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LIGHTING CALCULATIONS 8-25

Coverage. Area of spot is the principal concern in checking for coverage.


Length and width of spot are also given. These are found useful in prob-
lems involving the lighting of architectural details and also when it is desired
to illuminate a limited area.
After projector location is determined, guidance for collecting the data
essential to a coverage check is given in Fig. 8-4.
The number of projectors required for reasonably uniform coverage is
obtained by dividing the total area to be lighted by the spot area of one
projector.
Floodlighting installations also can be laid out to scale with a protractor,
a method which provides an aiming diagram as well as coverage check, and
also by other methods.
19
AVERAGE AREA
LIGHTED
FIG. 8-4. Spot sizes (average effective coverage) for typical beam spreads and
installation arrangements are given in Table 8-8. D = the distance from the pro-
jector to the plane of the lighted surface or area, measured perpendicular to the sur-
face. Z
= the measurement which determines the average angle of throw and con-
sequently determines the average area covered by each projector. Two conditions
apply:
(1)
If a perpendicular from the plane of the lighted surface to the projector
falls within the total area to be lighted, Z
=
one half the distance from the base of the
perpendicular to the farthest edge of the surface to be lighted. (2) If a perpendicu-
lar from the plane of the lighted surface to the projector falls outside the total area
to be lighted, Z
=
the distance from the base of the perpendicular to the mid-point
of the total area to be lighted.
Illumination. To determine the number of luminaires required to pro-
duce any desired average level of illumination over a known area, or the
necessary beam lumens where the number of projectors is known, use the
following formula:
12
Number of projectors
=
tL
av X
A
k
m X Fb
where
E
av
=
maintained average illumina-
tion level (footcandles)
A
=
area of surface to be lighted
(square feet)
=
maintenance factor (usually
assumed to be 0.70)
=
initial lumens in the beam