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AnGhnIomhaireachturn ChaornhnCiComhshaoil

WASTEWATER

TREATMENT

MANUALS

TREATMENT SYSTEMS

for

SMALL COMMUNITIES, BUSINESS, LEISURE CENTRES AND HOTELS

ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONAGENCY

Establishment

The EnvironmentalProtection AgencyAct,

1992, was enacted on 23

underthis

formally establishedon 26

April, 1992, and

legislation the Agency was

July, 1993.

Responsibilities

The Agency has a wide range of statutory

duties and

responsibilities ofthe Agency includethe

underthe Act. The main

powers

following:

- the

licensing and regulation of

large/complex industrialandother

processes with

potential,

pollution

application of best available technologies forthis

significantpolluting basisof integrated

onthe

control (IPC) and the

purpose;

- the monitoring ofenvironmental

quality,

including

towhichthe public will have access, and

the publication of periodic reports onthe

state ofthe environment;

the establishmentofdatabases

-

advising public authoritiesin respect of

environmental functionsand assisting

local authoritiesin the

theirenvironmental protection functions;

performance of

- the promotion of environmentally sound

practicesthrough, for example, the

encouragement environmentalaudits,the establishment

ofthe use of

ofan eco-lahellingscheme, the setting of

environmental qualityobjectives and the

issuing

affecting the environment;

ofcodes of practice on matters

-

the

promotion

andco-ordinationof

environmentalresearch;

- the licensing and regulation

significant waste disposal

and

of all

recovery

activities, including landfills andthe

and

preparation

national hazardous waste

implementationby other bodies;

periodic updating of a

plan

for

- implementing

a system of permitting for

emissions resultin significantquantities

of

the control of VOC

from the

storage

of petrol atterminals;

-

implementing

Regulations

and

enforcing

the GMO

forthe

contained use and

deliberate release ofGMOs into the

environment;

-

-

preparation

and

implementation

ofa

national

collection,analysis

informationonthe levels, volumesand

flows ofwater inrivers, lakes and groundwaters; and

hydrometricprogramme forthe

and

publication

of

generally overseeing

local authoritiesof their statutory

environmental protection functions.

the

performance by

Status

The Agency

is an

independent public body.

the

to act onits own initiative.

of

independence.

improper

Its sponsor in Governmentis the Department

ofthe EnvironmentandLocalGovernment.

Independence is assured through

selectionprocedures forthe Director General

and Directorsandthe freedom, as provided

in the

legislation,

The assignment, underthe legislation, of

direct

functions

Under the legislation, itis a specific offence

to attempt

anyone acting on its behalf, manner.

responsibility fora wide range

underpins

this

to influencethe Agency, or

inan

Organisation

Kilkenny,

The

Wexfordand it operates five regional

inspectorates,

Agency'sheadquarters is located in

locatedin Dublin,Cork,

Castlebarand Monaghan.

Management

The Agency is managedby a full-time

ExecutiveBoard consisting

General andfourDirectors.The Executive

ofaDirector

Boardis appointed

following

bythe Government

detailed

procedures laid down in

the Act.

AdvisoryCommittee

The Agency is assisted by an Advisory

Committeeoftwelve members.The

membersare appointedbythe Minister for

the Environmentand Local Governmentand

are

selected mainly from those nominated by

with an interestin

developmental matters.

given awide range

functionsunderthe Act, both in

organisations

environmentaland

TheCommitteehas been

of advisory

relationtothe Agency andto the Minister.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

TREATMENT SYSTEMS

for SMALL COMMUNITIES, BUSINESS, LEISURE CENTRES AND HOTELS

ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION AGENCY

AnGhnIomhaireacht urnChaomhnü Comhshaoil

P.O. Box3000,Johnstown CastlEstate,

Co. Wexford,Ireland.

