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You are on page 1of 27

(KIDAPAWAN NORTH COTABATO TO MT. TALOMO)

SITE INFORMATION

Geographical Location

Longitude: 125° 4’ 0” E

Latitude: 7° 1’0” N

Longitude: 125° 17’ 50” E

Latitude: 7° 7’ 25” N

Bearing

Site A: 54 ° Southeast

Site B: 22 ° Southeast

Site A: 200m

Site B:1800m

Site A: Urban

Site B: Woodland

Antenna Height

Site A: 20m

Site B: 20m

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Reliability Requirement: 99.9999%

Configuration: Non-protected (1+0)

Traffic Capacity: 4 x E1 main plus 4 x E1 spare (8 x E1)

Path Length: 28Km

5

CHANNEL PLANS

Frequency Range: 12.75 GHz- 13.25 GHz

Low Band Range: 12.75 GHz to 12.986GHz

High Band Range: 13.014 GHz to 13.25 GHz

Duplex Spacing: 500 MHz

Traffic Capacity: 4 x E1 main plus 4 x E1 spare (8 x E1)

Channel bandwidth for 8 x E1: 14 MHz

FREQUENCY PLAN

* Divide the smaller bandwidth between the high band and low band with

the channel bandwidth.

14 MHz

= 19 Channels

Transmit Frequency

* Select 7 channel spacing above the high band and low band edge.

14 MHz x 7 = 98 MHz

12.75 GHz + 98 MHz = 12.848 GHz

13.014 GHz + 98 MHz = 13.112 GHz

EQUIPMENT INFORMATION

Site A: 25 dBm

Site B: 25 dBm

Site A: -86.5 dBm

Site B: -86.5 dBm

6

Waveguide Length

Site A:

Rigid Waveguide Length = 17m + 8.5m + 1.2m

=26.7 m

= 2.3 m

Site B:

Rigid Waveguide Length = 17m + 8.5m + 1.2m

= 26.7 m

= 2.3 m

Note: Use WR 75

Site A:

Rigid: 0.049 dB/ft = 0.1607 dB/m

Flexible: 0.15dB/ft = 0.492 dB/m

Site B:

Rigid: 0.049 dB/ft = 0.1607 dB/m

Flexible: 0.15 dB/ft = 0.492 dB/m

= 4.29069 dB

= 4.29069 dB

= 1.1316 dB

7

Site B: RWL = (2.3m)(0.492dB/m)

= 1.1316 dB

= 5.42229 dB

= 5.42229 dB

= 1.05 dB

= 1.05 dB

Site A: 0.25dB

Site B: 0.25dB

Antenna Polarization

Vertical Polarization

PATH LOSSES

D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 13 + 20 log 28

AFSL = 143.6620277 dB

8

Oxygen Absorption Loss (Ao)

6.09 4.81

A o = 7.9x10-3 + 2 + ( 1x10-3 ) f 2 D

( f - 57 ) +1.5

2

f + 0.227

D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

6.09 4.81

A o = 7.9x10-3 + 2 + ( 1x10-3 ) ( 132 ) ( 28 )

( 13 - 57 ) +1.5

2

13 + 0.227

A o = 0.219421637 dB

For frequencies below 350GHz

3 9 4.3 -4 2

A H2 O = 0.067 + + + 10 fαD

( f - 22.3) + 7.3 ( f -183.3) + 6 ( f - 323.3) +10

2 2 2

α = water vapor density in gm/m3 = 12gm/m3

D = total distance or path length in kilometers (km)

3 9 4 .3

A H2 O = 0 .0 6 7 + 2 + + -4 2 2

(1 0 )(1 3 ) (1 2 ) ( 2 8 )

( 1 3 - 2 2) .3 + 7( .3 1 )3 - 1 8 3( .3 + 6)

2

1 3 - 3 2 3 .3 + 10

A H2 O = 0.564099437dB

9

10

SYSTEM GAIN CALCULATIONS

R = reliability expressed as decimal (0.999999)

