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International Forum for Rural Transport

and Development
Indonesian Forum Group for Rural Transport
and Development (IFGRTD)
Research on Rural Water Transportation
Characteristics
in 3 Provinces in Indonesia

CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS STUDIES
GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY
Address: Kompleks UGM, Bulaksumur E -9, Jogjakarta 55281
Phn.62-274 901076, HP: 0812 278 1806; Fax. 62-274 901076;
E-mail: pustral-ugm@indo.net.id Website: www.pust ral-ugm.org

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................. i
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................iii
LIST OF FIGURES .....................................................................iv
LIST OF BOXES ........................................................................vi
GLOSSARY .............................................................................vii
1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................. 1-1
1.1. Background and research objectives .............................................................................1
1.2. The context of development within rural water transport development in Indonesia.......2
1.2.1 Economic crisis and the poverty issue ...............................................................2
1.2.2 Decentralization, rural development and strategies for alleviating
poverty in society ............................................................................................3
1.3. National regulation on water transportation ..................................................................4
1.4 Study area illustration ..................................................................................................5
1.4.1 Indonesia general illustration............................................................................5
1.4.2 General illustration of study locations ................................................................7
1.5 Study review and prior research .................................................................................14
1.6 Research methodology ...............................................................................................15
2. RURAL WATER TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS: SUMMARY OF
CASE STUDIES IN 3 PROVINCES........................................ 2-1
2. 1 RWT policy in the study areas .......................................................................................1
2. 2 Current water transport characteristics .........................................................................1
2.2. 1 Boat use and traffic...........................................................................................1
2.2. 2 Routes and tariff ...............................................................................................2
2.2. 3 Ship Types and Ship Engines ............................................................................3
2.2. 4 Transportation ownership and operation............................................................8
2. 3 Water transport fleet availability.................................................................................10
2. 4 Economic and social issues .........................................................................................12
2.4. 1 User characteristics.........................................................................................12
2.4. 2 Transportation Nuisances of Water Life ...........................................................15
2. 5 Rivers technical conditions .........................................................................................15
2. 6 Shipping safety and security.......................................................................................17
ii
2. 7 Financing Rural Water Transportation .........................................................................17
2. 8 Boat Operational Cost Analysis ...................................................................................18
3. STRATEGIC ISSUES OF WATER TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT
IN RURAL AREA .............................................................. 3-1
3.1 Competition and Integration.........................................................................................1
3.2 Water Transportation Infrastructure and the usage and Water Management..................2
3.3 Operations and Safety ..................................................................................................3
3.4 Business Competition, Regulation and Transportation Managements .............................4
REFFERENCES
iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. 1 Comparison between the number of land and water transportation
infrastructures in 3 provinces .......................................................................... 1-1
Table 1. 2 Climatic conditions of Indonesia ...................................................................... 1-6
Table 1. 3 General condition of study areas in South Sumatera ........................................ 1-8
Table 1. 4 Social demography and local economy activities conditions
study areas in South Sumatera ....................................................................... 1-8
Table 1. 5 Riau Province general condition..................................................................... 1-10
Table 1. 6 Social demography and local economy activities conditions
study areas in Riau Province.......................................................................... 1-11
Table 1. 7 West Kalimantan Province general condition.................................................. 1-12
Table 1. 8 Social demography and local economy activity conditions
study areas in West Kalimantan Province....................................................... 1-13
Table 2. 1 Routes and tariff for river transport in South Sumatera.................................... 2-2
Table 2. 2 Routes and tariff for river transport in Riau...................................................... 2-2
Table 2. 3 Routes and tariff for river transport in West Kalimantan................................... 2-3
Table 2. 4 Water transport specification in study areas .................................................... 2-8
Table 2. 5 River traditional transportation operation characteristics.................................. 2-9
Table 2. 6 Piers condition in study area........................................................................... 2-9
Table 2. 7 Number of Installed Signs ............................................................................. 2-10
Table 2. 8 Water transportation development in South Sumatera ................................... 2-11
Table 2. 9 Water Transportation Development in Riau.................................................... 2-11
Table 2. 10 Water Transportation Development in West Kalimantan................................. 2-11
Table 2. 11 Income level in respected study area ............................................................ 2-14
Table 2. 12 BOC for Ogan and Lalan River....................................................................... 2-18
Table 2. 13 BOC for Okura and Selat Panjang.................................................................. 2-19
Table 2. 14 BOC for Sekura and Pontianak....................................................................... 2-19
iv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. 1 Percentage of the rural population in poverty in Indonesia, 1976 2000....... 1-2
Figure 1. 2 Percentage of poor residents within total province population........................ 1-3
Figure 1. 3 Map of Indonesia and the location of case studies ......................................... 1-6
Figure 1. 4 Study location in South Sumatera Province ................................................... 1-7
Figure 1. 5 The number of poor residents in South Sumatera Province............................ 1-7
Figure 1. 6 Photograph of aquatic condition of Galih Sari Village, Lalan River................... 1-8
Figure 1. 7 Talang Pangeran Village, Ogan River............................................................. 1-9
Figure 1. 8 The number of poor residents in Riau Province .............................................. 1-9
Figure 1. 9 Location of study areas in Riau Province...................................................... 1-10
Figure 1. 10 Dugout for passengers and freight transport in Okura Village ...................... 1-10
Figure 1. 11 Passengers activity in Selat Panjang............................................................ 1-11
Figure 1. 12 The number of poor residents in West Kalimantan Province ......................... 1-12
Figure 1. 13 Location of study areas in West Kaimantan Province.................................... 1-13
Figure 1. 14 Survey location: Kapuas Besar Pier............................................................. 1-14
Figure 1. 15 Survey location in Sambas Regency............................................................ 1-14
Figure 1. 16 Research Methodology................................................................................ 1-16
Figure 2. 1 Passengers and Freight Activities .................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2. 2 Yanmar Engine ............................................................................................. 2-3
Figure 2. 3 Ketek Boat.................................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2. 5 Single-Level junkung boat............................................................................. 2-5
Figure 2. 6 Multi-level junkung boat ............................................................................... 2-6
Figure 2. 7 Water Bus..................................................................................................... 2-6
Figure 2. 8 Interior and Sketches of Jukung Boat............................................................ 2-6
Figure 2. 9 Barges .......................................................................................................... 2-7
Figure 2. 10 Dugout ......................................................................................................... 2-7
Figure 2. 11 Bandung/Houseboat ..................................................................................... 2-8
Figure 2. 12 Impermanent pier at Okura Village (a) and permanent pier
at Selat Panjangs ......................................................................................... 2-9
Figure 2. 13 Sign installed on river channels ................................................................... 2-10
Figure 2. 14 Trip purposes for river transport ................................................................. 2-12
Figure 2. 15 Trading activities on riverbanks ................................................................... 2-12
Figure 2. 16 Reasons for using water transport ............................................................... 2-13
Figure 2. 17 Water Transportation Usage at Ogan and Lalan River.................................. 2-13
Figure 2. 18 Water Transportation Usage at Siak River ................................................... 2-14
v
Figure 2. 19 Water Transportation Usage at Sekura........................................................ 2-14
Figure 2. 20 The living conditions of the community in study area................................... 2-15
Figure 2. 21 Retaining wall to prevent abrasion .............................................................. 2-15
Figure 2. 22 Canal at low tide......................................................................................... 2-16
vi
LIST OF BOXES
Box 1 Strategic Policy......................................................................................... 1-4
Box 2 To See My Sweet Heart in Neighbor Village ............................................. 2-13
Box 3 Sunken Ship............................................................................................. 3-3
Box 4 Entrepreneur Profile ................................................................................. 3-4
Box 5 One Stop shop.......................................................................................... 3-5
Box 6 Lebung Desa ............................................................................................ 3-5
vii
GLOSSARY
ABRI/now TNI (Angkatan Bersenjata
Republik Indonesia)
: Indonesian Army
APBD (Anggaran Pendapatan Belanja
Daerah)
: Local Budget
ASDP (Angkutan Sungai, Danau dan
Penyeberangan)
: River, Lake & Ferry Transport
BAPPEDA (Badan Perencanaan
Pembangunan Daerah)
: Local Planning Agency
BPS (Biro Pusat Statistik) : Central Bureau of Statistics
DFID : Department for International Development
Dinhub (Dinas Perhubungan) : Communication Office
GAPASDAP (Gabungan Pengusaha
Angkutan Sungai, Danau dan
Penyeberangan)
: Association of Water, Lake and Crossing Transport
Entrepreneurs
HP/PK : Horse Power
HTI (Hutan Tanaman Indonesia) : Indonesia Forestry Plants
Kalangan : Market Day, it is a traditional market occurs
temporarily. This idiom is used in many
transmigration areas or villages which the markets
are not permanent and they use boats as
transport.
Lanting : Floating house on water way attached to the land
LASDAP (Lalulintas Angkutan Sungai,
Danau dan Penyeberangan)
: Water, Lake and Crossing Transport Traffic
Lebung Sungai : Rivers auction system at particular rivers channel (
usually it is auctioned for 1-2 months)
MUBA : Musi Banyuasin (Name of area)
OKI : Ogan Komering Ilir
P : Primer, it is a code for channels (like classification
in highways: primer, secondary , collector, etc.). It
was developed in transmigration area to water the
rice field and transportation. P1 means primer
channel No. 1
P 3 S (Proyek Pengairan Pasang Surut) : Low and High Tide Irrigation Project
viii
P2DR (Proyek Pengembangan Daerah
Rawa)
: Slump Area Development Project
PDRB (Pendapatan Daerah Regional
Bruto)
: Gross Regional Domestic Product
Pemda (Pemerintah Daerah) : Local Government
PNS (Pegawai Negeri Sipil) : Civil Employee
POLRI (Polisi Republik Indonesia) : National Police
Ponton : Non Motorised boat with rectangular shape use to
transport wood
PP (Peraturan Pemerintah) : Governments Law
Propeda (Program Pembangunan Daerah) : Local Development Program
PT (Perguruan Tinggi) : University
Renstra (Rencana Strategis) : Strategic Plan
RT (Rukun Tetangga) : Neighbourhood Organisation
RW (Rukun Warga) : Community Organisation
SBNP (Sarana Bantu Navigasi Pelayaran) : Shipping Navigation Assistance System
SDM (Sumber Daya Manusia) : Human resources
SK (Surat Keputusan) : Decree Letter
Speed Boat : Rivers transport mode with machine attached at
the back of the boat (removable) with capacity 2
4 persons. High speed
Steigher : Small port to picking up and dropping of
passengers, with wood construction
SWS (Satuan Wilayah Sungai) : Rivers area unit
TGGI - TGGO : Serial number for boat
Wartel (Warung Telekomunikasi) : Telecommunication Service
WIB (Waktu Indonesia Barat) : West Indonesia Time
WITA (Waktu Indonesia Tengah) : Central Indonesia Time
Working Unit : Now also called as Monitoring Posts for water area,
placed on certain places on channels to monitor
traffic, record boats load and safety guards
1-1
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background and research objectives
The role of water transportation in various areas in Indonesia are very important, especially in
remote places which are unreachable by land transportation. The condition of the development of
water transportation at this moment seems to be stagnant as a result of the expansion of land
transport and the decrease of demand. The sea area of Indonesia is about 7.9 million square km
which position Indonesia as a nation with people navigation as its basic power to develop its
economic sector. Unfortunately, Today the operational of Indonesias navigation causing the lack of
foreign exchange because most of export-import transports are conducted by foreign ships, that
they should pay the shipment with foreign currency. This shortage becomes a constraint to the
development of Indonesian shipping.
