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Odal (rune)

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Proto-Germanic Old English
*alan el
"heritage, estate"
Elder Futhark Futhorc


Transliteration o
Transcription o, , oe, e
[o()] [e], [()]
Position in rune-row 23 or 24
The Elder Futhark Odal rune (), also known as the 'Othala' rune, represents the o sound.
Its reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is *alan "heritage; inheritance, inherited estate".
It was in use for epigraphy during the 3rd to the 8th centuries. It is not continued in the
Younger Futhark, disappearing from the Scandinavian record around the 6th century, but it
survived in the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, and expressed the Old English phoneme during the
7th and 8th centuries. Its name is attested as el in the Anglo-Saxon manuscript tradition.
The rune is encoded in Unicode at codepoint U+16DF:
1 Name and etymology
2 Elder Futhark o-rune
3 Anglo-Saxon -rune
4 Modern use
o 4.1 Nazism
o 4.2 Ukrainian merchant marines
o 4.3 Germanic neopaganism
o 4.4 Other
5 References
Name and etymology
Further information: Ethel
The Common Germanic stem ala- or ila- "inherited estate" is an ablaut variant of the
stem aal-. It consists of a root a- and a suffix -ila- or -ala-. The suffix variant accounts
for the umlauted form el. Germanic aal- had a meaning of (approximately) "nobility",
and the derivation aala- could express "lineage, (noble) race, descent, kind", and thus
"nobleman, prince" (whence Old English atheling), but also "inheritance, inherited estate,
property, possession". Its etymology is not clear, but it is usually compared to atta "father"
(c.f. the name Attila, ultimately baby talk for "father").
The term oal (Old High German uodal) is a formative element in some Germanic names,
notably Ulrich and variants; , the stem aal is more frequent, found in Gothic names such
as Athalaric, Ataulf, etc. and in Old High German names such as Adalbert,

Unrelated, but difficult to separate etymologically,
[clarification needed]
is the root aud- "wealth,
property, possession, prosperity";
from this root are names such as Edmund and other
English names with the ed prefix (from Old English ead), German Otto and various
Germanic names beginning with ed- or od-. Possibly related is eua, euu a word for
"child, offspring" (attested in Old Norse j, and possibly in the name of the Iuthungi).
Odal was associated with the concept of inheritance in ancient Scandinavian property law.
Some of these laws are still in effect today, and govern Norwegian property. These are the
setesrett (homestead right), and the Odelsrett (allodial right).

Elder Futhark o-rune
The o-rune is attested early, in inscriptions from the 3rd century, such as the Thorsberg
chape (DR7) and the Vimose planer (Vimose-Hvelen, DR 206). The letter is derived from
a Raetian variant of the letter O
[citation needed]
. The corresponding Gothic letter is (derived
from Greek ), which had the name oal.
[citation needed]

Wolfgang Krause (1964) has speculated that the o rune is used as an ideograph denoting
possession in the Thorsberg chape inscription. The inscription has owluewaz, read by
Krause as O[ila] - W[u]lu-ewaz "inherited property - the servant of Wuluz".

The odal rune is found in some transitional inscriptions of the 6th or 7th century, such as
the Gummarp, Bjrketorp and Stentoften runestones, but it disappears from the
Scandinavian record by the 8th century. The Old Norse o phoneme is now written in
Younger Futhark with the same letter as the u phoneme, the Ur rune.
Anglo-Saxon -rune
The Anglo-Saxon runes preserve the full set of 24 Elder Futhark runes (besides introducing
innovations), but in some cases these runes are given new sound values due to Anglo-
Frisian sound changes. The odal rune is such a case: the o sound in the Anglo-Saxon
system is now expressed by s , a derivation of the old Ansuz rune; the odal rune is now
known as el (with umlaut due to the form ila-) and is used to express an sound, but
is attested only rarely in epigraphy (outside of simply appearing in a futhark row).
Epigraphical attestations include:
the Frisian Westeremden yew-stick, possibly as part of a given name Wimod
the Harford (Norfolk) brooch, dated c. 650, in a finite verb form: luda:gibtsigil
"Luda repaired the brooch"
the left panel of the Franks Casket, twice: twgen gibror afdd hi wylif "two
brothers (scil. Romulus and Remus), a she-wolf nourished them".
The Anglo-Saxon rune poem preserves the meaning "an inherited estate" for the rune name:
by oferleof ghwylcum
gif he mot r rihtes and
gerysena on
brucan on bolde bleadum
[An estate] is very dear to every man,
if he can enjoy there in his house
whatever is right and proper in constant
1. ^ Schnfeld, Wrterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und Vlkernamen, 1911, 1f.
(Adalharius, Adalhildis, Adalwal, Adaric, Adica, Adila), 33ff. (Athala, Athalaricus,
Athanagildus, Athanaricus, Athavulfus), Reichert, Lexikon der altgermanischen Namen 2,
1990, 469 (Adalhari, Adalhildis, Adulouuald, Adaluuial, Atala, Athala, Athalaric, Adaric,
2. ^ Pokorny (1959), p. 76
3. ^ Krause, Wolfgang, 'Die Runendenkmler und ihre Sprache' In: Von der Bronzezeit bis zur
Vlkerwanderungszeit, (ed.) Klose, Olaf. Neumnster 1964 [reprint 1979], 311-325.
Krause, Wolfgang, Herbert J ankuhn. Die Runeninschriften im lteren Futhark, Gttingen,
1966. The interpretation by Krause follows an earlier suggestion by Helmut Arntz,
Handbuch der Runenkunde, 2nd ed., Halle/Saale 1944. See also Spurkland, Terje (2005).
Norwegian Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Boydell Press. pp. 4748. ISBN 1-84383-186-4.
4. ^ Schnteich, Martin and Boshoff, Henri Volk, faith and fatherland: the security threat
posed by the white right Institute for Security Studies (South Africa)(2003) p48
5. ^ http://vedsimvol.mybb.ru/uploads/000b/27/15/8157-1-f.jpg
6. ^ https://flagspot.net/flags/qt-z_sym.html#odal
7. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2603624/Topman-forced-apologise-selling-