-Telephone : +353-53-60600 Fax: +353-53-60699

Website: http://www.epa.ie/

Email: info@epa.ie

a

© Enviionmental Protection Agency 1999

Allor parts ofthis publication may be reproduced withoutfurther permission, provided the source is acknowledged.

of the -material contained in this

publication, completeaccuracy cannotbe guaranteed. Neither the Environmental Protection Agency

occasioned or c1Umedto

from

Although ever3/ effort has been made to ensure the accuracy

nor the author(s) accept

any responsibility whatsoever for loss or

have been, occasioned,

acting,

reproduced

as a result of a matter contained in this

withoutfurther permission, provided

damage

in part or in full, as a consequence of any person acting, or refraining

publication.

the.soureis acknowledged.

All or

part

of this

pub1ication-ffiay be

WASTEWATER TREATMENTMANUALS

TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES, - BUSINESS, LEISURECENTRES ANDHOTELS

-

-

(P.E. 10 - 500)

-

Published by the Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland.

The personnel involvedinthe production and preparation ofthis mnua1 were

Mr;John

and-Mr.Gerard O'Leary, (EpA):

Dr. Michael Rodgers,(I'UI,Gaiway),

Mulqueen, (Teagasc), Mr. GerryCarty

ISBN

1 899965 96 3

04/99/500

Price

IRl5.O0

€19.05

b

CONTENTS I

TABL O CONTENTS

LIST OF

TABLES

.iii

LIST OF

FIGURES

lii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

iv,

PREFACE

v

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

vi

1. INTRODUCTIONTO SMALLWASTEWATERTREATMENT SYSTEMS

.1

1.1 GENERAL

1

1.2 LEGISLATION

1

1.3 THEPUBLICHEALTH (IRELAND) AcT, 1878

2

1.4 FISHERIES ACTS, 1959-1990

2

1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY,ACT, 1992

2

2.

WASTEWATERFLOWS ANDLOADINGS

4

2.1 OVERVIEW OFSMALL SCALEWASTEWATERTREATMENT

2.2 WASTEWATERFLOWS

2.3 WASTEWATERCHARACTERISTICS

4

.6

2.4

SUBSTRATELOAJI5INIJS

7

2.5

WASTEWATERCHARACTERISATION

7

3.

TREATMENTSYSTEM SELECTION & DESIGN

9

3.1

GENERAL

9

3.2 WASTEWATERCOLLECTION SYSTEM

9

3.3 HYDRAULICS

9

3.4 MECHANTCALAND ELECTRICAL SERVICES

9

3.5 TELEMETRY

9

3.6 SELECTION FACTORS

10

3.7 PUMPING

11

3.8

SLUbEPRODUCTION AND TREATMENT

11

3.9

SITESUITABILITYANDSECURITY

12

3.10STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

12

3.11 DISPOSAL OFTREATED WASTEWATER

;'

13

3.12OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

13

3.13

MONITORING

14

4. PRIMARYANDSECONDARYSETTLEMENT

15

'4.1 PRMARY'ETTLEMENT

15

'4.2SECONDARY SETTLEMENT

16

ii

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

5. BIOFILM (ATTACHED GROWTH) SYSTEMS.

5.1 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

5.2 INTERMITTENT AEROBIC FILTERS

5.3 PERCOLATINGFILTERS

5.4 ROTATINGBIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS

5.5 VARIATIONSON THEMOVING BIOFILM PROCESS

5.6 SUBMERGED FILTERS

6. SUSPENDEDGROWTH SYSTEMS

.

—.

6.1 EXTENDED-AERATIONACTIVATEDSLUDGE

.18

18

22

- .24

27

30

30

33

.

.33

6.2

DIFIERENTCONFIGURATIONS OFTHEACTIVATEDSLUDGE PROCESS

36

6.3

SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR.

36

7.

