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Won-Woo Park

SNU Business School


Motivation
KDI, 2013/9/5
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Theories of Motivation
Content Theory: What motivates people?
Process Theory: How motivation occur?
Application: Reinforcement Theory
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Motivation Theories Integrated
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1) Need Theories
2) Herzberg: Two Factor Theory
1) Vroom et al.: Expectancy Theory
2) Locke: Goal-Setting Theory
3) Adams: Equity Theory
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Performance = Motivation Ability Opportunity

Controllable Uncontrollable
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Theories of Motivation
Content Theory
What motivate(s) people?
Process Theory
How are people motivated?
Integrated
Theory
Application: Reinforcement Theory
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Need Theories
2 Factor Theory
Maslow Alderfer McClelland
Motivator
Hygiene
Factor
Herzberg
Content Theories
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- Human being have five-stage
needs: Physiological, safety,
social, self-esteem, and self
actualization)
- Higher-level need appears only
when the lower-level need is
fulfilled.
Self-Actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Low-level Needs
Externally
fulfilled needs
High-level Needs
Internally
fulfilled needs
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Alderfers ERG Theory
Core Needs:

Growth

Relatedness

Existence
Concept:
On can have (and fulfill) more than
one need at the same time.
The direction (of need fulfillment)
can start from any level, either from
top or from bottom.
Human being have three core needs.
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McClellands Learned Needs Theory
nAch
nPow
nAff
Need for Achievement
Need for Affiliation
Need for Power



Not everybody have the three needs automatically.
The three needs can be increased (or decreased) via
learning.
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Two views on Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
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Two Factors:
Hygiene factor
and Motivator
Factors
causing job
dissatisfaction
Factors
causing job
satisfaction
Source: Herzberg, F., One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review , SeptemberOctober. 1987.
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Vroom et al.s Expectancy Theory
What are the factors of motivation?
Expectancy, Instrumentality, Valence
* Expectancy and instrumentality are subjective probabilities
Through what process motivation occur?
Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
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Lockes Goal-Setting Theory
Setting a specific and challenging goal (accompanied by
a feedback) increases ones motivation and leads to
high performance.
Do your best vs. Be #3 in your class
Lets try our best vs. Lets get 27% MS
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Adamss Equity Theory
Individuals calculates (subjectively) ones input and outcome.
Each calculates his/her own ratio, and the ratio of others also.
Each compares his/her own ratio with that of others.
One perceives a state of (in)equity when the ratio is (un)equal.
Upon perceiving the state of inequity, one does something to
restore the state of equity.
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Integrated
Theory of
Motivation
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Integration of Key Motivation Theories
Key Theories:
- Expectancy theory: Effort-Performance-Satisfaction flow
- Equity Theory: Equity level of extrinsic reward
- 2 Factor theory: Distinction of extrinsic and intrinsic reward
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Reinforcement Theory
To achieve behavior change of employees, use every method of
reinforcement equally. Further, use burdenless and effective
sanction to internalize peoples behavior.
Methods of reinforcement
Burdenless and effective sanction
(Punishment)
Good to receive Bad to receive
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Regulating/rewarding method be legal

Ethical (From group agreement)

Be joyful (fun) & not fatal to individual

<Cases>
- Eagle badge of pilots
- Numbering & pointing out of behavior rules
Provide
Positive
reinforcement
a

Punishment
b
Hold
c
Extinction

d
Negative
reinforcement
To increase good behavior: use a & d
To decrease bad behavior: use b & c
Internalization

3 Types of behavior change: Compliance,
Identification, Internalization
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One type of Reinforcement: Punishment
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Reinforcement Instead of Punishment
You, stupid.

Stunned

Where have you learned that bad word?

My baby. Ill give you a 10 dollar. Instead,
never use that word again.

Mommy, I know a 100$ worth bad word also.
Youll definitely give me when you hear.

Stunned