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12/14/2011

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ASHRAE National Capitol Chapter - PES
Wednesday, Nov 7, 2011
Central Plant Optimization
Dave Klee, LEED AP
Director, Optimized Building Solutions
Johnson Controls, Inc.
http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/cpo
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where we are,
where we could be,
how we can get there.
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The Case for Central Plant Optimization
HVAC provides the largest energy
savings opportunity
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The Case for Central Plant Optimization
Within the HVAC system,
Chiller plants provide the greatest
energy savings opportunity.
Within the chiller plant, the chiller
provides the greatest opportunity.
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To maximize efficiency, plants must be designed and operated holistically
Pumps & Motors
Variable
Speed
Drives
Efficient and capable components can get you only so far.
We must optimize at a system level.
Cooling
Towers
Chillers
Automation &
Optimization
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Meet the load with minimum power
How optimization works
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REDUCE:
Chiller Energy
Pump Energy
System Energy
Steam Energy
Water Use
Intelligent algorithms are
required to optimally vary:
Chilled water
temps
flow
Condenser water
temps
flow
simultaneously
without hunting
Meet the load with minimum power
Simultaneously, without hunting
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Measuring plant efficiency
How do plants measure up?
Average annual plant efficiency in kW/ton for chilled water plants
includes total power consumption from chillers, all pumps and tower fans
Legacy Chiller
Plants
Conventional
Plants
Efficient
Plants
Highly Efficient
VSD Plants
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Measuring plant efficiency:
A real-world example of whats possible
Month Ton-hrs Old kWh
Old
kW/ton
Optimized
kW/ton
Savings
Nov-09 395,395 395,241 1.00 0.66 134,280
Dec-09 259,478 331,592 1.28 0.68 155,147
Jan-10 231,408 299,829 1.30 0.78 119,330
Feb-10 242,092 309,528 1.28 0.60 164,272
Mar-10 185,457 213,358 1.15 0.52 116,724
Apr-10 351,837 353,650 1.01 0.55 160,140
May-10 530,402 497,365 0.94 0.51 226,860
Jun-10 784,549 526,061 0.67 0.55 94,559
Jul-10 833,703 643,522 0.77 0.58 159,974
Aug-10 789,405 602,121 0.76 0.60 128,478
Sep-10 780,230 658,974 0.84 0.62 175,231
Oct-10 613,859 581,472 0.95 0.62 200,880
Annual Totals 5,997,816 5,412,712 0.90 0.60 1,835,875
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how to get there.
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Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Design
Decisions
Is your design ready for optimization?
Optimization starts with a firm design foundation
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Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Design
Decisions
Automation Optimization
Prerequisite Opportunity
Sequences Algorithms
The order of events The optimal events
Executes Advises
Holds setpoints
Calculates optimal states,
speeds, setpoints
Meets the load
Meets the load
with minimum power
Todays standard Tomorrows standard
Is your design ready for optimization?
Optimization starts with a firm design foundation
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Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Design
Decisions
Is your design ready for optimization?
Optimization starts with a firm design foundation
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New construction:
Plant infrastructure, components
instrumentation and automation are
designed such that when optimization
software is applied, its performance is
maximized and sustained.
Existing buildings:
Plant infrastructure, components,
instrumentation and automation are
upgraded such that when optimization
software is applied, its performance is
maximized and sustained.
What is Optimization Ready
TM
?
Optimization starts with a firm design foundation
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Measure &
Verify
Optimize System
Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Operating Decisions
Design
Decisions
Maintain
Optimization is a process.
Not a one-time event. Not just software. Not a bill of materials.
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1. Correct
System
Deficiencies
2,3. Correct
Equipment
Deficiencies
4. Automate
with Proven
Algorithms
5. Add
Optimization
Software
6. Measure,
Verify &
Manage
7. Maintain
Address pre-existing conditions
1. Design
Efficient
System
2,3. Select
& Apply
Equipment
Effectively
4. Automate
with Proven
Algorithms
5. Add
Optimization
Software
6. Measure,
Verify &
Manage
7. Maintain
Existing
Buildings
New
Construction
Start with Sound Design Decisions
Optimization works in New Construction and Existing Buildings:
Design or retrofit to get to optimization ready. Then optimize.
Optimize
Optimize
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Read the whitepaper: http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/cpo
Measure &
Verify
Optimize System
Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Operating Decisions
Design
Decisions
Maintain
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Measure &
Verify
Optimize System
Automate System
Apply components effectively, optimally
Select components effectively, optimally
Design system infrastructure to max efficiency potential
Operating Decisions
Design
Decisions
Maintain
Know our enemies.
We can do that!
Its not working!
Already optimized!
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Maximize your potential.
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1. Design
efficient
system
infrastructure
Which system configuration is most likely
to deliver the most efficient plant?
Chilled Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Primary A B
Primary / Secondary C D
Constant Primary E F
Condenser Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Flow 1 2
Constant Flow 3 4
Step 1:
Design efficient system infrastructure
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1. Design
efficient
system
infrastructure
Which system configuration is most likely
to deliver the most efficient plant?
Chilled Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Primary B
Primary / Secondary C D
Constant Primary E F
Condenser Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Flow 1 2
Constant Flow 3 4
Step 1:
Design efficient system infrastructure
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1. Design
efficient
system
infrastructure
Which system configuration is most likely
to deliver the most efficient plant?
Chilled Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Primary B
Primary / Secondary C D
Constant Primary E F
Condenser Water System
Headered Dedicated
Variable Flow 2
Constant Flow 3 4
Step 1:
Design efficient system infrastructure
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Steps 2&3: Once you have efficient system design,
Evaluate & select components on a real-world basis
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Step 5: Central Plant Optimization
Some characteristics are nearly universal
The load is met.