INSTALLATION, MANAGEMENTANDCONTROL OF.SMALLTREATMENTSYSTEMS

40

7.1

INSTALLATIONANDCOMMtSSIONING

40

7.2 MANAGEMENT ANDCONTROL

40

7.3 MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM ANDAUDIT SCHEME

41

REFERENCES ANDFURTHER READING

.43

GLOSSARY

- .44

APPENDIXA: WASTEWATERCHARACTERISATION

APPENDIXB:

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND REPORT FORMS

.:

48

APPENDIX C: DESIGNEXAMLES

.54

APPENDIXD: OPERATIONANDMAINTENANCE

63

USER COMMENT FORM

67

LTOFTh

Table 1

InflowWastewater Characteristics* FromEPA Study (Domestic Sources)

Table 2

InflowWastdwater

Characteristics* FromEPA Study (TreatmentSysteiisSen'ing

Hotels/Restaurants)

Table3

Recommended

Wastewater Loading Rates FrOm Commercial Premises

Table4

Recommended

Minimum Distances FromTreatment Systems

CONTENTS Ij

.7

7

8

12

Table 5

DesignCriteriaForAnImhoffTank

16

Table6

Design CriteriaForIntermittent SandFilters

24

Table 7

Design CriteriaForThe Percolating FilterProcess

27

Table8

Design CriteriaForTheExtended Aeration Process

35

Table9

Air Supply ForExtended-Aeration Systems

35

UST OS

Table 10

Design

CriteriaForTheSBR Process

38

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

H Figure 9

Smallwastewatertreatment system

Typical FlowVariation froma SeparateSystem

4

6

Transverse sectionofan Imhofftank

16

Various arrangements of constructed wetlands

19

Sub-surface horizontalflow wetland

19

Vertical flowconstructedwetland

Intermittent sandfilter system(sectionthrough filter)

Conventional percolating filter

Percolating filter solids contact process

20

23

25

26

28

31

34

36

37

39

41

.62

Figure

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure

13

Figure 14

Figure

Figure

Figure

17

16

15

10 Rotatingbiological contactortreatment system

Submerged aerated filter .

.

Extended-aeration system

Oxidation ditch system(oval shape) Typicalsequencing batchreactor

The Mode ofActionof Extractive Membranes

Management system for smallwastewatertreatment systems

Layout of distribution pipes on an intermittent sandfilter

iv

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Agency wishes to acknoi1edge those who contributed to and reviewed this manual, which has been

prepared frommaterial

produced froma project on SmallScale WastewaterTreatment Systems. This project

was

Environmental Services 1994-1999. The Civil Engindering Department, National University

Gaiway (NUT, Galway)

Engineering Department NUT,Galway,

Teagasc, Hensey GlanUisceTeo, Central Marine Services Unit, PatrickJ.Tobin& Co.Ltd., Fehily Timoney

Weston, and Neptune Laboratory Servics Ltd. The project leader wasDr. Michael Rodgers, NUT, Gaiway,

The project was monitored by a Technical Steering Group

established by theEPAand comprised of representatives oftheEPA, the Department

oftheEnvironment and

EPA for its implementation. The

part-financed by the EuropeanRegional Development Fund through the Operational Programme for

of Ireland,

was

Co-ordinator

responsible

to the

Mulquen, Teagasc.

andthe project consortium.

-

Project

members ofthe consortium whichcarriedoutthe project were:Civil

assisted by Mr. John

LocalGovernment, the County and CityEngineers' Association

Members oftheTechnical SteeringGroup were (inalphabetical

order):

Mr.

Mr. TonyCawley

Ms. Lorraine Fegan

Mr. FrankGleeson

Mr.

John Mulqueen

Mr. John O'Flynn

GerryCarty

Mr.

Dr.Michael Rodgers

Gerard O'Leary

EPA

Department f Environment and LocalGovernment

EPA

Sligo Co. Co.,

Teagasc Watdrford Co. Co., representing the County and City Engineers' Association EPA NUT, Galway, Project leader

representing the County and City Engineers' Association

Areview panel wasestabliShedtoassistinthefinalisation ofthemanualandthe Agency acknowledges below

those

who took the time to offer valuable information, advice and in many cases comments and

persons

constructive criticism on thedraftmanual:

°

°

°

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Mr. MartinBeirne, Environmental Officers'Association.

Ms.

Ms. Siobhan Slieils, NorthWestern FisheriesBoard.

Mr.