Water transportation system can not be separated with the general transportation system, and
other activities owned by the local and has regional development process which want to widen its
market and service in various sectors of social economy activities and to stimulate the growth of
new activities in regional economy. The system of river and inter islands traffic in Indonesia is one
of the transportation system which is traditionally use to various purposes both for passengers and
freight transport. This system has reached the rural areas to rivers estuary and continue with inter
islands small boats traffic.
The development of the land and water transportation does not always constitute a rivalry. This is
caused because some of the areas that cannot be reached by land transport are very remote or are
made up of small archipelagos. Many rivers dry up in the dry season and thus cannot be sailed
while many of the surface roads are in bad condition as a result of being overused. The industrial
and farming sectors rely heavily on water transport to get their goods to hinterland areas. Another
problem to be addressed is the lowering of the number of passengers and even goods from year to
year. Below is the comparison between land and water transport infrastructures in study location.
Table 1. 1 Comparison between the number of land and water transportation
infrastructures in 3 provinces
Province Road Length (Km) Navigable River (Km)
South Sumatera 15,228.49 1,880
Riau 13,632.02 1,550
West Kalimantan 8,141.60 2,473
Source: Transport Authority Province of South Sumatera, Riau and West Kalimantan
This projects goal is to compare characteristics of water transport operations in rural areas in
different environmental and socio-economic conditions and use the results to identify success
factors in connection with inexpensive rural water transport.
The result of this project will be the preparation of information for the integration of rural water
transport (RWT) to translate into rural access planning. This information can be used to increase
the effectiveness of the RWT operation and to lessen the number of communities left behind and
isolated in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
There are 5 objectives of the field work. They are:
a) What are the current conditions?
b) Problems faced (it is best to ask the informant, what conditions they would like to see changed)
c) Size and level of the operation
1-2
d) New changes and trends and future expectation
The objective is to obtain a study combining the researchers point of view with understanding from
people in society and how they see these issues. At this stage it is more important to get quality
ideas than a large quantity of data.
1.2. The context of development within rural water transport development in
Indonesia
1.2.1 Economic crisis and the poverty issue
Indonesia can be classified as a nation which experienced serious problems as a result of the
economic crisis which has hit Asia in the past few years. Based on the estimations of the World
Bank and the IMF
1
, Indonesias short-term economic prospects are not very encouraging. The
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for fiscal year 1998/99 is estimated to have dropped 15.6%. The
construction sector experienced the largest drop (40%), while financial services lost 27% and the
commerce hotel and restaurant sector went down 21%. Only the farming and mining sectors did
not experience significant losses, although non-oil-and-natural-gas exports fell about 8.8%, a
consequence of a drastic depreciation of the rupiah.
The economic crisis which hit Indonesia had serious effects. World Bank estimates mention that the
arising impact was mirrored in the elevation of the poverty rate, from 10% in 1997 becoming 14
20% in 1998. SMERU (the Social Monitoring and Early Response Unit) estimates that the poverty
rate increased from 11% to 13% in 1999. (Other organizations, including the ILO, even estimate
the poverty rate to have reached 48%.)
Source: BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics) cited from Explanation of Means to Combat Poverty, Office of the
Coordinating Minister for the Welfare of the People in material for Mutual Cooperation Cabinet
Meeting, 29 November 2001, page 5)
Figure 1. 1 Percentage of the rural population in poverty in Indonesia, 1976 2000
2
Data from Statistics Office shows that the poor rural residents experiencing a financial downturn
because of the economic crisis tended to return to their economic position of around 1970 1980.
Meanwhile, cross-sectional data shows that in Indonesia, the poverty rate
3
varied from less than
5% in a province based in the service sector Bali, to more than 25% in a province whose
economy is based on natural resources West Kalimantan.

1
IMF (1999). World Economic Outlook. IMF, Washington.
World Bank (1998). World Development Report. World Bank, Washington.
2
1998 is based on SUSENAS-type December 1998; 1999 based on SUSENAS Mini August 1999, 2000 figures
are temporary, and do not include the provinces of Aceh and Maluku. Variations obtained by counting the
poverty rate as measured by BPS in 1998
0
10
20
30
40
50
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Year
%

P
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P
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1-3
Source: Basic Development Data - Bappenas, 1999
Figure 1. 2 Percentage of poor residents within total province population
1.2.2 Decentralization, rural development and strategies for alleviating poverty in
society
On January 1st 2001 the Act No 22, 1999 on Regional Autonomy was put into effect. This had
made clear boundaries of Central Governments authority. To strengthened the decentralization of
governance operation, the portion of central governances authorities more in determining policies
i.e norms, standards, criteria and procedures.
Provincials authorities are determined based on criteria as follow.
1. Inter City/Regency Service
Service for inter city or regency which can not be provided by inter local cooperation become
the responsibility of provincial governance.
2. Inter City/Regency Conflict of interest
Provincials authorities also cover authorities which can not be implemented by City/Regency
because in the implementation can damage the city/regency itself.
If the implementation of City/Regencys authorities can cause conflict of interest between
themselves, Province, City and Regency, can make an agreement to see that the authorities can be

3
As is often suggested, the definition of poverty is often different from one organization to the next. (source:
Means to Combat Poverty, Office of the Coordinating Minister for the Welfare of the People in material for
Mutual Cooperation Cabinet Meeting, 29 November 2001 and ILO report)
Statistic Office: Poverty is the condition of a person who fulfills their nutritional needs with less than 2100
calories per capita per day
Office of Family Planning: A family is poor if (a) they cannot fulfill their religious obligations, (b) all the
members of the family are not able to eat twice a day, (c) all the members of the family do not have different
clothing for the house, work / school, and travel, (d) the largest part of the house has an earthen floor, (e)
family members are unable to reach health services.
World Bank: Poverty is a condition wherein a reasonable existence cannot be reached on USD 1.00 per day
0,00%
5,00%
10,00%
15,00%
20,00%
25,00%
30,00%
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1-4
implemented by Provincial Government i.e security, the use of inter City/Regency rivers and
pollution control.
Provincials authorities as autonomy cover the authority in governmental subjects i.e. planning and
controlling regional development in macro, and regional pier management.
Real impact of local autonomy is the authorities transfer most of infrastructures to local
government. This cause implication to the readiness of local government in financing, planning,
implementing and monitoring. It was predicted there would be many conflicts between central
government with provincial government, provincial government with provincial government and
provincial with regency. One of the solutions is by making a cooperation model between local
governments, which is a must to develop in the era of local autonomy. One of the strategies done
by the government is develop a Strategic Development Region in the local region which has
strategic elements i.e. natural sources, human resources and infrastructures that complete each
others and can be developed in synergy and optimally.
Governmental policies for elimination of poverty clarify that the objectives of poverty elimination
are (a) speed the lowering of absolute poverty together with protecting peoples family groups who
experience temporary poverty as a result of the negative impact of economic crisis, natural
disaster or social conflict, and (b) lower the total of poor residents from around 18.95% (or about
37.8 million individuals) in 2000 to about 14.01% (or about 26.8 million individuals) by the end of
2004
4
.
1.3. National regulation on water transportation
The operation of rural water transport in Indonesia is included in community navigation which the
operational system regulate in several laws or regulations from central government to give
operational directions in the field.
There is a standardization concerning crossing transportation but have not touched for boats with
small gross tonnage. The condition in the field is, the operational is controlled by the boat operator
in traditional way. The standardization has not covered the safety, comfort and security for the
passengers and operators.
The operation of community navigation transport are regulated in:
a. The Law of the Republic of
Indonesia No. 21, 1992
concerning The Sailing, in
Article 77 point 1 and 2
explain about the role of
people navigation as an
effort with traditional
perspective, has an
important role and its own
characteristic.
b. The Law of the Republic of
Indonesia no. 18, 1997
concerning Local Taxes, in
Article 8: Tax on Water is
based on the cost of
vehicles sale on the water
and vehicles tax object on
the water which covers
water vehicles to catch fish
with engine power more
than 2 PK, vehicles with
gross volume less than 20

4
Interim Strategy Poverty Elimination Policy Plan, 29 July 2002 Preparation, Arrangement and Formulation of
Poverty Elimination Policy Coordination Team, Concept II/TKP3KPK/07/2002, page 54
BOX 1. STRATEGIC POLICY
The developments of river transportation need to be complied with
the pattern of industrial and agricultural/plantation development
around rivers flow area. River transportation infrastructure should
have beneficial economy characteristic compare to other transport
infrastructures, because it has characteristic of low maintenance and
doesnt have axle load limitation, only water depth which limit the
size of operating boats. Therefore the optimization of river
infrastructure will provide an alternative on land transport other than
roads.
Ferry transport at the beginning are the connector between roads
which separated with water, in the future can be developed as point
to point transport in shuttle service, particularly in areas which their
load characteristic would be more efficient to be transported by Roll
on Roll off (Ro-Ro) boat. For the next steps the development of
crossing transport can synergy with sea transport, both for domestic
or international transport.
Source: Deputy of Infrastructure, National Planning and
Development Agency, 2002
1-5
m3 or less than 7 GT, water vehicles for cruising and water vehicles for land water
transportation.
The condition in the field shows some situations are slip from governments watch, for example
there are some taxes with no regulation. Those taxes are agreed by the local river transport
association.
The government suggests eliminating taxes for boats with engine power less than 7 GT. It is
considered as a good suggestion since it will support the development of rural water transport.
Today, the government is arranging a regulation concerning navigation which discuss spare parts
supplies, ships building, ships feasibility, ships measurement, Indonesian ships registration and
Indonesian ships nationality, ships safety and navigation, container, pollution from the ships and
also the ship operational safety management.
The issuance of local autonomy shows that the authority to council the water transportation is in
local hands through some associations like GAPASDAP (River and Cross Transportation Operators
Association) for regency level.
National policy has made some policy strategies:
a. Sailing network development
b. Infrastructure improvement
c. Infrastructure modernization
d. Sailing improvement
There has been a rare financing for the development of rural water transport because the ability to
pay of the community to this mode is too low. This would cause investors are not interested in this
sector.
1.4 Study area illustration
1.4.1 Indonesia general illustration
Indonesia is located between 608 north latitude and 1115 south latitude and between 9445
east longitude and 14105 east longitude. Indonesia is a maritime nation with a sea area of about
7.9 million square km (including the Exclusive Economic Zone) or 81% of its total area, with a
coastline of 80,000 km and total navigable river length of 21,579 km (compared to 300,000 km of
roads).
Indonesia is a nautical country and an archipelago state. And with reason, because almost two
thirds of its territory is nautical and scattered over more or less 17 thousand islands, large and
small. The 7.9 million square km aquatic area of Indonesia gives its people basic sailing know-how
with which to develop the economy.
1-6
Figure 1. 3 Map of Indonesia and the location of case studies
Climatic conditions of Indonesia can be seen in the following table.
