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Flood Control Structure: Influences on the Bacita Sugar Cane Plantation at


Downstream of Kainji and Jebba Dams in Nigeria

Salami Adebayo.Wahab* and Adedeji Abdullah Adeola**

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Nigeriia awsalami2006@yahoo.co.uk *,
aadolaeji@yahoo.com , aaadeji@unilorin.edu.ng **

Abstract: The occurrence of flood has great effect on the Bacita sugar plantation as a result of
sudden release of water from both Kainji and Jebba dams when the reservoirs are full and when
the tributaries and rivers carry flows in excess of their capacities which led to the damage of
irrigation and water conveyance structures, sugar cane loss and additional cost of maintenance.
The cost of rehabilitation in 1994, 1998 and 1999 due to the effect of flood was about N1.3 billion
($10.8 million). Due to the huge amount of money being spent as a result of damages from flood,
a structural control structure (Levee) is suggested and designed based on the flood level data
collected at three gauging stations near Bacita. The maximum flood levels were selected and fitted
with various probability distributions. For the purpose of prediction, the design of the control
structure was based on flood level with a return period of 100 years. The predicted flood levels are
81.56 m.a.s.l, 76.34 m.a.s.l and 77.07 m.a.s.l, while the datum levels are given as 79.40 m.a.s.l,
71.51 m.a.s.l and 71.30 m.a.s.l for Oshin, Belle and Yelwa stations respectively. The height of the
levee embankments together with the free board of 1.50 m.a.s.l were obtained approximately as
3.70 ma.s.l, 6.33 m.a.s.l and 7.27 m.a.s.l for Oshin , Belle and Yelwa respectively.

Keywords: Sugar cane plantation, flooding, flood level, flood control structure, cost of rehabilitation

1. INTRODUCTION
Civilization has always developed along rivers whose presence guaranteed access to and from the sea coast,
irrigation for crops, water supply and power generation. The many advantages have always been counter balanced
by danger of flood (Adeniyi, 1973 and Wilson, 1979). Flood may be defined as a discharge which exceeds the
channel capacity of a river and then proceed to inundate the adjacent flood plain. Such high flows are normally
caused either by intense or prolonged rainfall (Framji, 1976).

The flow regime of the River Niger below the J ebba dam is governed by the operations of the Kanji and J ebba
hydroelectric schemes and runoff from the catchments. The annual white floods event which usually sets in J uly
and peaks in September does not maintain the same frequency as almost every four years the flood sets in with
greater velocity, this lead to the dam overflowing its banks. When the authority of PHCN (Power Holding Company
of Nigeria) opens the spillway of the dams to let out torrents of water, this in turn creates flooding and other social
impact to the downstream communities and projects. Lawal and Nagya (1999) stated that the occurrences of flood
at Mokwa, Rabba and its environs in 1997 and 1998 destroyed properties worth over Five hundred million Naira and
submerged several houses, farm land and crops. Human activities on the Kainji J ebba dam led to intense runoff
and havoc at the sugar plantation in the years 1994, 1998 and 1999. This caused destruction of sugar cane plantation
by inundation of sugar cane field, irrigation pumps and submerging of farming areas occupied by the villages. Bolaji
(1999) stated that most of Nigerias food crops are produced in the middle belt of the country particularly around the
lower Niger axis where two third of the countrys dams are located. With the annual flooding of the lower Niger,
most of Nigerias staple foods such as cowpea, rice, maize and vegetable production are threatened.

The floods have multiple effects as the local dwellers do not just loose income on their investment, they hardly
have enough to eat and this affect their livelihood. According to Lawal and Nagya (1999) and Bolaji (1999) the
havoc wreaked by the flooding of the lower Niger in 1998 and 1999 also has its effect on social services to the
people of the area. For example schools in about 32 and 52 villages were submerged in the flood of 1988 and 1999
respectively, while schooling for fleeing villagers remain disrupted and the hospitals were not spared by flood.

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2. METHODOLOGY

2-1 Description of study area

The Nigeria Sugar Company (NISUCO), was established in 1957. The company is located on longitude 9
o
North
and latitude 5
o
east. Bacita town is about 120 Km north of Ilorin, the Kwara State capital, Nigeria. The location of
the study area and the flood plains of river Niger downstream of J ebba dam are presented in Figure 1.







Figure 1 Map of Nigeria showing location of the study
area and flood plain at downstream of J ebba dam




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2-2 Collection of data
Flood level data was collected at the Irrigation and Agronomy Unit of the Agriculture Department of the Nigerian
Sugar Company, Bacita. The flood levels were collected for three gauging stations near the study area; they include
Oshin, Belle and Yelwa. The flood levels (maximum and minimum) are available for a period of thirty four years
(1972 - 2005). The variations of the minimum and maximum flood levels are presented in Figures 2 4. The
maximum flood level data was fitted with the various probability distributions for the prediction of flood of 100 year
return period required for the design of flood control measure. Other report/material was also collected from which
the flood problems faced by the company were studied and identified.