Mr. Paul Ridge, Galway County Council.

Mr. JohnKilmartin, Forbairt.

Yvonne Wylde, NationalStandards Authority of heland.

Ned Fleming, Dublin Corporation.

Dr. BillyFitzgerald,

Mr. Tom

Institute

of Technology, Sligo.

Higgins, Institute of Technology, Sligo.

Ms. RosanneNolan,Ddchas,The Heritage Service.

Mr.

Mr. GarvanWard, Biocycle.

Dr. EugemiBolton,BordnaMona.

Mr.

Mr.

Mr.

Mr. SeamusButler, Butler Manufacturing Services.

Colm Ryder,Ddchas,The Heritage Service.

DavidBell, BowenWafer Technology.

Mike Smyth,Kiargester.

John Molloy, John MolloyEngineering.

The Agency also wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Engineering Inspectors

Environment and

Killcenny, who commented onthedraftmanual.

of the

ofthe RegionalLaboratory,

of the

Department

Local Government, and the Sanitary Services sub-committee

PREFACE V

PREFACE

The EnvironmentalProtection Agencywas established in 1993 to license,

the

purposes

regulate

and controlactivities for

of eñvirohrñental protection. In Section 60 ofthe Environmental Protection AgencyAct, 1992,

itis statedthat:

"the Agency may, andshai if so directed by theMinister; specify and

publish criteria and.procedures, which

of environmental protection, in

in the opinionof the Agency are reasonableand desirable for the purposes

relationto the managementmaintenance, supervision, operation or use

sewers or drainage pipes vested in or controlledor used by a sanitary authorityfor the

disposalofany sewage or other effluent to any wcters

of allor specified classes ofplant,

treatment or

The purpose of this manual is to provideguidance in the selection, operation

wastewatertreatment systems(i.e. for population

of small

500). Othermanuals inthe series

and maintenance

equivalents between10 -

and

and Characterisation of industrialwastewatersshouldbe consulted. The Agencyhopes that itwill

practical guidance to those involved in plant

Tertiary Treatrnenui, Treatment systemsforsingle houses

provide

selection, operation, use, management, maintenance and

supervision. Wherereference inthedoëument ismadeto proprietary equipment, this is intended as indicating

equipmenttype andisnottobe interpreted as endorsing or excluding any particular manufacturer or system.

on

PreliminaiyTreatment, Primary, Secondary

The Agency welcomes any

the

suggestions

which users ofthemanualwishtomake.Theseshouldbereturnedto

Environmental Management ancj PlanningDivisionat the Agencyheadquarters on the attached User

Comment Form.

Vi

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

List of Abbreviations

°C

Agency

BAF

BOD

BOD5

COD

d

DO

DWF

EPA

EQO

EQS

FIM

degrees Celsius

Environmental Protection Agency

biofilmaerated filters biochemical oxygen demand

five-daybiochemicaloxygen demand

chemical oxygen demand

day

dissolved oxygen

dry weatherflow

Environmental Protection Agency

environmental qualityobjective

environmental quality standard

food to microorganism ratio

FOG

fats, oils and grease

FWS

free-watersurface

g

gram

h

hour

kg

kilogram,

1

litre

m

metre

mis

metres per second

mg

milligram

MLSS

mixed liquorsuspended solids

mm

millimetre

p.e.

population equivalent

PFSC

percolating filter solids contact process

RAS

return activated sludge

RBC

rotatingbiological Contactors

s

second

S.I.

statutory instrument

SBR

sequencing batchreactor

SFS

sub-surfaceflow system

SS

suspended solids

SVL

sludge. volume index•

TSS

total s'uspended solids

TJWWT

urban wastewater treatthent

WAS

wasteactivated sludge

1 INTRODUCTIONTO SMALLWASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS 1

H NTRODUCTON TO SMALL WASTEWZTER

'TREATMENT SYSTEMS

1.1 GENERAL

InIreland, thewastewaterfrom overone thirdofthe population is treated in small scale treatment

systems. These wastewater treatment

located mainly

septic tank

systems

-

inrural areas - include over350,000

systems for singlehouses,and over450

systeths

treating wastewater from

population

equivalents greater thana singlehouse,population.