Table 1. 2 Climatic conditions of Indonesia
No. Item Information
1. Temperature 23.7
o
C - 36
o
C
2. Humidity 63%-91%
3. Average rainfall per year 4,000 mm 4,550 mm
4. Average wind speed 1 - 11 m/s
West
Kalimantan
South Sumatera
1-7
1.4.2 General illustration of study locations
A. South Sumatera Province
The following figure shows the study areas in South Sumatera Province.
Figure 1. 4 Study location in South Sumatera Province
Figure 1.5 describes the number of poor residents in South Sumatera year to year. It shows that
from 1990 to 1996 the number is decreasing. Unfortunately because of economy crisis in 1997, the
number is coupled in 1999. The proportion of poor residents to the population is varies between 16
10% from 1990 to 1996 but increase to almost 25% in 1999.
Figure 1. 5 The number of poor residents in South Sumatera Province
The Number of Poor Residents in South Sumatera Province
1.721.686
794.870
1.023.911
1.037.315
-
200.0
00
400.0
00
600.0
00
800.0
00
1.000.
000
1.200.
000
1.400.
000
1.600.
000
1.800.
000
2.000.
000
199
0
199
3
199
6
199
9
(Year)
N
u
m
b
e
r
Lalan
River
Ogan
River
1-8
Research location was on Galih Sari Village, which is located along the riverbank of Lalan River and
Talang Pangeran Village at Ogan River. General conditions of study areas are as follow.
Table 1. 3 General condition of study areas in South Sumatera
No Description Galih Sari Vilage, Lalan
River
Talang Pangeran Village,
Ogan River
1 Position 130 - 40 South Latitude and
103 - 105 East Longitude.
10 - 40 South Latitude
and 102 -108 East
Longitude
2 Climate Tropic Wet tropic
3 Average rainfall/year 2,461 mm 1,500 3,200 mm
4 Wet Months 7 months (October April) NA
5 Dry Months 1 month (August) April - September
6 Wind speed NA 2.53 4.56 km/hour
7 Temperature 24
0
C 33,2
0
C 24
0
C 33,2
0
C
8 Humidity NA 73% - 84%.
Sumber: Betung Climatology Station located at a height of 17 m above sea level, South Sumatra in Numbers,
,1999 and Canal Network Development Planning, South Sumatra Province PPTR UNSRI, 2000
For social demography and local economy activities conditions are describes in the following table.
Table 1. 4 Social demography and local economy activities conditions study areas in
South Sumatera
No Description Galih Sari Vilage, Lalan
River
Talang Pangeran Village,
Ogan River
1 Population growth rate 0.4 0.38% NA
2 Population NA 4,448 in 2002
3 Occupation farmer farmer
4 Main trading activities Agriculture product, electronic
and sundries
Agriculture product,
electronic and sundries
In general both villages have characteristics as a rural area, which still rely on water transport as a
mobility infrastructure to public facilities such as school, market, hospital and office (work place).
Figure 1. 6 Photograph of aquatic condition of Galih Sari Village, Lalan River
1-9
Source: Survey result, 2002
Figure 1. 7 Talang Pangeran Village, Ogan River
B. Riau Province
The province of Riau is situated in a flat and aquatic area. In the aquatic zone are found 3,214
large and small islands. 743 of these islands are already named, while the rest are not. The
majority of these small islands scattered in the South China Sea are uninhabited.
Of an area of 329,867.61 square km, 71.33% consists of sea / aquatic area. The sea area that
includes international borders is estimated through the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) as 379,000
square km.
Figure 1.8 describes the number of poor residents in Riau year to year. Like other province, it
shows that from 1990 to 1996 the number is decreasing. Unfortunately because of economy crisis
in 1997, the number is coupled in 1999. The proportion of poor residents to the population is varies
between 13 - 7% from 1990 to 1996 but increase to 14% in 1999.
Figure 1. 8 The number of poor residents in Riau Province
The Number of Poor People in Riau Province
589.700
322.018
410.853
451.616
-
100.0
00
200.0
00
300.0
00
400.0
00
500.0
00
600.0
00
700.0
00
199
0
199
3
199
6
199
9
(Year)
N
u
m
b
e
r
1-10
General conditions of Riau Province can be seen in Table 1.5.
Table 1. 5 Riau Province general condition
No. Description Information
1 Position 115South Latitude - 445 North
Latitude and 100 03-109 19 East
Longitude
2 Climate Wet tropic
3 Temperature 23.7
o
C 27.4
o
C
4 Average rainfall/year 2,200-2,700 mm
5 Humidity 79.5 - 85.0%.
6 Population (1998) 4,222,675
Source : RTRW Riau Province, 2000
The case study in Riau Province was carried out at Okura and Selat Panjang Village (Figur 1.9).
Okura Village is located in Tualang District, in the flow area of Siak River. Meanwhile, Selat Panjang
is the capital of Tebing Tinggi District in Bengkalis Regency.
Source: Survey result, 2002
Figure 1. 9 Location of study areas in Riau Province
In general Okura village has characteristics as a
rural area, which still rely on water transport as a
mobility infrastructure to public facilities such as
school, market, hospital and office (work place). On
the other hand Selat Panjang is more urban, where
motorized boats and ferries are available.
Figure 1. 10 Dugout for passengers and
freight transport in Okura Village
1-11
Figure 1. 11 Passengers activity in Selat Panjang
For social demography and local economy activities conditions are describes in the following table.
Table 1. 6 Social demography and local economy activities conditions study areas in
Riau Province
No Description Okura Village Selat Panjang Village
1 Population 3,089 NA
2 Occupation Farmer and trader Farmer and fisherman
3 Main trading activities Agriculture product Agriculture product and small
industries
Most of the villagers in Okura own dugout or boat as private vehicles for daily activities like going
to the rice field, fishing, etc and not use it as public transport. Meanwhile the existence of water
transport for transport system in Selat Panjang is a necessary especially to transport agriculture
product, river product, such as rubber, sago, fish, wood and sago palm roof which will be market to
other location or central city.
C. West Kalimantan Province
The West Kalimantan area can be called a province of a thousand rivers. This is appropriate
because here are found hundreds of rivers, large and small, which are often sailed. Some of the
larger rivers even to this day are major arteries and highways for transport into the hinterlands,
even though surface road infrastructure already reaches a large part of the sub-district. The
primary large river is the Kapuas, which is also the longest navigable river. Of its total length of
1,086 km, 942 km is navigable.
1-12
Figure 1.13 describes the number of poor residents in West Kalimantan year to year. Like other
province, it shows that from 1990 to 1996 the number is decreasing. Unfortunately because of
economy crisis in 1997, the number is coupled in 1999. The proportion of poor residents to the
population is varies between 27 22% from 1990 to 1996 and increase to 27% again in 1999.
Figure 1. 12 The number of poor residents in West Kalimantan Province
General conditions of West Kalimantan Province can be seen in the following table.
Table 1. 7 West Kalimantan Province general condition
No. Description Information
1 Position 208 North Latitude - 305 South
Latitude and 1080 - 1140 East
Longitude
2 Climate Tropic
3 Temperature 22.9
o
C to 31.05
o
C
4 Average rainfall 3000 mm
5 Population > 4 million
The Number of Poor People in West Kalimantan Province
1.016.200
820.490
874.526
894.039
-
200.00
0
400.00
0
600.00
0
800.00
0
1.000.0
00
1.200.0
00
1990 1993 1996 1999
(Year)
N
u
m
b
e
r
1-13
Figure 1. 13 Location of study areas in West Kaimantan Province
Surveys were conducted on three locations i.e Kapuas Besar Pier (Kapuas River), Sambas Pier and
Sekura Village (Sambas River). Main occupations are farmers and carpenters with low income.
They usually sell the woods to Kuching, Malaysia.
Table 1. 8 Social demography and local economy activity conditions study areas in
West Kalimantan Province
No Description Information
1 Occupation Farmers, Carpenters
2 Main trading activities 9 primary consumption goods (rice, sugar,
flavor), furniture, rubbers, fish, forestry
1-14
Source: Survey result, 2002
Figure 1. 14 Survey location: Kapuas Besar Pier
Source: Survey result, 2002
Figure 1. 15 Survey location in Sambas Regency
1.5 Study review and prior research
Rural water transport studies in Indonesia illustrate the physical infrastructure together with
facilities for water transport in remote areas. Seen from the policy side, application has already
taken place in areas still controlled by the local government. Governmental regulations still
encompass shipping vessels. This concern will provide clarification for the development of rural
water transport which is still of paramount importance to Indonesians who live on isolated islands.
There are important issues in various studies already carried out, among others:
a) efforts at improving the capacity of water transport in order to support nationwide
developmental balance
b) improve the service response for water transportation users
c) strengthen institutional response for developmental planning
d) minimize environmental impact as a consequence of energy use
Survey location: Sambas Pier
Survey location: Sekura Village
1-15
Other reports describe a positive description about the condition of water transportation system in
Indonesia which cover the management and infrastructure of water transportation, also the policy
of water transportation development.
Studies conducted in Palembang, South Sumatera gave the information about he development of
channel network which useful as alternative transport infrastructure. This was possible because the
ground condition of east coast of South Sumatera is not possible for land transport. This study was
trying to view the use of channels, which at first only for irrigation, can be used as alternative
means to support goods and service movements. The water transportation network that is using
these channels is a part of the inland water transport.
The government of Indonesia is trying to conduct a program to develop inland river traffic. The
research is covering the arrangement of river network improvement and fleet to provide traffic that
forecasted in the project in 2020 and to compare it with alternative traffic means, in the study in
South Sumatera was compared with train. The conclusion is, the transport cost by water and train
in study area is the same, but with water transport other benefit is gained (in environmental point
of view).
Government reports on water transport have long neglected or disregarded it. Many negative
comments about the safety and the lack of regulation.
Because the social context of rural water transport has its roots in the informal sector and is
forgotten by the government, owners, operators and users tend to have a weak influence on the
creation of regulations. Yet even so, there are some encouraging signs in some countries, as with
the existence of organizations which work together to make these problems known.
1.6 Research methodology
The objectives of the research are to gain characteristic of rural water transportation particularly in
study areas. Research locations in Indonesia were in 3 provinces which in each province the
research was carried out in areas that represent rural conditions that depend on water transport.
The research needs to be supported with data to strengthen the study area characteristics.
Two kinds of data were gathered during the research by field survey, they are qualitative and
quantitative data. The data were collected by primary and secondary survey. Primary data were
collected straight from the field by interview and observation (in-dept interview), meanwhile
secondary data were collected from related institutions and previous studies. Quantitative research
comprises all the research data on boat characteristics and stream channels, socio-economic data
directly linked to passengers, operators, traffic volume and frequency of passengers and freight,
and supporting river transport (for example boat workshops, docks, spare part vendors, fuel
sellers, etc.), Meanwhile socio-cultural issues, group psychology, societal perceptions, peoples
requirements for transport tools, community hopes and worries, and the safety level of river
transport all fall within the scope of this qualitative research.
Analysis conducted in this research covers:
a) RWT policy in the study areas
b) Current water transport characteristics
c) The development of traditional water transport in study areas
d) Users social economy conditions
e) Rivers technical conditions
f) Shipping safety and security
g) Financing Rural Water Transportation
h) Boat Operational Cost
Research metodhology in details can be seen in the following figure.
