in$ol$ed. H%ADD02071-He had coNee and mineral #ater.
I%&7))E12-He failed and that=s not surprised. OR -3%exclusion-
Jou can ha$e tea or coNee(3 of them% 6%&7RRE&2071- He is
happ or he seems to be D%01&'(S071- Jou can ha$e tea or
coNee or both. E%1E?A20@E &71D02071--a+e up or ou=ll be late.
BUT 3%&712RAS2-She=s poor but happ. CORELATIVE
COORDINATORS- consist of t#o parts.872H(3%VA1D(6%-both
9uestion true`prular E02HER(3%V7R(6%-one sentence
true`principal of aproximit. 1E02HER(3%V17R(6%-none of them
true=plural (3-E1D7RS01? 02E) 6- COORDINATOR)
COORDINATION OF NOUN PHRASES - 3%2om and )ar +no#
the ans#er(both +no#-SE?RE?A27RJ% 6%2om and )ar ma+e a
nice couple(&7)801A27RJ*)(2(A'%
D%>ish and &hips 0S cheap here(&7)801A27RJ (102ARJ-one
meal% E%2om and Pane pla against Paul and 8ett(&7)801A27RJ
P7012%. &7)P'E< &77RD01A2071- con"oins are combined of
units. 3%Ser$e beer in a mug and coNee in a cup 6%Paint the hall
blue and the +itchen red D%8u Peter a to car and 8ett a doll.
PSE(D7-&77RD01A2071-an afterthought added 48ett plas
tennis and Peter too . APPA1DED &77RD01A2071-idiomatic She=s
more and more tired.42here are people and people. U(ASS0
&77RD01A2071- instead of band] #e ha$e 4along #ith 4as #ell
as 4 to e$er #ith.Peter as #ell as Penn #as tired.
SUBORDINATION A2he relationship bet#een clauses in complex
sentence.&lauses #hich are subordinate al#as function as one
sentence element.2herefore it can=t be independent.CLAUSES-
3%.>0102E-s+ocQone-clauses #ith tenses*modals and sub"ect.2he
ma be independent or dependent.40=ll #ait here4She can
dance.6%171->0102E-no tenseOno modals.2he=re al#as
dependent.S.ma be present.D%@ER8'ESS-no $erb but]to
be]present.Al#as subordinate. >7R)A'
'01BERS3%S(87RD01A27RS-A%S01?'E -7RD-after*although* as*
because* before* for*if*lest* once* since* though*
till*until*under.-e left after he had telephoned sb.8%)('20 -7RD-
as if* asthough* as soon as* pro$ided that* in case
&%&7RE'A20@E-as..as* no sooner..than* #hether..or 2he more ou
earn the more ou spend.
6%-H-E'E)E12S-in interrogati$e clauses* exclamati$e clauses*
conditional concessi$e clauses* relati$e clauses. 0=m as+ing #hat
ou #ant D%2HA2-pronoun in relati$e clauses-nie ma prQecin+aO
2he girl that ou see..E%S(8PE&2-7PERA27R-in$ersion in
conditional clauses-Should he come*tell him.F%.2he absence of a
:nite $erb because non-:nite clauses are al#as subordinate.
FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES-
3%17)01A'6%AD@ER80A'
D%&7)PERA20@EE%RE'A20@E.. D%COMPERATIVE-
porY#na#cQe.A%7> 171-EU0(@A'E1&E-a%R0S01?-
01>'E&2071A'(endings-erC-est%
*DES&R0P20@E(more*most%*
0RRE?('AR(goodCbetter%. b%>A''01?- lessCleast 6%EU(0@A'E1&E-
clauses are e9ual-as..as* so..as* the same..as*D%S(>>0&0E1&J-
enough` nounCad$.ad"`enough E%of E<&ESS-too SYNTACTIC
FEATURES OF COMPARISONS-3%Standard of &omparison- the
idea compared 68asis of &omparison-an entit #e compare to
D%&omparati$e Element-an ending or a premodi:er-She earns
more mone than her husband-3%S- earnings 6%8- HER
H(S8A1D=S EAR101?S D%E- more mone E%0- moreCCC MULTI-
WORD VERBS-cQaso#.fraQo#e-3%@ER8` PAR20&'E- a%an
ad$erb(doesn=t ha$e to be follo#ed b anthing%-PHRASA' $erb-
eg ?0@E (P b%a preposition(must be follo#ed b sth%
PREP7S02071A' $erb eg '77B A>2ER c%ad$`preposition-
PHRASA' PREP.@ER8-P(2 (P -02H PHRASAL VERBS-
3%012RA1S020@E- cannot be changed into passi$e because has no
ob"ect eg.to catch onC torn upC brea+ do#nC ta+e oNC gi$e inC blo#
upC fall out- 2he plane too+ oN 6%2RA1S020@E- od#rotnie- set upC
put a#aC :nd outC bring upC ma+e upC loo+ upC fall out- She ga$e
up smo+ing-ga$e smo+ing up-ga$e it upPREPOSITIONAL
VERBS- 3%2JPE-0 A$erb`prep`&.prep-passi$e o+ Aloo+ atC care
forC go intoC cope #ithC appro$e of- 'oo+ after children-'oo+ after
them 6%2JPE 00- $erb`7d`prep`&.prep-passi$e o+- than+ forC
remind ofC pro$ide #ithC despite ofC con:ne toC protect from-
2han+s our friends for help-than+s them for it PHRASAL PREP
VERB-3%2JPE 0 A$erb`ad$`prep`&.prep-passi$e o+- put up #ithC
loo+ for#ard toC do #a #ithC loo+ up toC loo+ do#n onC face up
to- &ut do#n on smo+ing it 6%2JPE
00- $erb`ad$`prep`&.prep-passi$e o+- put sth do#n to sthC ta+e
sth out on sbC let sb in on sth-He put his success to hard #or+.
MINOR TYPES- @ER8`@ER8- ma+e*do (#ith% C put paid toC get
rid ofC get going @ER8`ADP- brea+ e$entC plead 9uiltC cut shortC
rub dr @ER8`6 PREP. de$elop from toC appl to forC tal+ to
aboutC translate from...toC COMPLEMENTATION OF VERB
3%012RA1S020@E A% Pure 0ntransiti$es-He is sleepingC 0t doesn=t
matter 8%-ith 0mplied 7b"ect-He drin+sC She smo+esC 0=m reading
&%&hangeable 0nto 2ransiti$es-2he door opened-He opened the
door 6%&7P('AR='01B01?`&S 7R A of Space
D%)7172RA1S020@E`7D(noun phrase* :nite clause*non :nite c.%-
belie$e* bring* call*close*do*en"o*feel*:nd*got*heer
*help*+eep*borro#*lose*lo$e*ma+e.need*
Recei$e*remember*see*ta+e*use*#in MIDDLE VERBS-
monotrans.$.#ith no passi$e-ha$e*:t*suit*resemble*e9ual*
)ean*contain*comprise*lac+ MONOTR.FOLLOWED BY THAT-
3%>A&2(A' P(8'0&(Speech At%-all tenses-
agree*la*announce*den*state*
&laim 6%>A&2(A' PR0@A2E
(0ntelectual States%-all tenses-belie$e*
&onsider*doubt* expect*hope*+no# D%S(AS0@E(&hange%-
shouldCsub"uncti$e-sugest*insist*re9uire*
demand*proposeE%E)720@E
(Emotional States%-all tensesCshould-
anno*oncern*mar$el*re"oice*surprise* #onder*regret*#orr
F%HJP72HES0S
(speculation%-hpothetical past Sub"uncti$e-#ish
audienc"e #as big(as a #hole% , 2he audienc"e #ere applouding the
artist(each indi$iduall% 8%E<&EP2071S- nouns are singular but hale As