There are many systems available forthe treatment

All small

-of wastewater from small communities.

wastewatertreatment systems shouldbe designed to:

treatthewastewater;

comply with public health standards;

avoid

unpleasant odours and sights, both on

andoffthe site;

enable the receiving

designated beneficial

waters

to fulfilltheir

uses; and

comply with legalrequirements, which

includethe EPAAct, 1992, Waste

Management Act, 1996andtheWater Pollution Acts 1970 - 1990.

'.1

In order to examine the current positionrelating

to

on-site systems andto establish

use,aresearch project was

put

guidelines

forfuture

outtotenderinMarch

1995. Thetitle oftheR&D project was "Small scale

wastewatertreatment systems"

contract for this

part

project, of the Environmental

. The

Department of

civil Engineering, NUT,-Galway was awarded - the

which was undertaken as R&D sub-

Monitoring,

programme of the Operational Programme for

Environmental

Services,1994-1999 and

was part

financed by the Eopean Regional Development

Fund. The

of the Department

which has the

sub-programme

isadministered onbehalf

by

the

of the Environment

Environmçntal

statutory function of co-ordinating en\'ironmental research.

Agency,

Protection

and promoting

were

were

selectedfor monitoring. Themainconclusions from

As part of the research study, forty systems initially examined, and later twelve systems

- thestudy were:

all treatment systems - including wastewater

-

-'

collectionsystems - shouldbe designed, constructed,commissionedand operated in accordancewith national and international standards and guidelines;

all work relating totheinstallation ofsmall• scalewastewatertreatment systems shouldbe

supervised and certified by indemnified

professionals;

checks shouldbecarriedout

-

by

the local

authorities on all aspects ofsmallscale wastewater treatment systems including site

suitability tests;

sludge and greasestorage an-d handling

- shouldbetaken into accountintheselection

ofawastewater treatment system; nd

bonding schemes shouldbeintroduced to

facilitate privatedevelopments suchas housing estateswith private vastewater

treatment schemes.

1.2 LEGISLATION

1.2.1 The Envftonrnental

1992 '(Urban

Waste

Protection AgencyAct,

Water

Treatment)

Regulations, 1994 (S.l. 419 of 1994).

The Ervironmenta1 Protection Agency Act, 1992

(Urban Waste Water Treatment) Regulations,

1994

(S.I.419 of 1994) weremadein Decdmber, 1994 to

transpose into Irish law EU Directive 91/271/EEC

Urban Waste Water Treatment; 'these

provide a framework for actiou to deal with the

concerning

pollution threat from urban wastewater.

Specific

requirements apply inrelationto:

-

o

collectingsystems;

o treatment plants; and

monitoring of discharges.

The Regulationrequireagglomerations witha p.e. of

less than or equal to 2,000, 'which discharge to

freshwaterto have "appropriate 'treatment" by -the

Appropriate as 'treatment of urban'waste water by

which after

to me& the

year 2005.

Regulation

treatment is definedin the

any process

discharge

çlispbsal system

allows the receiving - waters

and/or

2

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

relevant qualityobjectives

theDirectiveandofother Community Directives'.

andrelevant provisions of

1.2.2WaterPollution Acts, 1,977 - 1990

The discharge of any trade effluent means (any

any,works, ap3aratus, plant or drainage

effluent from

pipe usedforthe disposal towaters orto a sewer of

any

liquid

(whether treated

or

untreated),

discharged from premises usedfor carrying on tradeor industry) or sewage effluent to "waters"

sny

requires an Effluent Discharge licence which is•

granted by the relevant local authority under the

WaterPollution Acts.

There is a

general prohibition

in relatioii to water

itis an offence to cause

pollution inthe aboveact;

or permit the entry of "polluting matter" to"waters".

"Pollutin,g matter" is

any

defined in the Acts as

substance:

the

entry

or

discharge ofwhichinto any waters isliabletorender

those or any other waters

harmful or

or

detrimental to public healthor to domestic recreational uses.