1-16
RIVERS IN
STUDY
LOCATION
SITESUITABILITY
- Strategic Planning
- Urban & Rural Policy
- Rural Characteristic
- Added Value
- Potential Resource, etc
CASE STUDY CASE STUDY
River
River
D
A
T
A
C
O
L
E
C
T
I
O
N
DETAIL
SURVEY
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S
Quantitative:
- Owner
- Operator
- Crew
- Users
- Passenger
- Manufacturer
- Workshop
- Importer
- Investor
- Key informants
*
Province Rivers
South Sumatera
Riau
West Kalimantan
Ogan, Lalan
Siak
Kapuas, Sambas
Intensive Observation Location
Talang Pangeran, Galihsari
Okura, Selat Panjang
Kubu Padi,Ambawang, Sekura,
Pasar Sambas, Jawai
Qualitative:
- Social culture
- Social
psychology
- Communitys
opinion
- Communitys
expectation
- Gender issues
Figure 1. 15 Research Methodology
Water Transport Characteristic:
RWT policy in the study areas
Current water transport
characteristics
The development of traditional
water transport in study areas
Users social economy conditions
Rivers technical conditions
Shipping safety and security
Financing Rural Water
Transportation
Boat Operational Cost
1-1
2-1
2. RURAL WATER TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS:
SUMMARY OF CASE STUDIES IN 3 PROVINCES
2. 1 RWT policy in the study areas
Role and demand of water transportation are influenced by the level of need of users. Study areas
in South Sumatera, Riau and West Kalimantan, are located on riverbanks and lack of land
transportation. Peoples accessibility still relies on water transport because it is only available in
those areas.
In compliance with the objectives of local development in the strategic plan and local development
programs, the position of water transportation should be taking into account to support local
economy enhancement.
In South Sumatra, for example, is found an important advance with the passing of Gubernatorial
Decree No. 603 / KPTS / IV / 2001, which regulates routes and tariffs of river transport in South
Sumatra. So far water transport in the strategic plan and local development program only discuss
in general not specifically on the traditional water transport.
For Riau Province, which is most of its area is aquatic, the water transport development plan has
become an important part in the local development strategic plan. The existing water transport
system covers major scale, i.e large ships for inter city or inter island and traditional transport
which serve rural community in isolated areas.
On the other hand, West Kalimantan Province takes a different view of water transport, especially
in rivers where this transportation functions more as a part of internal provincial integration. The
Province of West Kalimantan, with an area of 146,807 square km, has a population of 3.72 million
which is unequally distributed. Habitation is more concentrated in the cities. With such a large
territory, the population density from one village to another varies widely. To connect these
villages through a network of surface roads would be very costly, because the capacity for land
support in West Kalimantan, especially in river areas, is very low. One way to connect one village
to another, and even to activity centers (cities) is with the opening of river transport. As vanguard
transportation, this type of transport requires less government funds for the development and
maintenance of shipping channels. With the building of small piers in villages, these more isolated
areas can be opened up and connected with activity centers. Thus the economic activities of these
villages can begin to grow. From the side of regional security and defense, the role of this water
transport is extremely important because it will enable remote areas to be reached easily.
In general local development strategic plan in those 3 provinces have not touched the development
of water transport particularly in rural and remote areas. Several local development program
related to water transport are as followed.
a. Improve and develop piers
b. Improve and develop harbors
c. Open pioneer transport infrastructures
d. ASDP facilities Development Program
However, the role of rural water transport are very important for communities in isolated areas
because of their geographic conditions, for instance in archipelago areas where there are no other
transport infrastructures. Started with this research, it is expected that more concern on the
development of water transport infrastructures in rural areas will be improved and poverty issues
will be handled from communitys accessibility point of view to fulfill their economy needs.
2. 2 Current water transport characteristics
2.2. 1 Boat use and traffic
Water transport traffic occurs because there is a need of communitys mobility. Various ships and
boats pass along the channel in study areas. The flow of boats, which carry goods and passengers,
occur every day. For each study area they have their own characteristics, which is different from
one to another.
2-2
In South Sumatera particularly in Ogan and Lalan River, the water transport activities are
influenced by market day. This market day is only once a week where people coming from villages
along the rivers for trading. Meanwhile for daily activities such as to the office, school, rice field,
they use dugouts or ketek. The potential of passengers and freight movements in these 2 study
areas are high considering the existence of villages along the Ogan and Laan River still rely on the
role of water ransport. Freight boats load primary goods and agriculture products from those
villages and ship them to other areas.
In Riau Province passengers and freight boats activities occur every day from 6 AM to 4 PM. Freight
boats carry primary goods and deliver it to the community. In Sekura, water transport is the only
available transport, where the services are available anytime. The usage of motorized boats and
dugouts only from 6 AM to 6 PM, meanwhile ferries serve until night.
Ferry traffic in West Kalimantan especially in Sambas, starts from 6 AM to 12 PM. The activities are
influenced by the high-low tide of river level. After 12 PM when low tide occur, boats suffer
difficulties to moor.
Figure 2. 1 Passengers and Freight Activities
2.2. 2 Routes and tariff
River transport routes are local transport routes which conducted to connect one village to another
across the river, or between villages in remote areas with next district or regency.
Table 2. 1 Routes and tariff for river transport in South Sumatera
Origin Destination
Distance
(km)
Type of
boat
Tariff
(Rp)
Tariff
(USD)
Tariff/
km
(USD)
Talang Pangeran 15 Jukung 4,000 0.44 0.030
Tanjung Raja 26 Jukung 6,000 0.66 0.026
Pedamaran 30 Jukung 6,000 0.66 0.022
Muara Kuang 64 Jukung 13,000 1.44 0.023
Galih Sari
Rasuan 119 Jukung 25,000 2.77 0.023
Note: 1 USD = Rp 9,000
Source: Data survey, 2002
Table 2. 2 Routes and tariff for river transport in Riau
Origin Destination
Distance
(km)
Type of
boat
Tariff
(Rp)
Tariff
(USD)
Tariff/
km
(USD)
Pekanbaru 195 Ferry 75,000 8.33 0.043
Batam 50 Ferry 30,000 3.33 0.067
Bengkalis 50 Ferry 30,000 3.33 0.067
Belitung 25 Pompong 10,000 1.11 0.044
Selat
Panjang
Bantar Island 3 Pompong 2,000 0.22 0.073
Note: 1 USD = Rp 9,000
Source: Data survey, 2002
2-3
Table 2. 3 Routes and tariff for river transport in West Kalimantan
Origin Destinatin
Distance
(km)
Type of
boat
Tariff
(Rp)
Tariff
(USD)
Tariff/
km
(USD)
Sei. Ambawang 15 Dugout 3,000 0.33 0.022
Kuala Mandor 18 Dugout 4,000 0.44 0.024
Kubu Padi 10 Speedboat 15,000 1.67 0.170
Pontianak
Durian 30 Dugout 6,000 0.67 0.022
Sabing 18 Dugout 3,000 0.33 0.018
Galing 20 Dugout 3,500 0.39 0.020
Sijang 15 Speedboat 20,000 2.22 0.148
Sekura
Kartiasa 25 Dugout 6,500 0.72 0.029
Note: 1 USD = Rp 9,000
Source: Data survey, 2002
Tariff is a mechanism to determine the cost for water transport operators. For water transport, the
tariff is regulated in several governments regulations because they have dominant public
elements, and in several locations this type of transportation has a monopolistic characteristic.
Water transport tariff usually based on trip distance and travel time, even though the trip distance
and travel time itself were uncertain to determined. Tariff consists of variable and fixed cost. Fixed
cost is a cost that time dependent one, and always occur. Variable cost is depending on the ships
operational.
Transportation Department determines the water transportation tariff, but for dugouts and
speedboats, the tariff based on mutual agreement, although usually used the average convention
tariff. For public transportation which able to reach isolated area such as farm, transmigration area,
regency, and industrial area, and mining were highly related to the existing route pattern. Tariffs
difference is influenced by demand on the route. Routes with similar distance but different in
demand will cause different tariff. This happen because the operators have to cover their
operational cost.
2.2. 3 Ship Types and Ship Engines
The types of boats found in the study area vary widely, and go by many different names, like
jukung, ketek, sampan, boat, bandung, tongkang, joker and speedboat. Sometimes, one type of
boat will go by more than one name. The jukung boat type uses a Japanese Yanmar engine, many
of which are now made under license in Taiwan, of the TGGI or TGGO types, which are generally 2
stroke, 22 horsepower and 2 cylinder. Used, these engines cost about USD 1,120, while a new one
sells for USD 2,240. If well-maintained, these engines can last for 30 years. There is also a 4
stroke, 33 horsepower, 2 cylinder Yanmar engine. Used engines of this type sell for USD 2,240. If
new, USD 8,300. The fuel for these engines is a mix of gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil. On
one trip, a 22 horsepower engine will consume 150 liters, while a 33 horsepower engine will
consume 400 liters.
The reasons given for choosing this engine, besides being fuel efficient, is that it is also easy to
operate and maintain, spare parts are readily available, making it easy to change out worn parts,
and also this engine is know to be reliable in that it very rarely breaks down.
Source : Survey result, 2002
Figure 2. 2 Yanmar Engine
2-4
Bungur or meranti wood is usually used for the boat body. These woods are chosen because they
are resistant to ship worms (damaging to wood), they do not easily break, they are water
resistant, light and buoyant. Boat body construction generally takes 3 months, and these boat
bodies usually last 10 30 years.
a. Ketek
This is a tool for the transportation of small numbers of goods and passengers and usually is
only for crossing between areas across from Ulu and across from Ilir, in South Sumatera,
which are relatively close.
The ketek is powered by a 24 horsepower diesel-burning boat engine. Maximum capacity, 12
people. It measures 4 to 9 m in length, and is 1 to 1.5 m wide.
Docking charges for the ketek are Rp. 500 (5.5 US cent) per day, which is paid each day
directly at the dock which forms their base of operations.
The ketek boat-building business is still carried out traditionally and very simply, managed
hereditarily by a family. One ketek uses about 2 cubic m of meranti wood and can be finished
in 15 days by one carpenter and his assistant.
`
Source: Survey result, 2002
Figure 2. 3 Ketek Boat
Not counting the engine and other equipment, the price of a ketek is about Rp 2.5 million
(USD 277.8), empty, meaning without support facilities like seats and other supplies.
Administrative requirements entail only the drafting of a receipt, while the boat registration
and safety certificate are the responsibility of the boat buyer or owner.
b. Speed Boat
Used to transport passengers whose destination is relatively far, and generally plies an inter
city route.
2-5
Source: Survey Result, 2002
It has a 40 horsepower engine which burns gasoline that is often mixed with oil. Maximum
speed is 40 km/hr, and it measures 1.5 m in width, 4 m in length and can transport up to 12
passengers.