endings- ne#s* 4geographical names- 8russels* Atens* -ales* 1aples-4
sub"ects- linguistics* phsics* )ats* phonetics* 40lnesses,0nXamations-
itis- bronchitis* pneumonitis* hepatitis* measles* mumps* ric+ets* ,4
?ames- bo#ls* billiards* chess* droughts* chec+ers* chess* darts*-0S &%
P'(RA' 17(1S-4801ARJ 17(1S consisted of 6- glasses.scissors* trousers*
p"amas* t#eeQers* shrimps* binoculars*compasses* scales-ARE a pair of-
0S ,4 aggregate the Police* cattle* poultr* clerg-ARE. PRINCIPLE OF
APROXIMITY - Qasada blis+odci, Uuite often if ou=re not sure if it=s
singular or plural4 7ne 0n ten 2ABE drugs, E02HER Peter 7R his parentsARE
neighbouring text(rather than from the situation or the
structural context% F%2he missing eQpression is an exact
match criterion. 3%S2R0&2 E''0P.- 0=m happ if ou area(````
`% 6%S2A1DARD E''0P.- She sings better than oua(````-%
D%U(ASS0 E''0P- She sings better than hima(`M-``%
E%S02(A2071A' E''0P.-asee ou later(-``--% F%S2R(&2(RA'
E''0P.-0 thin+a ou are #rong(```--% G%-EAB E''0P.-2he door
opened and mar entered(--`--%FORMAL TYPES OF ELLIP .
3%01020A'-of S and operator(sth is ommited at the beginning
of a sentence%4ser$es him right 4 pleased to meet ou
46%)ED0E@A'-of $erb(the 6
nd
$erb is omitted%-40 bought a >iat
and she a >ord.D%>01A'-of predication- 0 am happ if ou are.
E%DITRNSITIVE-7i`7d-as+*pa*teach*tell*sho# 70-a
person*noun phr*:nite cl* 7D- noun phr*:nite cl*non :nite
c.F%OMPLEX TRANSITIVE- 7d`&o-
appoint*belie$e*consider*call*get*
&hoose*declare*:nd*li+e*elect*
-ant*name*prefer*thin+*
COMPLEMENTATION OF ADJ 3%Prepositional Phrase-0 am
curious about it 6%>inite &lause-0=m happ that ou=re comeC0,m
curious #her he is. D%1on :nite cl.-He is splendid to #aitC2he
soup is too hot to eat. THE
NOUN PHRASE-2he tall (premodi:cation%!"# (Head%sitting in the corner
#ho "ust smile at ou(postmod.% PRE)7D0>0ERS=determinates-
determiners*numerals-numbers* epithets-ad"*participles* classi:ers-
nouns*-s geniti$e P7S2)7D0>0ERS-prepositional phrases*clauses-
:nite(relati$e clauses%*non-:nite(-ing-ed*in:niti$e%)7D0>0&A2071S-
0%3%2E)P7RARJ- postmod.-#ater #hich is hot
6%PER)A1E12-premod.=hot #ater-ad";:rst! 00%3%ReS2R0c20@E(de:ning%-)
sister #ho li$es there OOO-0 can ha$e more than 3 sister6%171-RES20&20@E-
) sister*#ho l$es there-onl one sister(it can be omitted*onl additional
information% 17)01A'0RA2071-4noun phrase #hose elements correspond
to the elements of the sentence-He refused to ans#er-His refusal to
ans#er-nominaliQation
NOMINALS I ADVERBIAL CLAUSES- PRA$TYC%NA C%&'(
NOMINALCLAUSES ma function as4Sub"ect-2hat #e need him..4Sub"ect
eQtraposed-02 is ob$ious that #e need him 4 7b"ect indirect-2ell #hoe$er
ou #ant47b"ect direct-".#` #here 0 am.4&omplement of S.4a]a of 7.0
consider Him to be reliable.4a]a of Preposition-2he tal+ed About #here to
go.4-aba of Ad".0=m glad to see ou that4apposit$e His suggestion 2hat #e
should sta is implausible.STRUCTURAL TYPES;3%THAT-CLAUSE- 2hat
she=ll come is doubtful(S%40 noticed that he had left(7d%4 ) assumption is
that the=ll arri$e(&s%4-e=re happ that ou=re here(&ad".% 6%WH-
