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Assignment 1

What is Artificial Intelligence?



Many students often write by simply expressing their thoughts without
references or appropriate argument. Here is an example student essay and I
have commented on it for your benefit. I hope it provides good guidance for
your essay.

Artificial Intelligence has been among us for more than 60 years surrounding
humans with creative and distinguished technological breakthroughs [in
scientific writing, you need proof and to do so, you quote existing research.
When you say creative andbreakthroughs where is the proof? Whose
work are you referring to?]. In this world today we can see some kind of
artificial creature aiding us in our day to day activity making each difficult task
more and more bearable and maintainable [proof?]. In a more technical
statement, we see artificial intelligence as a science and engineering of
developing machines, mainly specialising in intelligent computer programs.
The main purpose is to use computers to understand human intelligence and
applying that into something extraordinary [what do you mean something
extraordinary?]. The word intelligence is very hard to describe and understand
for some humans [why? Have you read a paper debating the nature of
intelligence and come to the conclusion that intelligence is very hard to
describe?], humans are not the only specimen that intelligence can be
gathered its varied from animals and even machines. In this essay I will be
demonstrating and the two types of artificial intelligence (Ai = engineering
side, aI = cognitive science side) and how it is used in different environments
in this generation, it will also have simple examples of how each of them differ
from one another and share its uniqueness. [It is simpler to start by just
defining Ai and aI and quote my paper. Then you can begin your discussion
the above introduction adds nothing but perhaps fill up the page!]

Firstly, we will look into Ai and discuss what type of presence it has in the
world [why do you want to discuss what type of presence? The essay is about
the nature you should do: Ai isand aI is For example..give an example
each and then discuss the nature of Ai and aI using your chosen example.
Why that example is typical of Ai/ai and how does such work contribute to our
understanding of intelligence? We also discuss in the lecture, how we might
evaluate intelligence. Could that piece of work pass turing test? Chinese room
experiment? Is it important to pass such test? If not, why not? In the
conclusing paragraph, you might want to discuss which could lead to a truly
intelligent machine and why you think so. Note your speculation here is based
on what you have discussed earlier and so that is fine]. We know that artificial
intelligence is a massive area in which still to this date there is an intensive
amount of research carried out. Applying Ai in an engineering type of scenario
we will be able to see exactly why this artificial intelligence is used in these
circumstances In engineering domains, AI decision making is often
confronted with problems that lie at the intersection of model-based diagnosis
and probabilistic reasoning. In more simplistic terms we are able to use Ai
when there is a problem that needs attention or to make life more
manageable (Sachenbacher, 2006 where is this ref?). We can use a lot of
different examples for this type of artificial intelligence; we are surrounded
with technological equipment that uses Ai. A prime example can be taken
from a companys operations who deal with components and technical
systems [no, I dont want your imagination the example must come from a
published piece of research]. By assigning an artificial intelligence we are able
to rectify different problems which could possibly arise during the production,
an Ai system to inform the user that the particular product is faulty and should
be removed.
Model-based diagnosis is a technique that supports AI decision making by
identifying faulty components of a technical system, typically based on logical
reasoning, while probabilistic reasoning is the classical AI technique for
decision support (Sachenbacher, 2006). [I see little discussion at all!!!!!!]

Secondly, we look at the concept of cognitive science (aI) and discuss how it
is introduced in the world and what makes it different compared to the
engineering side. Cognitive science deals with the understanding of the
human mind, the main purpose is to understand just how it is possible for the
human mind to store or transfer the different information and applying it to
simulations such as a robot [ref]. This cannot be done without analysing the
mind on multiple different levels [who says this?]. In other words, different
techniques have to be used to fully evaluate and understand the processes
the mind produces [ref]. With the use of artificial intelligence it could be said
that it is a powerful approach that allows different researchers in Cognitive
science to study and model the different behaviour through the computational
modelling of the human mind. (Luber, 2009) where is this ref?. In a more
technical statement we can say that there are a whole verity approaches that
can be used to create or observe artificial neuron well-known from human
intelligence, a challenge known as Turing testing [proof?]. Being an artificial
intelligence agent there can be a situation where the agent is challenged with
incomplete information [so what? There could be MANY different situations
what is the significance of this situation?], this is where with the study of
cognitive science, researchers tend to create an agent which can enhance
human knowledge so the agent itself is able to think and process like humans
[proof]. In saying so, a more fundamental understanding about how the
human mind processes is needed to create such a being. An example of
cognitive science being applied with artificial intelligence is a project which is
created overseas in the United States The SOAR project. Here we are able
to see that a professor in computer science at the university of Michigan,
developing a system which is able to simulate the human brain [so is aI about
simulating the human brain?]. The SOAR system is able to store information
retrieved from the intelligence agents environment in working memory.
(Luber, 2009)

In conclusion I have stated my understanding between the two different types
of artificial intelligence one being (Ai) which I would think is the engineering
side and the other which is the cognitive science (aI) side[ but you offer no
proof, little discussion of their nature]. I have shown that there is a massive
difference in the two types of artificial intelligence one being created to solve
different issues which can be located in basically everything and the other
which is to create an agent that could think interpret like a human would [no
you have not shown that there is a massive difference in fact your essay
shows little distinction between them]. Its impressive to see what the different
types of artificial intelligence have to offer in this research essay, we have a
simplistic form which can help us humans in our day to day activities. My
opinion towards all the forms of artificial intelligence is that it helps us in day to
day activities and I think it will do so in the future [in science writing, one is
usually not interested in a persons opinion this is not a political essay]. The
most interesting will be to see an agent think and interact like a human which I
think will happen in the future. I will not oppose artificial intelligence, I think
one day we will have a whole new evolution all created by humans.