A large portion of the speedboats were found to already have all the administrative
requirements, yet there were also many which were unequipped with sufficient navigation and
safety facilities. From a survey questionnaire of 100 speedboats it was noted that 85% of
them had already paid a yearly tax of Rp 50.000 (USD 5.5), as well as an official or unofficial
tax of Rp 500 (5.5 US cent) to Rp 700 (7.7 US cent) every time they departed from their base
of operations.
c. Jukung and Water Truck/Bus
Water truck/buses or jukung boats in West Kalimantan or Riau are boats made from wood
construction and used as a freight transportation tool, especially to transport agricultural food,
plantation and other products such as rice, coconut, copra, bananas, sugar, oil, vegetables,
flour, etc. These boats measure from 15 to 20 meters long and are 2 to 2.5 meters wide. They
hold 30 to 60 tons of freight and with a 24 hp diesel-burning engine they are capable of
covering long distances and reaching remote transmigration areas.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 5 Single-Level junkung boat
Figure 2. 4 Speed Boat
2-6
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 6 Multi-level junkung boat
Each day these boats are docked, they must pay a technical operations fee of Rp 9,000 (USD
1) to Rp 12,000 (USD 1.33). This is a formal payment to the local government and an informal
payment such as security money which differs from pier to pier and anchorage to anchorage.
Aside from the above payment, a large part of Jukung boats cover inter city routes or routes
from outside of the city towards Palembang and every boat entering city territory is subject to
Rp 40 to 50 (0.45 0.5 US cent) payment which is paid to each Satker at the upstream and
downstream entrances on the Musi River.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 7 Water Bus
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 8 Interior and Sketches of Jukung Boat
2-7
Survey data also shows that 60% of the 100 respondents showed the safety certificate
condition of ownership, were able to provide documentation of boat registration, and always
paid their yearly boat tax. Safety equipment consisted of some very minimal flotation devices
considering the fact that aside from goods, jukung boats also carry not a few passengers, at
times up to 20.
d. Tongkang
Based on its function, the barge, the large iron barge as well as the slightly smaller wood
barge, is a vessel used to transport mining, processing, and forest products such as coal,
rubber, wood, sand, etc. This boat is non-motorized and generally docks in special harbors or
piers/anchorage owned by business and industry, or at sand anchorage, which are generally
privately managed.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 9 Barges
e. Dugout
This is traditional river transportation because it has existed since humans began using water
transportation systems. Presently, this simple, non-motorized wood boat is found in remote
areas and generally is owned by individuals and used as a tool for private transport, fishing,
etc.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 10 Dugout
2-8
f. Bandung/Houseboat
Bandungs are a unique kind of boat found in West Kalimantan. The upper portion of these
boats is used as a living area. Besides functioning as a house for the owner, this type of boat
also often functions as transport for people and even goods.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 11 Bandung/Houseboat
Table 2. 4 Water transport specification in study areas
No. Boat Type
Type of
Contain
Engine
Power (PK)
Dimension Engine Type
1. Motorized Bandung
Passengers +
freight
45 NA NA
2.
Non motorized
Bandung
Passengers +
freight
45 13 X 2.4 NA
3. Jukung
Passengers +
freight
25 20 x 2.5 Yanmar
4. Towing Boat Freight 200 NA Caterpillar
5. Tongkang Freight 300 NA NA
6. Non motorized Freight 40 NA Yanmar
7. Long Boat Passengers 85 NA V
8. Speedboat Passengers 200 4.8 x 1.5 NA
9. Ferry
Passengers +
freight
NA NA Yanmar
Source : Survey Result, 2002
2.2. 4 Transportation ownership and operation
Based on studies on the Ogan and Lalan Rivers, it was found that boats are generally individually
owned. Aside from being the owner of the boat, these individuals are also usually the captain. Only
a few boats had crewmembers to assist in freight transportation.
In Riau, boat ownership are not only person by person. In Selat Panjang, which is a transit area
from rural to urban, boat operations are managed commercially. However, it is often found that a
boat is personal occupant and a person is allowed to have more than one boat.
In West Kalimantan, traditional boats, which are personal property, operate for public transport,
while fast boat owned by private company are commercially operated.
Table 2.5 describes the characteristic of the operation of river traditional transportation.
2-9
Table 2. 5 River traditional transportation operation characteristics
Location Status Total Boats
No. of
trips/day
(average)
Distance
(km/day)
South Sumatera:
1. Galihsari
2. Talang Pangeran
personal/
company
20
25
5
6
50
45
Riau:
1. Okura
2. Selat Panjang
personal/
company
15
35
6
4
30
55
West Kalimantan:
1. Sekura
2. Pontianak
personal/
company 12
30
10
6
35
50
Source : Survey Result, 2002
2.2. 5 Condition of water transport physical infrastructure
It is important to notice pier availability for boats to moor for on/off load both passengers and
goods. Several pier constructions material could be wood, concrete, or pontoon (floating bridge).
Piers conditions in three study areas are shown below.
Table 2. 6 Piers condition in study area
Study Area
Location
Status
Constructi
on
Material
Condition Parking
Area
(m
2
)
Dimension
(m
2
)
South Sumatera:
1. Galihsari
2. Talang Pangeran
Permanent
Permanent
wood
wood
Minor Damage
Minor Damage
NA
NA
50
42
Riau:
1. Okura
2. Selat Panjang
impermanent
Permanent
Wood
concrete
Major Damage
Good
NA 20
44
West Kalimantan:
1. Sekura
2. Pontianak
Permanent
Permanent
Wood
Concrete/w
ood
Minor Damage
Good
NA
100
70
132
NA : Not Available
Source : Survey Result, 2002
Most of the piers in study areas are physically damaged, and reconstruction efforts are necessary
to restore their functions. Okura Villages piers are wooden made, impermanent, and unstable,
hence deemed improper for on/off load passengers (Figure 2.12). Selat Panjangs piers, however,
are in good condition and sufficient for on/off load passengers.
Figure 2. 12 Impermanent pier at Okura Village (a) and permanent pier at Selat
Panjangs
Another facility necessary for water transportation are signs along the river channels. As one of the
most important components, signs are used to guide and instruct both passanger and good boats.
a b
2-10
River signs consist of four types. These four types are: (1) Prohibition Signs, (2) Compulsory Signs,
(3) Warning Signs, and (4) Instruction/Guidance Signs.
Shown below are number of signs installed in study areas.
Table 2. 7 Number of Installed Signs
No. River Number of Sign
1. Ogan & Lalan 203
2. Siak 272
3. Kapuas 256
Source : Transportation Department, South Sumatera, Riau and West Kalimantan Provincial Office
Sign is a facility, which must be exist along the river channel. Field data surveys show that some of
the signs installed before fiscal year 1999/2000 were already lost or all that remained of them was
the signpost. Some signs still existed in good condition, meaning that they were able to provide
maximum information in accordance with the kind of sign installed, while a portion of the signs
were seen as functioning at less than maximum efficiency in that they were obstructed in the front
by shrubbery, resulting in impaired sight distance, or the signpost was leaning, etc.
Shown below are signs installed along the river channels .
Figure 2. 13 Sign installed on river channels
Information:
(a) : Instruction Guidance Signs (Anchoring/mooring at side of these waterways allowed)
(b) : Prohibition Signs (Peeling or cutting a bark of trees prohibited)
(c) : Compulsory Signs (Please sound signal)
2. 3 Water transport fleet availability
The water transport fleet forms an essential aspect in the provision of water transport services.
Some landing services are underused if there is not sufficient demand for use of the pier. Thus if
people wish to travel they will be dependent on the availability of their own water transport.
Information concerning fleet availability will indicate methods of encouraging water transport
development and ensuring its survivability in the face of various challenges, especially from
2-11
competition from land transport and the silting up of rivers. The following table shows the water
transportation development for the study area.
Table 2. 8 Water transportation development in South Sumatera
Type of Boat 1992 1993 1994 1995
Jukung 582 587 676 716
Parallel boat
66 91 93 84
Ketek
450 660 736 763
Speedboat
32 122 106 81
Source : Transportation Department South Sumatera Provincial Office, 1997
Table 2. 9 Water Transportation Development in Riau
Type of Boat 1998 1999 2000 2001
Speedboat 61 111 125 130
Klotok 989 723 792 780
Long Boat NA 23 7 5
Towing boat 63 NA NA NA
Water bus 4 NA NA NA
Water truck 28 NA NA NA
Motor boat NA NA NA NA
Non Motorized boat NA NA NA NA
Iron Tongkang 2 61 70 75
Source : Transportation Department Riau Provincial Office, 2002
Table 2. 10 Water Transportation Development in West Kalimantan
Type of Boat 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Motorized Bandung 1,043 1,362 885 803 676
Non motorized Bandung 320 613 406 394 254
Motorized boat 10,113 10,342 6,850 6,631 3,254
Parallel Tongkang 1,102 1,112 761 701 421
Towing boat 68 68 101 82 215
Motorized Tanker 52 59 126 114 92
Non Motorized Tanker 203 218 199 183 138
Long Boat 2,271 2,830 2,262 1,997 830
Speed Boat 774 786 594 578 486
Source : Transportation Department West Kalimantan Provincial Office, 2002
2-12
From Table 2.8 to Table 2.10 one can see that water transportation fleet development in Riau for
certain boats type were in declining condition. However, the same condition did not occur in South
Sumatra. The notable aspect is a dominant motorization process for water transportation in order
to anticipate the necessities for speed and efficiency, and also to face competition with land
transportation. Bandung one of water transports types in West Kalimantan declined drastically,
and closely followed by others. This declining show mode shift from water transport to land
transport.
2. 4 Economic and social issues
2.4. 1 User characteristics
Most of the passengers use water transportation for commerce and shopping purposes, their
average destination is local market. Several people use it for family purposes, visiting relatives for
instance, where the destination is difficult to reach by land transportation.
Peak hour occurs at 6 to 8 a.m., and between 12 to 3 p.m. Dugouts and non motorized boats are
owned privately, usually by farmer who use it as private mode. Percentage for travel destination
using river transportation in Sekura, West Kalimantan is shown below.
Source : Survey result, 2002
Figure 2. 14 Trip purposes for river transport
Working and trading are the main purposes for people who use water transportation. The traders
not only use motor boat to carry their goods but also as a place to trade itself. River transportation
also used for education purposes, which shown that surrounding people are well concern about
their educational matters.
Figure 2. 15 Trading activities on riverbanks
30%
25%
35%
3%
7%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
Work Trade School Shopping Etc.
Purpose of Trip
P
r
o
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
2-13
Field survey revealed that most
of the travelers are male, with
69&:31% as comparison. The
average age is in productive-
ranged age, which is 25-35
respectively. This data
indicates that elderly, women,
and children are reluctant to
use water transportation,
especially for comfort matters.
Water transportation facilities
such as boat and pier remain
unable to accommodate the
interest of women and
children.
The elderly and women face
extra difficulties in riding boats
with regard to safety and
comfort of clothing worn by
women. The comfort and
safety of the elderly and even women in the utilization of water transport is still quite relevant.
People will still feel safe and comfortable wearing sarongs, skirts or other clothing when they get
on the boat if there is a pier which connects to the boat, making getting on and off easier.
Figure 2. 16 Reasons for using water transport
As seen from the figure above, the main reason for using water transportation is because no other
modes are available. Other reason is water transport is the easiest transport they can get because
they live on the riverbanks.