Fig. 3 Vari ati ons of Maximum and Mi nimum fl ood l evel for Bel l e near
Baci ta (1972 - 2005)
70.0
70.5
71.0
71.5
72.0
72.5
73.0
73.5
74.0
74.5
J an Feb Mar Apr May J un J ul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ti me (month)
F
l
o
o
d

l
e
v
e
l

(
m
)
Max. flood level
Min. flood level

Fi g. 4 Vari ati ons of Maxi mu and Mi ni mum fl ood l evel for Yelwa near
Baci ta (1972 -2005)
70.0
71.0
72.0
73.0
74.0
75.0
76.0
J an Feb Mar Apr May J un J ul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ti me (month)
F
l
o
o
d

l
e
v
e
l

(
m
)
Max. flood level
Min. flood level


2-3 Causes of Flood
The flooding experienced at the sugar cane plantation of the company is caused when the reservoirs of both
Kainji and J ebba dams are exceeded by runoff from the catchment areas of the river which cuts across many
countries like Mali, Niger and Nigeria. The only alternative left to protect the dams from collapse is to discharge
more water to the downstream of the dams. Other factors that caused flood at the sugar cane plantation during the
raining season include:

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(a) Excess rainfall leading to extraordinary runoff
(b) Lack of proper drainage system and drains of inadequate capacity
(c) Silting up of natural drains and riverbeds by sediment due to erosion in the catchments
(d) Highly meandering and unstable rivers, changing of course thereby causing flood.

2-4 Effect of Flood on the Sugar Company
This can be enumerated as follows:
* It leads to destruction of sugar cane on the field, which in turn affects productivity
* It leads to extra spending in the reconstruction of the conveying channels that are damaged during the
flooding
* It requires more labour, and more expensive in clearing the conveying channels that are blocked during the
flood.

Salami (2007) reported that in 1994 over 2,260 ha of sugar cane fields were flooded and remained innundated
for over six weeks. The flood damaged irrigation and water conveyance structures, washed away the existing flood
protection embankments, roads and caused displacement of settlements and communities along River Niger. The
1994 flood at the sugar cane plantation has a total cost effect of N368 million due to cane loss, rehabilitation of
irrigation facilities and replanting. In the 1998 the episode was repeated with a total loss N 366 million to the
company. In the 1999 the flood problem re-occurred and led to a total loss of N 394 million. As from 1999 the
occurrences of the flooding become an annual event, with the attendant loss of sugar cane, infrastructure and
equipment. Tables 1 and 2 indicate the losses in respect of flooding of sugar cane fields and cost of replacement of
irrigation structures, while Table 3 shows the cost of rehabilitation of the plantation in respect of materials for field
and preparation, replanting, ploughing, crop husbandry and maintenance for each year under reference.

Table 1 Cost of Sugar cane losses during 1994, 1998 and 1999 flooding
S/N Flood year Total hectares
under cane
Total hectares
flooded
Estimated cane
loss(tones)
Cost of cane
per tone (N)
Total cost (N)
million
1. 1994 5,298 2,260 143,000 1,200 171.60
2. 1998 3,336 2,200 143,000 1,200 171.6
3. 1999 2,925 2,300 146,000 1,200 187.68
Source: Nigeria Sugar Company, Bacita (1N =0.0073 $, 2008)

Table 2 Cost arising from destruction of irrigation infrastructure and accessories
(a) 1994 flood
S/N Structure Quantity Destroyed Unit cost
(N)
Total cost of construction
(N) million
1. Irrigation pumps 10 No. 680,000 6.80
2. Protective dyke Concrete.60,200 m
3
200 12.04
Total 18.84
(b) 1998 flood
1. Irrigation pumps 8 No. 650,000 5.20
2. Protective dyke Concrete 56,000 m
3
200 11.20
Total 16.40
(c) 1999 flood
1. Irrigation pumps 15 No. 600,000 9.00
2. Protective dyke Concrete 60,200 m
3
200 12.04
3. Turn out gate Concrete 25 m
3
8,000 0.20
Total 21.24
Source: Nigeria Sugar Company, Bacita (1 #=0.0073 $, 2008)