1.2.3 The Waste ManagementAct, 1996

Section 22(1) of theWaste

requires local authorities to' prepare a, waste

management plan. The plan (which shouldinclude

sludges from treatment plants) must take into

account "the prevention, mini,hisation, 'collection,

recovery and disposal of non-hazardous waste

within its functional area":

Management Act,,1996

Theuse of sewagesludge in agriculture is regulated

under the Waste Management (Use of Sewage

Sludge in Agriculture) Regulations, 1998, (S.I. 148

of 1998).

A

person using 'sewage sludge in

is not

agriculture mustinteraliaensurethat "the qualilyof

soil, of ini ace watey and of groundwater

impaired".

1.2.4The Building Regulations,

1991

The

Building

in

Regulations, which

came into

operation

June, 1992, apply tonew buildings and

to extensions, material alterations; and certain'

changes of use of existing buildings, and apply

across all 'local auth6rity areas, replacingBuilding

Bye-laws which were operated in the larger urban

authority

areas.

In order to assist

designers,

of the

constructors and installers, the

Schedule to

the Regulations.

Department

Environment has published Technical

Documents (TGDs) for each

Guidance

part of,the First'

The parts which are

chiefly relevant to small wastewater-treatment

systems include:

PartA: Structure;

-

PartC: Site preparation and resistance tomoisture;

Part D: Materials and Workmanship;

-

PartH: Drainage and Waste Disprisal.

1.3 THE PUBLIC HEALTH (IRELAND) ACT,
1878

The PublicHealth(Ireland) Act, 1878'is frequently

used to abatenuisance caused by the accumulation

of raw or treated 'sewage.

discharge of sewage or filthy water into any natural

Act prohibits the

The

streamor watercourse,, or into any canal, pond or

fre'ed from all

lake

unless

the discharge is

excrementitious or foul ornoxiousmatter. TheAct'

'allows fora statutory nuisancetoexistwherea pool,

gutter, watercourse, privy, urinal,cesspool,

drain or

ashpit isso foul orinsuchastate astobeanuisance

or injurious tohealth.

1.4 FISHERIES ACTS, 1959-1990

Section 171(1) of th 1959 Act provides thaL any

person who "throws, empties, permits or causes to

fall

shall

into

any 'water

be

any

deleterious matter

guilty of an offense".

Deleterious matter is defined as "any substance

(including explosive liquid or. gas)

the' entry or

watersisliabletorender

thoseor any other waters poisonous or injurious to

foodofanyfish or to

injurefish intheirvalueas human food, orto impair

dischargeof which into any

fish, spawninggrounds or the

the usefulness of the bed and soil ofgny vvaters as

spawning grounds or their capacity to produce the'

food offish".

1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

AGENCY, ACT, 1992

Section 60

allows the Agency to publish criteriaand

and maintenance of

procedures for the operation

wastewater treatmdnt plants for the purposes of

environmental

protection.

The Agency is also

-required under the Act (Section 61) to publish

on the quality of effluents being discharged

reports

areunder

the uontro1 of local authorities and to make

from

plant,

sewers or

drainage pipes'which

recommendations as itconsiders necessary.

The remainder of this manual sets, out criteriaand

includes any (orany part of)river, stream, fake:canal, reservoir, aquifer, pond, watercourse or any inland waters, whether naturalor artificial.