Figure 2. 17 Water Transportation Usage at Ogan and Lalan River
There is an idiom in South Sumatera called Kalangan, it is a routine
traditional market, once a week. When Kalangan comes, people
from all over the place are coming to shop and also a chance for love
birds to hang out. This happen to young man named Solihin who
lives in Village P.6. He has a girl friend named Surti who lives in
Village P.11. They fell in love when Solihin was in Village P11 to see
the Kalangan. He accidentally helped Surti who was getting down
from Jukung Boat but her skirt hooked to the boat and almost fell
into the river. Physically, those jungkungs are very inconvenient for
passengers, beside the seats are only wood patched to the side of
the boat, the foot step to get out of the boat is also found very
difficult particularly for women.
After that accidental meeting, Solihin always impatient waits for
Monday which is the day of Kalangan in Village P.11, because that is
the only time Solihin could see his sweet heart Surti. Daily gathering
is very difficult because no regular transportation every day, to rely
on mail also difficult because water-mail only comes once a week.
Turns out, from the inconvenience of using Jungkung Boat gives an
unforgettable and beautiful memory for Solihin and Surti.
To See My Sweet Heart in Neighbour Village
49,15%
5,49%
5,82%
2,76%
36,78%
Easy
Cheap
Fast
No congestion
No other choices
6% 16%
8%
15%
55%
Speedboat
J ukung
Ketek
Tongkang
Boat
2-14
Figure 2. 18 Water Transportation Usage at Siak River
Figure 2. 19 Water Transportation Usage at Sekura
Survey result indicated that traditional dugout and small motor boat are the most favorite mode.
Dugouts are cheap and easy to obtain especially for short distance trip.
Farmer, trader, and fisherman are the average occupation in the three study areas. However, their
income levels are well below the UMR (Minimum Regional Payment) in respected location. Below
are peoples economy level in respected study areas.
Table 2. 11 Income level in respected study area
No. Location Income (USD) UMR (USD)
1. South Sumatera:
Galihsari
Talang Pangeran
33.33 55.55
NA
43.55
2. Riau:
Okura
Selat Panjang
33.33 50
44.44 66.67
NA
3. West Kalimantan:
Sekura
Pontianak
38.89 55.56
NA
44.44
Note: 1 USD = Rp 9,000
NA : Not available
95,27%
2,81%
0,17% 1,75%
Motor boat
Dugout
Speed boat
Etc.
17,24%
10,34%
13,79%
31,03%
27,59%
Dugout
Motorized boat
Pompong
Speedboat
Ferry
2-15
Compare to the UMR, the income levels is within minimum standard. However, they still can nnot
fulfil their needs if they still have to provide extra cost for transportation. Every individual spends
about Rp. 3000 for their daily transportation cost. Therefore, in rural resident, people who have
routine activities in short distance (3-5 km) they prefer to own non motorized dugout for their daily
activities.
Figure 2. 20 The living conditions of the community in study area
2.4. 2 Transportation Nuisances of Water Life
River transportation activities of small of boats and even of jukungs generally do not influence the
activities or even the life of riverside communities. Waves created by boat motors are relatively
small and so do not threaten the existing settlement structures. Some ferries are an exception,
because they create waves that actually cause floating houses on the riverbank to be flung inland.
In West Kalimantan, floating house is called Lanting. Their existence at riverbank are potential
obstacle for boat traffic, and also highly vulnerable by boat waves.
Waves created by boat movement severely damaged the rivers cliff. The silting up process also
occur in several river channel by abrasion. Retaining walls were already constructed in several
areas which highly vulnerable by landslide caused by abrasion.
Figure 2. 21 Retaining wall to prevent abrasion
2. 5 Rivers technical conditions
Some of the technical characteristics of researched rivers are:
a. The river channel is very shallow with a hard, rocky riverbed, making digging very difficult to
carry out.
b. There are logs and stumps on the riverside, which endanger interior shipping traffic. The river
channel is blocked by water plants such as water hyacinth.
c. The thickness of bushes on the riverbanks limit sight distance and obstruct installed interior
shipping regulation signs.
2-16
d. Because the Lalan River is near the east coast and not too far from the sea, the influence of the
rising and falling tides is very evident on the water level. This channel is not always navigable
because during low tide the Lalan River channel is not deep enough to support a jukung boat,
and only small speedboats are visible going back and forth.
e. The decline in the size of the water supply discharged from upstream means that not all year
does the river get more water, and that not all year is it navigable.
f. River transportation users safety and comfort factors are still ignored, with a minimum of safety
facilities on the boats that ply the river.
g. The division of boat functions into those that transport passengers and those that transport
goods is yet to be completed, with the result that often freight boats will also be used to carry
passengers, and conversely, passenger boats will also be used to carry freight.
Source: Survey Result, 2002
Figure 2. 22 Canal at low tide
The deep section area of the research location in Galih Sari Village, Karang Agung, can be reached
by use of a speedboat on the river and continuing through canals already constructed by the
Department of Public Works through P3S (the Tidal Waterways Project) of South Sumatra. These
canals function to bring water to land when the tides rise and fall, and also to open up these
isolated areas so that the people who live there can interact with people from other areas.
Some canals and primary channels in the study zone that were used as water transportation
infrastructure were not navigable by river transport because they have become silted up by
sediment and mud, and thus really only function as drainage channels.
The Ogan River measures between 50 100 m wide with an average depth of 1.5 5 m. The
condition of its channel is generally good enough to serve interior shipping transport, because aside
from being wide enough, its average depth is still capable of supporting navigation by jukung
boats. There are a minimum of 8 of these boats that sail this route transporting goods. One
characteristic of the Ogan River is that generally the slope of its riverbed is not too steep.
Yet it must be underlined that the water catchment area is becoming smaller and smaller with the
opening of more land to new settlements, causing ever larger stream flows during rainy season
that flow directly from the high-erosion area upstream. Of course, this also lessens water storage
ability and adds to the already great difference in water levels between rainy season and dry
season.
These conditions are also experienced on the Kapuas River and the Sambas River. River conditions
in West Kalimantan are generally always navigable, except during the dry season, when the upper
courses are too dry and cannot be sailed. Regencies, which experience river conditions like this, are
Sanggau, Sintang, Kapuas Hulu and Putus Sibau.
In the study area, the Kupuas River, the Landak River, the Bantanan River and the Sambas River
are always navigable. Motorized river transport water draft is only 1 2 meters, while the depth of
these rivers averages > 10 meters, which means that river channel maintenance for river transport
is not necessary.
River channel silting is caused by various factors:
2-17
a. Trees are felled upstream, so that in the rainy season earth is swept away and carried by
rainwater into the river. This is why the color of river water is generally brown.
b. The river gradient is low, causing a weak current that results in sedimentation on the
riverbed.
c. Sedimentation happens faster at the mouths of rivers because of the meeting of river water
with sea water.
In West Kalimantan, there are two river mouths which must be maintained/dredged every year, at
the Kapuas River and the Sambas River. Channel maintenance on these two river mouths is carried
out by PT. PELINDO Pontianak because these two river channels are part of the Harbor Work Area,
the Kapuas River with Pontianak Harbor and the Sambas River with Sintete Harbor.
Dredging must be carried out because freighters/passenger ships from other provinces cannot
enter the Harbor. The volume of mud which must be dredged is quite a lot, at 1 million cubic
meters per year.
2. 6 Shipping safety and security
Water transport safety is felt to still be lacking, because some of the passengers rely only on their
ability to swim and thus rely on themselves. Insurance is not yet available for this water
transportation service.
18
In many cases, water transport accident claim lives. Safety equipment like flotation devices are
available on only a small portion of the speedboats on the waterways of South Sumatra, whereas
on jukung boats, nearly a majority are already equipped with flotation devices although the total is
still not enough. Yet survey data on ketek boats or motorized dugouts shows that almost all are
unequipped with flotation devices. Other safety equipment that not all jukungs have are fire
extinguishers, because in any case jukung boats will cover a fairly extensive route and this requires
more fuel than their fuel tanks can hold, which means they must use containers like drums and
jerry cans to store fuel. These are exactly the conditions that can cause dangerous, tragic fires,
such as the one that took place in mid-October 2001 at 1 Ilir, when an intense fire already burning
on a jukung boat caused the explosion of a floating Public Refueling Center unit, and killed all the
passengers on the boat. Another accident is the Halimun boat collision incident on 9 July 2002,
which also killed a large number of people.
Aside from this, carelessness is also a safety factor, as seen with passenger overcrowding.
Speedboats are often, if not always, visible in the middle of the Musi River carrying passengers on
the roof of the boat. The absence of monitoring at departure points is one of the reasons for the
appearance of conditions like this, and also of course because of the lack of clarification of boat
functions, distinguishing passenger boats from freight boats. Another important aspect is that it
seems that people are afraid of becoming the victims of dangerous or violent actions by pirates and
thieves, as is often felt by passengers as they travel.
2. 7 Financing Rural Water Transportation
In order to maintain the sustainability of water transportation, the funding of public facilities, such
as pier and landing locations must be carried out by local government itself, without closing
opportunity for cooperation with private company.
Whereas it is the service provider who provides financing for boat operations, the government tries
to build bridges between the transportation operators desires and those of the transportation
service users through the determination of transportation tariffs. The tariff size will determine the
revenue for the transportation business and at the same time will indicate the fee which must be
paid by the transport service user. An effort will be made for the tariff to still be within the reach of
the buying power of the transportation service user while also guaranteeing a fair revenue for the
transportation business.
In certain conditions where the peoples buying power is not equal to the needs of transportation
implementation, the Government needs to provide a subsidy. In perfect competition conditions, the
transport tariff is the result of a distribution of transportation implementation expenses, including

18
Analysis already carried out through interviews and questionnaire distribution in Talang Pangeran Village,
Ogan River, and Galih Sari Village, Lalan River, July 2002
2-18
the profit, with the total of production delivered. In a subsidized transportation, tariffs are lower as
a result of the above distribution.
Today boat owners providing their own fund to buy the boats. It was found very rare that the
banks would give them loans/credit or investments to develop water transportation. The creditor
wont take boats as a guarantee. Usually for this business, the creditor would take land or other
valuable things as a guarantee.
It is still difficult to get fund support from the government to build or to repair motorized boats,
especially for safety insurance. There are no co-operative or association to handle this funding. The
association of water transport and crossing entrepreneur is only for management training and to
collect fees.
2. 8 Boat Operational Cost Analysis
To preserve the water transport business, financing in public facilities such as piers, can be
conducted by the government itself or partnership with private sectors.
To finance boat operation, which has to be done by the owner, the government tries to facilitate
the need of the operators and the users by fixing the tariff. Tariff rate will determine the operators
income and at the same time show the cost for the users. Tariff should be in the range of
passengers ability to pay but still guarantee feasible income for the operators.
In a certain condition where peoples ability to pay can not meet the need of transportation, then a
subsidy is necessary. In a condition of a well competition, transport tariff is an output from
transport operational cost including profit divided by number of production. In a subsidized
transport, the tariff will be less than the formula above. Basically to determine transport tariff can
be based entirely on operational cost, the value of service for the users and the volume of the
product.
In general cost structure is comprises of 2 groups i.e Fixed Cost and Variable Cost. Fixed Cost is
not affected by production rate, while variable cost is. In transport business, cost factor is not a
direct production function but more determine by production rate, which identical with the service
that in some conditions those services are not needed. Income rate is depending on the actual
production.