Comfort and safety not impacted
Whole-system approach
(chillers, pumps & towers)
All-VSD plants best performance
Effective BAS is in place; capable
of control and data gathering
Standardized solution
(not one-off, custom)
Adjustments are made automatically
Adjustments are made continuously
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Step 5: Central Plant Optimization
The nature & basis of algorithms will vary
How are optimization decisions made?
Some focus on primarily on pumps
Proven best-in-class practices
Equipment efficiency curves
Energy-based sequencing
Proportional/ integral/ derivative
Adaptive tuning loops
PID loops
Relational control
Transparent or proprietary
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Step 5: Central Plant Optimization
The solution architecture will vary
Where do the algorithms reside?
Inherent in the BAS
Add-on appliance (usually on site)
Where does the data flow?
Within the BAS
BAS server collects data
BAS server serves up info to dashboard / reports
Within the cloud
Local appliance transmits
Remote server collects & serves up info to dashboard / reports
Internet
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CPO:
On-site Optimization
Metasys or 3
rd
party BAS:
Building Automation System
Chillers
VSDs on
pumps,
cooling
tower fans
Sensors, Meters &
Controlled Devices
Customer
Service
Center
MVM:
Measurement,
Verification and
Management
Customer
site
Client Desktop
Central Plant Optimization
Solution Architecture Example
Internet
Internet
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Reliability structured
commissioning process
Stability Stable operation
and persistent performance
Repeatability not reliant on
individuals expertise
Predictability performance
is understood, proven
Visibility measurement,
verification and management
Step 5: Central Plant Optimization
Other critical evaluation criteria
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Step 6: Measure, Verify & Manage performance
Actionable information to empower sustained performance
Web-based UI for remote access
Remote monitoring and diagnostics
Real-time trends; Periodic reports
Alert notification & escalation
UI representing actual plant layout
Actionable info, tailored to users needs.
Long-term data storage and management
Energy consumption & cost
Weather data and load profiles
Equipment runtime, starts, stops
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Step 6: Measure, Verify & Manage performance
Actionable information to empower sustained performance
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Run to fail
Repairs to equipment not included in plan
Necessary repairs made reactively upon failure
Scheduled maintenance
Focus on component care
Performed regularly
Predictive Services
Strategy focus uptime and performance
Proactive management
Elimination of equipment failure
Step 7: Maintain
Sustain the value of the investment in optimization
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Case Study Projects
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Optimization Case Study:
Cleveland State University
Situation
3,800,000 sq. ft. campus in Cleveland, OH
Most load is 7am to 10pm, but laboratory and
student housing load is 24/7.
Solution
Two 2,750-ton, one 1,000-ton Yorks; Two
1,000-ton Tranes. All Metasys.
Implemented OptimumHVAC / CPO 30
Result
Est. energy use savings: 910,000 kWh/yr
Est. first year savings: $113,000
To-date improved kW/ton: 36%
Simple payback for the entire project: 2.7yrs
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Optimization Case Study:
University of Texas at Austin
Situation
District Cooling station serving 135 buildings
(17 million sq ft )
Total campus load:145 million ton-hours / year
Rising energy prices, increasing cooling load
Solution
Replaced plant with a new, all-VSD plant
Installed 3 new 5000 ton York Titan chillers
Johnson Controls / OptimumLOOP
Result
Plant efficiency: 0.33 to .87 kW/ton ,
depending on wet bulb and campus load
Estimated first year savings: 5 million kWh
Simple payback for LOOP install: 12 months
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Optimization Case Study:
Sothebys Building
Situation
470,000 sq. ft. facility in New York City
Houses rare antiques & priceless art
Needed a reliable, efficient chiller plant
Solution
VSD retrofits on two 700-ton York centrifugal
chillers, cooling tower fans, condenser water
pumps and chilled water pumps.
Implemented Central Plant Optimization.
Result
Qualified for incentives: $167,000
Est. first year savings: $201,000
To-date improved kW/ton: 31.7%
Simple payback for the entire project: 3.6 yrs
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Navigate the process.
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Large buildings / plants (>600T)
Multiple, centrifugal chillers
High loads (base & peak)
High operating hours (day/ wk/ yr.)
Data centers (or bldgs with them)
Process loads (served by plant)
Existing BAS (not manual control)
LEED or other green mandates
Funding for efficiency / expense
reduction projects
Rebate programs, High utility rates
Johnson Controls CPO
Ideal Targets for CPO
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CPO is an Engineered, Financial Solution
Engineering & Implementation Process
Assess. Analyze. Design. Implement. Save.
Johnson Controls, Inc.
Optimization
Preliminary Assessment
Optimization
Analysis and Design
Optimization
Architecture Proposal
Optimization
Implementation
Optimization
Continuous
Commissioning
Is the site a
candidate for
optimization?
Financially?
Technically?
What are
the design
requirements for
optimization?
What are the
business
requirements of
the project to
ensure success?
Provides a
comprehensive
energy appraisal
and an actionable
plan that outlines
the technical
approach and
business case
for optimization.
$$ $$ $$
Phased approach
that includes:
Mechanical
upgrades
Controls
integration
Network appliance
& software install
Testing and remote
commissioning
Benefits:
Eliminates
performance drift
Ensures optimum
energy efficiency
Provides real-time
plant analytics
Enables remote
diagnostics
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www.johnsoncontrols.com/hvacdesign
www.johnsoncontrols.com/cpo
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ASHRAE National Capitol Chapter - PES
Wednesday, Nov 7, 2011
Central Plant Optimization
Dave Klee, LEED AP
Director, Optimized Building Solutions
Johnson Controls, Inc.
http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/cpo