IRROGATIVE CLAUSES-4Ho# the boo+==ll sell is a mster(S%40 can=t
imagine #here he is (7d% 42he problem is #ho=ll #ater the plants(&s%4 His
9uestion* #h no one reacted* can=t be replied(App% 40=m not sure #hat
ou #ant42he consulted us on #hen to lea$e(& prep.% D%YES)NO
INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES(*!+, IF)WHEATHER-0f nie moee bf na
pocQgt+u QdaniaO% 4 Do ou +no# if it=s openM(7d%4 -hether he li+es me is
uncertain(S% E%ALTERNATIVE INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES-He didn=t tell
me #hether 0 should #ait or not (7d% F%EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSES-40t is
incredible ho# tall he is(S ex% 40 remember #hat the time it #as(7d%4 0
read a report of #hat an impression the had mede(& prep% G%NOMINAL
RELATIVE CLAUSES-4-hoe$er did it should admit it(S%40 too+ #hat the
ga$e me(7d% 4He ga$e #hoe$er as+ed the cop(7i% 4Jou can call me #hat
ou li+e(&d% H%TO-INFINITIVE CLUSES-42o err is human(S%4 He li+es to
relax(7d% 4 2he best cause is to tell the truth(&s% 4Jour ambition*to be
fmous*is plausible(App%4 0=m anxious to meet her.(&ad"% I%ING CLAUSES-
4-atching 2@ is her hobb(S%4 His "ob is collecting taxes(&s%40=m bus
learning(&ad"%4 He thin+s -.o/+ emigrating (& prep% K% BARE INF
CLAUSES--hat he does is complain(&s% 42urn oN the tap #as all 0 did(S%
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES-all function as ad$erbials-TYPES;3% 7> TIME-
lin+ers- #hen* #hile*until*till*before*after*as soon as*once*the moment
thet*immediatel that-0=ll call ou*#hen 0 ha$e time.6%of PLACE-
-HERE(E@ER% he li$es #here he #as born. D%of CONDITION-
if*unless*pro$ided that*on (under% condition that* as long as* gi$en that*
supposing that A%01D0RE&2(comment follo#ed* the conditional sentence
doesn=t depend on Vsentence%-0f ou remember our last histor lesson*
the #ar bro+e out.. 8%01D0RE&2-a% 7PE1-(3
S2
*7% b%HJP72HE20&A'-6
1D
D
RD
%
E%RETHROICAL CONDITION- if* 0f he is FL* 0=m the Pope.C He=s FL if he is
a da. F%7> CONCESSION- although*though*e$en though*much as*despite
of*in spite of*for all`ing.-2hough he is poor*he is happ. G%ALTERNATIVE
CONDITIONAL-CONCESSIVE CLAUSES-#hetherVor- -hether he pas
for the bro+en $ase or bu a ne# one* 0 #on=t in$ite him again.
GaUNIVERSAL-CONDITIONAL CONCESSIVE CLAUSES-
#hoe$er*#hate$er*#here$er*ho#e$er ..
--hate$er ou sa*0 #on=t belie$e ou.I%of CONTRAST-#hile* #hereas.
She=s a doctor*#hile her husband is a plumber. K%of EXCEPTIONhexcept
that*but that*onl that.-0=d ha$e paid except that 0 had no mone on me.
3L%REASON-because*as*since*for-She #ent to bed erl* because she #as
tired. 33%of PURPOSE- in order to*so as to*so that*in order that-He #ent
there in order to relax.36%RESULT-so(that%- 2he paid him a lot so he #as
happ. 3D%SIMILARITY-as*li+e-Do as 0 told ou AShe=s li+e she has ne$er
been before. 3E%COMPARISON-as if* as though-0t loo+s as if it=s going to
rain.CShe acts as though she #ere the boss.3F%PROPORTION- as..so*
the..the
2he more he has* the more he #ants.CAs the e$ening approached*so their
fati9ue became clear.3G%PREFERENCE- rather than* sooner than.-2he
fought until death sooner than surrender.


(