In the calculation there are several cost components that can be calculated based on certain unit
that have a standard value, nevertheless there are also cost component that calculated based on
estimation. For the accurate calculation of the cost component, we need a good documentation
system for those costs during the boat operation. The BOC (Boat Operational Cost) for each study
location are summarized below.
Table 2. 12 BOC for Ogan and Lalan River
Item
Boat Type (Engine/Non-Engine) Engine Engine Engine Engine
Type of Contain Freight Freight Passengers Passengers
Length of boat (m) 20 25 15 16
Life of the boat (year) 8 9 10 10
Capacity 3 ton 4 ton 40 45
Purchase Cost (USD) 334 445 167 167
Interest 19%
Distance/day 60 km 50 km 40 km 40 km
Fuel usage /day 20 L 20 L 10 L 12 L
Lubricant usage/day 5 L 5 L 3 L 3 L
Total Operating Cost (US$/km/passenger) 0.050 0.047 0.042 0.056
Source : Analysis Result, 2002
2-19
Table 2. 13 BOC for Okura and Selat Panjang
Item
Boat Type (Engine/Non-Engine) Engine Engine Engine Engine
Type of Contain Passengers Passengers Passengers Passengers
Length of boat (m) 14 16 13 12.5
Life of the boat (year) 7 8 10 10
Capacity 30 40 30 30
Purchase Cost (USD) 111 223 167 111
Interest 19%
Distance/day 40 km 45 km 35 km 40 km
Fuel usage /day 10 L 15 L 10 L 12 L
Lubricant usage/day 3 L 4 L 4 L 3 L
Total Operating Cost
(US$/km/passenger)
0.0300 0.0444 0.0442 0.0339
Source : Analysis Result, 2002
Table 2. 14 BOC for Sekura and Pontianak
Item
Boat Type (Engine/Non-Engine) Engine Engine Engine Engine
Type of Contain Passengers Passengers Passengers Passengers
Length of boat (m) 15 20 15 16
Life of the boat (year) 8 8 10 10
Capacity 45 50 35 35
Purchase Cost (USD) 111 223 167 167
Interest 19%
Distance/day 60 km 50 km 40 km 40 km
Fuel usage /day 20 L 20 L 10 L 12 L
Lubricant usage/day 5 L 5 L 3 L 3 L
Total Operating Cost
(US$/km/passenger)
0.0306 0.0472 0.0444 0.0361
Source : Analysis Result, 2002
3-1
3. STRATEGIC ISSUES OF WATER
TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL
AREA
3.1 Competition and Integration
Water transportation is a very important mode of transport in the areas studied, yet such is the
case that this form of transport is no longer flexible in anticipating the settlement development
patterns of rural areas which oftentimes are not oriented around water. This is made more difficult
by a development paradigm that is terrestrially oriented and not oriented towards those areas next
to rivers or to the sea.
South Sumatra possesses great potential for the development of its water transportation. It lacks
support in the form of government attention to its development. Its proportion of government
funding for 2002 was about 0.4%. Currently the government tends to be more concerned with the
feasibility of land transport tools. Riau Province, in 2002 the transportation sector received 38% of
the total budget, and of that 38%, land transportation received 64%, while water transport was
allocated only 9% (the remainder went to air transport). Considering the fact that Riau is 73%
aquatic, water transport should be more of a development priority. This creates an imbalance, with
the result that water transport is obviously being left far behind compared with land transport,
even though, in reality, it is cheaper to develop water transport because the roadway, that is, the
river, is already in place (lowering road construction costs), and the maintenance costs are cheaper
(periodic river dredging). From this we can reach the conclusion that water transportation
development will be much more inexpensive and profitable compared to land transportation if only
the government would intensify their attention and intentions in this sector. For West Kalimantan
Province, funds allocation for water transportation development is felt to be very minimal. For fiscal
year 2002/2003, funds allocation for the development of all transportation tools and infrastructure
totaled 4% of the budget, while water transportations portion was about 7.2% of total
transportation sector calculations, compared with budget funds of 0.7%. The water transport sector
in West Kalimantan still needs a great deal of attention from the local government, keeping in mind
the unsatisfactory level of its development in the face of the great needs of the rural population.
Rural area water transportation also faces competition from land transportation with the building of
roads parallel to rivers and coasts, as in Palembang, and all along the Kapuas River. Thus river
transportation development encounters difficulties because aside from lower costs, there is also
greater spatial and temporal flexibility. Yet this is why public investment in land transport must
also be seen to include higher infrastructure costs, including, among others, investment for road
construction and maintenance.
With subsidized fuel costs and the like, land transport also enjoys price subsidies which ease its
development, with the result that water transport price levels are not competitive enough.
In Riau Province for instance, with the construction of land roads, there is currently a tendency
among the people to stop using water transport, or for water transport to be a last resort. Various
interviewees responded that the reason that they chose land transport was that aside from being
faster it is also cheaper. As in Okura Village (Bukit Raya Subdistrict) and Tualang (Siak Barat
Subdistrict) in Siak Regency, a boat ticket to Pekanbaru costs Rp. 5,000.00 ( 0.56 USD) while a
bus ticket is only Rp. 3,000.00 (0.34 USD). The higher tariff of this river transport is because the
route is longer, resulting in higher boat operation costs. Besides the bus, other modes of transport
such as the motorcycle taxi also add to the competition presented by land transport. Yet for some
commodities like heavy equipment, they still tend to use water transportation even though they
must wait for the right moment of tidal flow to reach their intended destination.
One example of the elimination of water transportation resulted from the opening of a new
Pontianak Kakap road. Kakap is a fishing harbor area that serves the city of Pontianak. It is
located 30 km to the west of Pontianak. Before the 1980s this river transportation route was
served by 20-person-capacity longboats that plied the Jawi River canal, with a width of about 15
meters. The length of this river was inhabited by settlers, who erected many wooden bridges
crossing the ditch to facilitate their traffic. The existence of these bridges obviously interfered with
3-2
longboat operations. This is why longboats of that time did not have roofs, because of the concern
that they could hit a bridge, especially when the water level of the ditch was high.
After 1980, the new Kakap Pontianak road was opened, located just to the size of the river
transportation channel. Since that time, the river transport has been gradually declining, and finally
the route was closed.
From the above explanation, the primary obstacles facing river transportation in competition with
other modes of transport is a much higher tariff (almost two-fold) and a longer transport time in
comparison with land transport. Thus a future development priority that the government needs to
consider is how river transport tariffs can be lowered, possibly with fuel subsidies (fuel prices for
land and water transport are currently the same). It is hoped that with the lowering of tariffs, the
total users of water transport means will increase.
Under such conditions, there is no better alternative for the development of water transport than to
integrate with land transport. This integration concept is also what is needed for development.
Integration is a tool to ensure that inter-operability, inter-connectivity and inter-modality function
properly. Cooperation among various infrastructure systems and governmental levels will also be
key to rural infrastructure development.
Integration must be designed with adequate attention given to current needs, namely efficiency
together with future needs namely concerns for the environment and limited natural resources,
especially fossil fuels. This is why water transport positioning needs to be considered in the
transportation system configuration of each area and even nationally.
3.2 Water Transportation Infrastructure and the usage and Water Management
Rural area river transport in the study locations formed one of the dominant transportation tools.
The focus for the development of these local economies is still located in the convenience of the
necessary transportation system. Supporting factors for the continuing existence of river
transportation includes the socio-cultural factor, the hereditary technique factor and the regional
development factor. Socio-culturally, the people hereditarily use traditional river transportation
tools as one of their means of transport. Rural people master the techniques of boat construction
and maintenance together with operation. Regional development has always been closely tied to
rivers.
One constraint on the development of river transport is the shift in demand for speed and comfort
in transport vehicles and infrastructure, while rural area transport will be unable to fully meet these
new demands. This will result in greater demand for new road construction.
Another problem faced by rural communities is disturbance by wakes caused by large boats that
traverse their area. These wakes normally can damage their small boats and simple structures.
Aside from that, rural people use boats not only for transport but also as a tool for fishing and to
transport commercial goods. One consequence of an intensely traveled boat route is that it
supports the development of the area it traverses, but another consequence is that it often causes
the destruction of rural communities transportation tools and part of their fishing area. A solution
is needed in the form of river traffic regulation and management, keeping in mind rural community
priorities as an important factor.
Traditional boats constructed using techniques which have not developed for more-or-less the last
25 years, which are often found in rural areas, point out the existence of a protracted stagnation in
development. One solution that can be offered is an increase in the learning process through
informal community education concerning river transportation development tools.
Steiherg/piers constructed by communities along the river channel are in fairly poor condition,
because, from the technical side, these piers were constructed of wood without the benefit of any
technical guidance at the time of construction. Because of this, all these piers are without fenders
to soften the impact of water motors and boats against the pier.
Another weakness of these piers is their lack of a platform to ease passengers getting on and off
the boats. The difference in water levels between high and low tides makes the boarding/alighting
process an especially difficult problem for women and the elderly. Based on data from a survey
3-3
carried out on 540 passengers in Pontianak, the average passenger age is 27.79 years and only 4
people were found of more than 50 years of age. This shows that the river transport system is not
appropriate for women who wear the traditional kebaya blouse and the elderly.
Technically, the natural river properties (channel, depth, tidal flow and river width together with
the riverbank environment covered by vegetation, can, in large part, support the existing river
transportation, and can even be developed still. The use of canals constructed by communities or
by the government, which generally pass through populated areas, is constrained in that they can
only be used during high tide. This means that transportation to settlement areas (primarily
transmigration zones) can only take place temporarily, and is dependent on the tides. One possible
solution is to make the river channels deeper in various locations, making possible their continuous
use as a means of transportation.
The problem of floating (platform) houses along the riverbank is generally not found in rural
areas. Yet it is still often common in urban and semi-urban areas.
From the point of view of public investment, for example regarding public priorities in Tualang
Village, Riau Province, the government has already constructed one semi-permanent pier used for
freight and passenger transit. Yet the residents of that same village, the majority of whom own
small pompong boats, cannot make use of these government-built dock facilities because they
were only intended for use by large boats. This has caused each pompong boat owner to construct
their own small pier to moor their boat. A large part of their pompong boats are used to transport
their agricultural products to market. The volumes are not very large, which results in each
resident transporting their own agricultural output. And a small portion of them is used to ferry
passengers crossing the river to and from facing villages. This is why all along the Siak River in
Tualang Village can be found many private piers that the general public is prohibited to use except
with the owners permission. This of course presents an obstruction to the development of new
businesses because the land available on which to erect a small pier has already been exhausted,
while the pier provided by the government was only intended for large boats. And to own a large
boat certainly also requires much more capital. This is very counterproductive to the growth of new
businesses and of course also obstructs the progress of the affected villages.
3.3 Operations and Safety
If seen from a practical standpoint, in inland, coastal and
even open sea water transport operations, it is as if
safety and regulatory concerns are in inverse proportion
to water transport business profitability. A large part of
the incidents and accidents involving water transport
occur because of overcrowding. Passenger and freight
totals that exceed capacity happen because:
1. Demand for capital return an even a minimum
rental fee level expected by the boat owner,
2. The low level of safety monitoring service provided by
the government
These two issues are an important aspect in determining
whether water transport will become a viable alternative
mode of transportation in the future. The existence of an
uncertain number of passengers having experienced
accidents is an important cause for concern. It must not
be forgotten that the users of water transportation are in
the vulnerable or susceptible category.