A = roughness factor

= 4 over water or a very smooth terrain

= 1 over an average terrain

= 0.25 over a rough, mountainous terrain

b = factor to convert a worst case month probability

= 1 to convert an annual availability to a worst month basis

= 0.5 for hot humid area

= 0.125 for very dry or mountainous area

= 0.25 for average land area

Fm = 30log28 +10log ( 6 ) ( 0.25 ) ( 0.125 ) ( 13) -10log ( 1- 0.999999 ) - 70

Fm = 37.28418718dB

L p = 92.3 + 20log13 + 20log28

L p = 143.5220277dB

RSL = Threshold Level + Fm

RSL = -86.5 + 37.28418718

RSL = -49.21581282dB

11

Total Fixed Losses

Total Fixed Losses = ( waveguide loss + connector loss ) SiteA + ( waveguide loss + connector loss )SiteB

Total Fixed Losses = ( 5.42229 +1.05 ) + ( 5.42229 +1.05 )

Total Fixed Losses = 12.94458dB

Total losses = total fixed loss + path attenuation

Total losses = 12.94458 +143.5220277

Total losses = 156.4666077dB

waveguide losses(TX and RX) + AGT – misalignment loss(TX and

RX) – AFSL – A0 – AH2O + AGR

AGT – (0.25dB + 0.25dB) - 143.6620277 dB -

0.219421637 dB - 0.564099437dB + AGR

(0.25dB+0.25dB)+143.6620277dB+ 0.219421637 dB +

0.564099437dB - 49.21581282 dB

= 83.67431596 dB

At

log -1

3x108 10

d=

πf η

41.83715798

log -1

3x108 10

d=

π(13GHz) 0.55

d = 1.22m

12

Computations using the Market Value of the Antenna Diameter

Using a parabolic antenna (based from the computed antenna diameter of 1.22m)

with a commercial diameter of 1.2m (4ft) readily available in the market, the reliability is

computed as follows:

Tower Height

HT = HA + 1/ 2 (d)

HA = Antenna Height, meters

D = Antenna Diameter, meters

= 20.545m

Site B: HT = 20 + 1/ 2 (1.2m)

= 20.545m

System Gain

2

πfd

A t = 10logη

c

Site A:

2

πfd

A t = 10logη

c

π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A t = 10log0.55

3x108

A t = 41.66669122dB

Site B:

π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A r = 10log0.64

3x108

A r = 42.32486407 dB

13

G s = Fm + TL - At - Ar

G s = 37.28418718 +156.4666077 - 41.66669122 - 42.32486407

G s = 109.7592396 dB

Antenna Diameter

2

πfd

A G = 10logη

c

f = frequency in GHz

d = diameter of the antenna in meters

η = antenna efficiency

η = 0.55 for transmitter antenna

η = 0.64 for receiver antenna

c = speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s

Site A:

2

πfd

A G = 10logη

c

π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A G = 10log0.55

3x108

A G = 41.56453473dB

Site B:

2

πfd

A G = 10logη

c

π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A G = 10log0.64

3x108

A G = 42.22270758dB

High Band Frequency

14

Site A:

2

πfd

A G = 10logη

c

π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A G = 10log0.55

3x108

A G = 41.74120299dB

Site B:

2

πfd

A G = 10logη

c

π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.2 )

2

A G = 10log0.64

3x108

A G = 42.39937583dB

Site A: 0.25dB

Site B: 0.25dB

Antenna Polarization

Vertical Polarization

PATH LOSSES

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log f + 20 log D

D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 12.848 + 20 log 28

AFSL = 143.5598712 dB

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 13.112 + 20 log 28

15

AFSL = 143.7365394 dB

6.09 4.81

A o = 7.9x10-3 + 2 + ( 1x10-3 ) f 2 D

( f - 57 ) +1.5

2

f + 0.227

D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

6.09 4.81

A o = 7.9x10-3 + + ( 1x10-3 ) ( 12.8482 ) ( 28 )

( 12.848 - 57 ) +1.5

2 2

12.848 + 0.227

A o = 0.218195213 dB

6.09 4.81

A o = 7.9x10-3 + + ( 1x10-3 ) ( 13.1122 ) ( 28 )

13.112 + 0.227 ( 13.112 - 57 ) +1.5

2 2

A o = 0.22033675 dB

For frequencies below 350GHz

3 9 4.3 -4 2

A H2 O = 0.067 + + + 10 fαD

( f - 22.3) + 7.3 ( f -183.3) + 6 ( f - 323.3) +10

2 2 2

α = water vapor density in gm/m3 = 12gm/m3

D = total distance or path length in kilometers (km)

16

3 9 4 .3

A H2 O = 0 .0 6 7 + + + -4 2

(1 0 )(1 3

( 1 3 .1 1 2 - 2) 2 .3 +( 7 .3 1 3 .1) 1 2 - 1( 8 3 .3 + 63)

2 2 2

+1130.1 1 2 - 3 2 3 .