1

INTRODUCTIONTO SMALLWASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS 3

procedures for the design and wastewater treatthent

considers to be appropriate for

environment.

operation

of small

systems which the Agency

the protection of thC

3 sets out inter alia the selectionfactors

Chapter

whichshouldbetakeninto account when

small. wastewater treatment system for ,a small

choosing

a

community, business or leisure centre. Chapter 4

secondary

treatment tanks.

gives design details for primary

Chapters 5 and 6 give detailed

information about the different biofilm and

suspended

growth systems, while Chapter 7

the installation, management and control

discusses

for such systems.

and

As mentioned in the

treatmentmanuals inthe seriesshouldbe consulted

for a

on related topics andin somecases

adetaileddiscussion on the

someofthe

preface,

other wastewater

to

dispussion

scientific background

outlined in this manual. In

technologies

particular, the manual on

discusses screening,

fats. Themanualon primary, secondary

preliminary treatmen,t

grit removal, oils, greases and

and

tertiary

in greater detail biofilm

suspended growth systems.

treatment discusses, and

(attached growth)

The manual on the characterisation of industrial

watev'aters ,

strsses

the

importance

of

characterising a wastewaterstream in advance of

designing a wastewater treatment. system.

methodology

A

for carrying outthis characterisation is

setoutin themanual.

For small treatment

thetreated wastewater to

systems wherethe disposal of

ground is beingconsidered,

single

houses is

themanualontreatment systems for

In this latter manual a

methodology for characterising a site, which

includesa desk study

of

particular

relevance.

and on-site assessment is,set

completed

to

out. Thesitecharacterisation shouldbe

determine the suitability or otherwise ofthesite for

discharging treated wastewaterto ground.

4 WASTEWATER'TREATMENT MANUALS

'2 WASTEWATER FLOWS AND LOADINGS

2.1 OVERVIEW

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

OF

SMALL

SCALE

Wastewatertreatment caninvolve physical, chemical

or biological' processes

processes depending standard. Aschematic

or combinations of these

required wastewater

layout ofa typical biological

on the

wastewater treatment system is shownin Figure 1:

RAS

[dgere-use/disposal

Sludge'

ReturnActivated Sludge

FIGURE : SMALLWASTEWATERTREATMENT SYSTEM

2 WASTEWATER FLOWS AND LOADINGS 5

Thefirst stage of wastewater treatment takesplace in

the preliminary treatment unitswherematerials such

as oils, fats, grease, grit, rags and large solids are

removed.

Primary settlement is required inadvance of biofilm (attached growth) and conventional activated sludge

systems. Radial or horizontal flow tanks are

normally employed toreducethe velocity of flow of

thewastewatersuchthat a proportion of. suspended

mattersettles out.

Biological treatment of wastewaters takes place in

biofilmor suspended growth reactors using activated

sludge, biofiltration, rotatingbiological contactors,

- constructed wetlands orvariantsofthese

processes.

Nitrification/denitrification

and

biological

phosphorus removal canbe incorporated at this stage

and will reduce nutrient concentrations in the

outflow.

Secondary settlement

fromtheoutflowofthe

separates the sludge solids biological stage.

Sludge treatment can be a significant part

wastewater treatment system

of a

and involves the

stabilisation and/or thickening and dewatering of

sludgeprior toreuseor disposal.

2.2 WASTEWATER FLOWS

Flowratesand wastewater characteristics discharged

to small scale treatment systems may differ

significantly. Per.capita flowratescaP vary fromless than 50 litres/day for a camping site up to 300

litres/day for an.affluent

area. Knowledge of the expected wastewater

flowrates and characteristicsistherefore essentialfor

the design ofthese systems.

high amenity residential

Measurements shouldbemade overa representative

determine the flowrates

and characteristics of the

time period to accurately

particular wastewater. If

these measurements cannot be carried out, other

methods of

assessing the wasteWater parameters

These methods could include

comparisons with similar ystems elsewhere. In any

should be adopted.

event, it is essential to critically assess all design

parameters.

The daily average flow in a mainly domestic

wastewater treatment system, measured

period of 7 dry days following a period of 7 days

during a

during whichtherainfall didnotexceed0.25mmon

weatherflow (DWF).

any one day, is calledthe dry

In the absence of flow measurements, the DWF is

calculated from the product of the population

equivalent (p.e.)

andthe percapita wastewaterflow.

wastewaterflowwhichhas

pasi

is 225 litres/day. In recent

Avalueforthe percapita

been used in the

studies carried out by Dublin Corporation

Gàlway Corporation,

consumption

litres/day.

the

average per capita

and

water