Safety issues are very closely linked with business
competition. This kind of highly competitive environment
will create a demand for low quality. Thus, service safety,
which should be a minimum requirement, is sacrificed.
Means to ensure the safety of passengers and even of boat crew must become a cause for serious
attention. Existing conditions in which the boat has no safety equipment such as fire extinguishers
The MS Kenaga, which, among other
things, transported illegal Indonesian
overseas laborers from Malaysia, burned
and sank at about 20:30 Central
Indonesian Time. The ship departed from
Baubau Harbor, Buton Regency,
Southeast Sulawesi, Friday (30/8), at
20:00 Central Indonesian Time. 16
passengers killed..
BOX 3. SUNKEN SHIP
Source: Kompas Daily Newspaper, 1 September
2002, page 1
3-4
are very dangerous. Regulations requiring passenger boats to be equipped with fire extinguishers
must begin to take effect.
3.4 Business Competition, Regulation and Transportation Managements
Regulation and institutional concerns were important issues in three study areas. In Riau, for
example, community activities in river transportation use in Okura and Tualang Villages were not
too competitive. This is because their business activities were conventionally managed, meaning
that they conducted business within standard limits of appropriateness that they institutionalized
with the result that their competitive efforts were not very noticeable. For example, to obtain
passengers or freight, the boat workers would not use methods that were bothersome to people.
Aside from that, transportation and mobility activities in the two study locations were not too busy
outside of market day (Sunday).
Different are the freight and passenger
boats that go from Selat Panjang to
Pekanbaru and return. Apparently each
boat owner uses a variety of strategies
to attract interest and passengers with
goods. As with passenger boats, owners
determine their prices in competition
with other business in addition to
offering more facilities than the others .
Aside from offering better tariffs and
facilities, some boat businesses also
offer land and river transport in one
package.
The primary form of competition in rural
communities comes from the arrival of
better boats from Selat Panjang or
Pekanbaru that offer better facilities (in
the fields of safety and comfort) which
results in consumers tending to use
these despite their higher tariffs. Local
residents find it difficult to renovate
their boats because there is no
workshop or even shop that sells spare
boat parts. The closest is in Selat
Panjang, a distance of more than 300
km.
Another obstacle is the absence of
formal governmental tariffs for traveled
routes, and so if observed closely, water
transport regulations do not yet receive
satisfactory attention from the
government, as with the land
transportation sector. Based on
discoveries in the field, aside from
insufficient sea signage, freight and
even passenger ships are also too
loosely monitored. Thus it is not
surprising to find a ship unequipped with safety equipment like fire extinguishers, or passenger and
freight insurance.
Currently, route permits for a passenger as well as freight boats are obtained from Transport
Department provincial government of Riau. Information from various interviewees indicated that
the bureaucracy involved in obtaining a permit is very complicated and time consuming. But if one
knew an inside person who could help with the arrangement of a permit, with, of course, a
relatively large payment, one could obtain a route permit quickly and easily. For boat captains to
BOX 4. ENTREPRENEUR PROFILE
H. Rusli Abidin or Pak Hajji,
born in Sambas in 1939, is a
successful figure in his home
village. With his SGB (Teachers
School) diploma obtained in
1958, this father of 6 has now
become the king of Sambas
ferry transportation. He owns 7
motor ships that serve the
crossing between Sambas
(Keramat Bay) and Sekura on
the Bantanan River.
All his motorboats are given
names, from Giat-1 to Giat-7.
Before starting his business in the field of crossing
transportation, this hajji was a teacher in Sekura and Tebas
Subdistricts until 1972. He then worked in the education
office until 1989.
From the money saved while working as a teacher and a
government employee, in 1981 he bought a motorboat and
gave it the name Giat-1. This purchase meant that the
people of his village could more easily conduct their
movements on the river, which until that time were only
served by a traditional non-motorized dugout. One of the
dugout operators at that time was Pak Hajji himself. At the
age of 50 (in 1989), Pak Hajji put up his pension, further
committing himself to the business he began in 1981.
Although there is now a ferryboat, which serves the area,
Pak Hajjis business is not affected because his tariff is
cheaper and faster.
Now Pak Hajji is no only a successful businessman; he also
is considered a prominent figure by the community, because
of the work hes done on behalf of the community all this
time. Damaged piers are immediately repaired without
having to wait for the Regency Government. As a father,
Pak Hajji has already proven himself successful in educating
his children. Five of his children have already successfully
completed study at Pontianak Tanjungpura University and
his youngest child is currently finishing study at that same
campus.
3-5
obtain a boat operators license from the Indonesian police (water police division), conditions were
not very different.
Another obstacle also blocks boat businesses that already have a route license. This consists of the
various extraneous levied taxes from people acting in a government capacity at the time a boat
departs, especially in the case of freight boats. This
occurs because these people acting on behalf of the
government are actually operating outside of their
authority without any institutional control. One example is
the taxes levied by people acting on behalf of the Central
Government Transport Authority. Giving various reasons,
such as that the boat is not seaworthy or is loaded over
capacity, they prohibit it to continue onward. Yet when
the boat owner pays them a certain amount of money
(generally ranging around Rp. 100,000.00 (11.12 USD)
for each post, and there are several posts along the
route), they permit the boat to again continue on its way.
Because this has already become customary, it is now an
unwritten rule for ship captains when they are stopped by
government officials. They immediately and automatically hand over a certain amount of money in
order that they be allowed to continue unobstructed, while government officials do nothing more
with regard to boat inspection. Of course this is risky if the boats then do not pass a test of
seaworthiness and can cause accidents while on the water. Another result is that boat crew income
will be drastically lowered because of the necessity of paying these extraneous taxes.
The conditions mentioned above tarnish the image of the government, especially the transport
Department together with other
agencies involved in shipping. This
discourages the interest of
entrepreneurs wanting to get into the
relatively undeveloped shipping
business. Thus it is a priority for the
government to structure the existing
regulations or system, which are felt to
hinder the development of water
transport, together with a tightening of
institutional control in order to cope
with the existence of extraneous taxes
enacted by the government itself. It is
hoped that later water transportation
will develop quickly in healthy
competition with land transportation.
The community business pattern in
Talang and Okura Villages is still
classified as traditional. This means that
their activities with regard to their use
of water transportation, such as boats,
is not very different from 5 years ago
where then they did not yet use
motors. Yet the current use of boats
equipped with motors is not very
different from past conditions. This is
one of the results of their still
traditional business activity pattern,
which sees no need for further
development of their business. Striving to develop their boat business is not too important for them
because there is not much freight or passengers to transport. For the local people, there is a value
inherited from their ancestors that a person can work little but obtain a greater profit. Yet today,
with little work, what one obtains is also little. But they continue in these same conditions, with the
result that the inherited pattern of traditions or culture now obstructs the development of water
transportation.
- - S Sa am mb ba as s R Re eg ge en nc cy y N Nu um mb be er r 9 9, ,
y ye ea ar r 2 20 00 01 1 r re eg ga ar rd di in ng g b bo oa at t
m mo oo or ri in ng g
- - H Ha ar rb bo or r - - m mo oo or r i in ng g f fe ee e f fr ro om m t th he e
D De ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t o of f C Co om mm mu un ni ic ca at ti io on n
- S SB BN NP P ( (S Sh hi ip pp pi in ng g N Na av vi ig ga at ti i o on n
A As ss si is st ta an nc ce e S Sy ys st te em m) ) s se er rv vi ic ce e f fe ee e
BOX 5. ONE STOP SHOP
BOX 6. LEBUNG DESA
In this river auction system there is 1 river route section that
will become the property of the person who buys it at
auction, and who will then be able to fully exploit the
potential of this section of the river (boat passage tariffs and
fishing production). Here, the boats that pass through this
waterway will be required to pay a tax to the person who
buys it at auction, and all the fish taken from this stretch of
river will also belong to them. The buyer will also have the
obligation to provide to the group of Villages that organized
this auction with more-or-less Rp 15,000,000 (1,667 USD)
Rp 20,000,000 (2,223 USD) money that will be used by
these Villages to construct various village facilities (meeting
halls, village chiefs office, elementary school, market, et
cetera).
On the Ogan River, the river channel to be auctioned is the
section of river from Autstanding Village to Talang Pangeran
Village (Selep). Here boats will be subject to a tax paid to
the buyer in the amount of Rp. 1,000 (12 cent) each time
they pass through. While on the Lalan River, the section
starts at Muara Lalan and goes to P.6, but since fish
production on the Lalan River is not too great, this river
auctioning system will not be continuously held every year
because the totals would be too small to generate a profit for
the buyer, who would only be able to count on tariffs paid by
boats passing through. This river Lebung system is in reality
a monopoly with regard to shipping activities and river
resources exploitation for groups or individuals.
3-6
For further development in broadening peoples thinking with regard to business expenses, in order
that their business expand, the government constructed a public pier (for small boats/pompong
boats). It is hoped that with the existence of this new pier, people will be inclined to use it to
increase their business. On the other hand, because their primary commodities for market are
agricultural products, the government must provide the means for them to be able to increase their
rural agricultural production in order that the total of their agricultural products sent to market be
ever greater. Because if their agricultural output stays the same as now, they will have no reason
to develop their business.
There is another specific component of peoples use of water transport that is found on the Lalan
River as well as the Ogan River. This is the River Auction (Lebung Sungai) arranged by various
Village groups all along the river channel. (see Box 5)
Investment for development of boat and even shipyard businesses generally came from an
individuals capital. When interviewed, only 2 boat owners in Sambas admitted that their
capitalization was obtained through bank credit.
Based on interviews with individuals from the West Kalimantan Province Communication Agency,
wooden motorboats cannot be used as collateral for bank credit. This is why the respondents
answered that they used their own personal money as business capital.
Methods that the government can use with regard to rural water transportation are only those
which increase the amount of business capital in order to raise the quality and quantity of water
transport. This then assists in the development of water transport means and infrastructure such
as the repair and construction of piers or harbors.
The issue of transport regulation in relation to route operations must start to be organized in order
to provide an even distribution of routes. The determination of transport boat route destinations is
in accordance with total passenger density or freight capacity transported to destination locations.
Thus can be calculated the total boats which should ply the same route in accordance with the
need in order that the boat-using public be able to best use this transportation without undue
difficulties or having to wait in long lines. If the total of boats required for a certain route is not
appropriate to passenger safety and comfort standards, an effort will be made to increase the total
river boat service with new boats. The small contribution from river transport providers to area
income is due largely to a collection system that only emphasizes the docking fee at each
government-owned pier, while monthly fees received are only identified by the existence of
registered boats. They total only about 2,000 boats, yet visually one discovers the existence of a
far greater number of boats on all the waterways of South Sumatra. Improvement of this system
together with transparency regarding the flow of fees paid will be very helpful to regions in their
efforts to organize area river transportation. A survey of 100 boat crewmembers conducted in
Palembang showed that 60% were still confused regarding the arrangement of permit
documentation and generally only handled this through a middleman. Aside from being a slow
process, which was also expensive, the psychological impact became even greater because after all
this the river transport operator can feel themselves to be merely a cog in the greater river
transport system machinery as a whole.
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