AH2O=0.545749352dB

3 9 4.3

A H2 O = 0.067 + + + -4

(102 )(13.112) (12)(28)

( 13.112 - 22.3) + 7.3( ) (+ 6 3) - 323.

2 2 2

13.112 -183.3 13.112 + 10

AH2O = 0.578035188 dB

TSLoss = RWL (Tx and Rx) + FWL (Tx and Rx) + Total Connector Loss

(Tx and Rx) + AFSL + AH2o + AO + AMLoss (TX and RX)

TSLoss = (4.29069 dB+4.29069dB) + (1.1316 dB+1.1316 dB) +

(1.05dB+1.05 dB) + 143.5598712 dB+ 0.545749352dB +

0.218195213 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)

TSLoss = 157.7683958 dB

(1.05dB+1.05dB) + 143.7365394 dB +0.578035188 dB

+0.22033675 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)

TSLoss =157.9794913 dB

TGS = 108.7872423 dB

TGS = 25dB + ( 41.74120299 dB+ 42.39937583 dB)

TGS = 109.1405788 dB

17

Received Signal Level (RSL)

RSL = - 48.9811535 dB

RSL = - 48.838925 dB

Site A: Transmitter

Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm

Connector Losses Subtracted 1.05 dB

Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB

Antenna Gain Added 41.56453473 dB

Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB

Environmental Losses

Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.5598712 dB

Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.218195213 dB

Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.545749352 dB

Site B: Receiver

Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB

Antenna Gain Added 42.22270758 dB

Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB

Connector Losses Subtracted 1.05 dB

Received Signal Level (RSL) Computed -48.98115346 dB

18

Parameter Function Value Unit

Site A: Transmitter

Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm

Connector Losses Subtracted 1.05 dB

Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB

Antenna Gain Added 41.74120299 dB

Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB

Environmental Losses

Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.7365394 dB

Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.22033675 dB

Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.578035188 dB

Site B: Receiver

Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB

Antenna Gain Added 42.39937583 dB

Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB

Connector Losses Subtracted 1.05 dB

Received Signal Level (RSL) Computed -48.83891252 dB

Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+

antenna misalignment loss

Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)

Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption

Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)

Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector

losses

RSL=TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

Actual Transmitter Power Output = TPO-TL

= 18.52771 dB

Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT

= 59.84224473 dB

Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT

= - 84.48157104 dB

Actual Antenna Received Power= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR

= - 42.50886346 dB

Received Signal Level (RSL)= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL

` = - 48.98115346 dB

High Band Frequency

19

Transmitter Power Output (TPO)= 25 dBm

Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+

antenna misalignment loss

Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)

Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption

Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)

Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector

losses

RSL=TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

=18.52771 dB

Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT

= 60.01891299 dB

Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT

= - 84.51599835 dB

Actual Antenna Received Power= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR

= - 42.36662252 dB

Received Signal Level (RSL)= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL

= -48.83891252 dB

20

21

FADE MARGINS

22

Thermal Fade Margin (FMTHERMAL)

FMTHERMAL = RSL- Receiver Input Threshold

= -48.98115346– (-86.5dB)

= 37.51884654 dB

FMTHERMAL = RSL- Receiver Input Threshold

= -48.83891252– (-86.5dB)

= 37.66108748 dB

Since the dispersive fade margin is not given in the product specification,

it is assumed that the 4xE1 to 8xE1 = 70 to 80 dB dispersive fade margin and has

a dispersive factor of 3 for average propagation conditions.

FM DISP = 70dB

FMDIFF = FMTHERMAL

FMDIFF = 37.51884654 dB

FMDIFF =37.66108748 dB

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10 +10 10

23

Low Band Frequency

-37.51884654 -37.51884654

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10

+10 10

FM FLAT = 34.50854658 dB

-37.66108748 -37.66108748

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10

+10 10

FM FLAT = 34.65078752dB

FM EFF = -10log 10 +10 10

of 70dB with an average fade factor occurrence of RD = 3.

-34.50854658 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10

+10 10

FM EFF = 34.50732033 dB

-34.65078752 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10 +10 10

FM EFF = 34.64952045 dB

RAIN LOSSES

24

CCIR Recommendation 530 Rain Attenuation (ARAIN)

Interpolation Formula:

M x = ( log f1 - log fx ) / (log f1 - log f2 )

k x = antilog [ log k1 - Mx ( log k1 - log k2 ) ]

α x = α 1 - Mx (α 1 -α 2 )

D = 35e−0.015R0.001%

o

E

γ = kx × (R0.001%)eα x

ARain = γDE

D = path length, km = 28km

R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

Interpolation Factors

f1 12 GHz

f2 15Ghz

fx 12.848 GHz

k1 0.0168

k2 0.0335

R1 180 @ N

α1 1.217

α2 1.154

Mx = 0.30599812

k x = 0.020750462

α x =1.197722118

25

Do = 35 e -0.015R0.001%

Do = 35e-0.015(180)

Do = 2.352192946

D E = D/[1 + (D/Do)]

D E = 28/[1+ (28/2.352192946) ]

D E = 2.169905898

γ =kx(R0.001%)α x

γ =0.020750462 (180) 1.197722118

γ = 10.43197121

A RAIN = γ DE

A RAIN = 10.43197121(2.169905898)

A RAIN = 22.63639585

Interpolation Factors

f1 12 GHz

f2 15Ghz

fx 13.112 GHz

k1 0.0168

k2 0.0335

R1 180 @ N

α1 1.217

α2 1.154

Mx = 0.397148791

k x = 0.022097792

α x =1.191979626

26

Do = 35 e -0.015R0.001%

Do = 35 e-0.015(180)

Do = 2.352192946

DE = D/[1 + (D/Do)]

D = path length, km = 28km

R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

D E = 2.169905898

γ =k x (R0.001%)α x

γ = 0.022097792 (180) 1.191979626

γ = 10.77923049

A RAIN = γ DE

A RAIN = 10.77923049 (2.169905898)

A RAIN = 23.38991582

FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN

FM RAIN = 37.51884654 - 22.63639585

FM RAIN = 14.88245069 dB

FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN

FM RAIN = 37.66108748 - 23.38991582

FM RAIN = 14.27117166 dB

27

RELIABILTY CALCULATIONS

R = ( 1- U ) 100%

K - Q

-FM EFF

U = 1.3 10 10 ( f b ) ( dc )

S

S = standard deviation of the terrain

S = 469.07

f = frequency, GHz

d = path length, km = 28km

b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)

FMEFF = effective fade margin

Using; f = f LB = 12.848 GHz

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.50732033 dB

1x10-9 -34.50732033

( 12.848 ) ( 28 )

1.2 3.5

U LBF = 1.3

10 10

469.07

U LBF = 2.96698093x10-10

R LBF = 1- ( 2.96698093x10-10 ) 100%

R LBF = 99.99999997%

Using; f = f HB = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.64952045 dB

1x10-9 -34.64952045

( 13.112 ) ( 28 )

1.2 3.5

U HBF = 1.3

10 10

469.07

U HBF = 2.942353429x10-10

R HBF = 1- ( 2.942353429x10-10 ) 100%

R HBF = 99.99999997%

28

Rain Reliability (RRAIN)

( U 100%

R = 1- )

-FM RAIN 2

K-Q

U = 1.3 10

S

10

f (d ) ( )

b c

FM RAIN 2= FM EFF-A RAIN

S = standard deviation of the terrain

S = 469.07

f = frequency, GHz

d = path length, km = 28km

b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)

FMEFF = effective fade margin

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.50732033 dB

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN

FM RAIN 2 = 34.50732033 - 22.63639585

FM RAIN 2 = 11.87092448 dB

1x10-9 -11.87092448

( 12.848 ) ( 28 )

1.2 3.5

U LBF = 1.3

10 10

469.07

U LBF = 5.444454089x10-08

R LBF = 1- ( 5.444454089x10-08 ) 100%

R LBF = 99.99999456%

29

High Band Frequency

Using; f = f HB = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.64952045 dB

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN

FM RAIN 2 = 34.64952045 - 23.38991582

FM RAIN 2 = 11.25960463 dB

1x10-9 -11.25960463

( 13.112 ) ( 28 )

1.2 3.5

U HBF = 1.3

10 10

469.07

U HBF = 6.422238356x10-08

R HBF = 1- ( 6.422238356x10-08 ) 100%

R HBF = 99.99999358%

LINK 1 RELIABILITY

R = 99.99999358%

30

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