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Table 3 Cost of rehabilitation of the destroyed sugar plantation
(a) 1994 flood
S/N Activities Hectares (Ha) Total required
for replanting
Cost per unit (N) Total cost (N)
(million)
A Cane for re-planting 2,200 17,600 No. 1200 21.12
B Reploughing 2,200 2,200 Ha 27000 59.40
C Fertilization 2,200 22,000 bags 2,000 44.00
D Weed control 2,200 30,800 litres 1,700 52.36
E Crop maintenance 2,200 2,200 Ha 520 1.144
Sub-Total 178.024
(b) 1998 flood
S/N Activities Hectares Total required
for replanting
Cost per unit (N) Total cost (N)
(million)
A Cane for re-planting 2,200 17,600 No. 1,200 21.12
B Reploughing 2,200 2,200 Ha 27,000 59.40
C Fertilization 2,200 22,000 bags 2,000 44.00
D Weed control 2,200 30,800 litres 1,700 52.36
E Crop maintenance 2,200 2,200 Ha 520 1.144
Sub-Total 178.024
(c) 1999 flood
S/N Activities Hectares Total required
for replanting
Cost per unit (N) Total cost (N)
(million)
A Cane for re-planting 2,300 18,400 No. 1,200 22.08
B Reploughing 2,300 23,000 Ha 27,000 62.10
C Fertilization 2,300 23,000 bags 2,000 46.00
D Weed control 2,300 32,800 litres 1,700 54.74
E Crop maintenance 2,300 2,300 Ha 497.40 1.144
Sub-Total 186.064
Source: Nigeria Sugar Company, Bacita (1 #=0.0073 $, 2008)

2-5 Flood Control Measures
The control measures which can be used include: Non-structural measures and Structural measures.

Structural measures
* Improvement of storage reservoir to enhance drainage capacity so as to ensure that the flood can safely discharge
without exceeding the permissible level in the river.
* Construction of retarding basin in hilly and sub-hilly areas in order to accommodate more volume of runoff
coming from the catchments areas for certain period of time during the critical storm period to when it has reduced
and stored volume can be emptied at a particular rate.
* Increasing infiltration by natural and artificial recharge as a result of increase in population and human activities
* The diversion of the runoff through another subsidiary channel of the same river or to select diversion channels
* The improvement of the conveying capacity of the channel would also reduce the peak flood of the river and thus
serves as a flood control measures.

Non-structural measures
This represents an administrative measure of flood plain regulation and management.
* This involves flood forecasting and flood warning, based on observation of rainfall and river gauge reading in the
upstream catchments areas. It is possible to forecast the magnitude and time of occurrence of flood at any
downstream point in a river.
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* With modern communication system like the telephone, radio, microwave, radar and artificial satellites, it is then
possible to instantly transmit the data observed in the upstream of the catchments area to centrally located flood
forecasting stations.

Design of structural control measure
The total loss due to the effect of flood on the company is too enormous and there is need to find a lasting
solution to the problem. The structural facility that can be used to control the flood is levee. The design of the levee
is based on the predicted flood level having 100 yrs return period and the procedure involves

Fitting of distribution model
The maximum flood levels were selected for the three gauging stations and ranked according to Weilbull
plotting position. The corresponding return period were determined and plotted against the maximum flood level in
order to fit a probability distribution for the prediction of future occurrence of the flood. The fitted curves for Oshin,
Belle and Yelwa lead to the development of the model equations are presented in equations 1 3.

a) Oshin gauging station
354 . 81 ) ln( 0439 . 0
max

r
T Ho (1)

b) Belle gauging station
556 . 73 ) ln( 605 . 0
max

r
T Hb (2)

c) Yelwa gauging station
585 . 73 ) ln( 756 . 0
max

r
T Hy (3)

where: Ho
max
is the maximum flood level at Oshin gauging station; Hb
max
is the maximum flood level at Belle
gauging station; Hy
max
is the maximum flood level at Yelwa gauging station and Tr is the return period

Levee for Oshin sugar cane plantation
The flood level having 100 years return period was predicted to be 81.56 m with equation (1) and the datum
level is given as 79.40 m from the data collected. This implies that the highest water level at Oshin is the difference
between the predicted height and datum levee i.e. (81.56 79.40 =2.16 m). For safety purpose there is need for an
additional freeboard of 1.50 m (Framji 1977, Falade 1998, and Afini 2002). Thus, the design height of the levee
embankment is approximately 3.70 m. The top width of levee is 3.0 m for embankments higher than 2.0 m and the
slope not steeper than 1.2 (Framji, 1977). The design shows that the structure is stable since the factors of safety are
greater than 2 and the eccentricity is less than 1.83. A typical flood levee section is presented in figure 5.

Levee for Belle sugar cane plantation
The flood level of 100 year return period was predicted to be 76.34 m with equation (2) and the datum level is
given as 71.51 m from the collected data. This implies that the highest water level at Belle is the difference between
the predicted height and datum levee i.e. (76.34 71.51 =4.83 m) and with an additional freeboard of 1.50 m, the
designed height of the levee embankment becomes 6.33 m. The top width of levee is 3.0 m the design shows that the
structure is stable with factor of safety higher than 2 and the eccentricity is less than 1.83.

Levee for Yelwa sugar cane plantation
The flood level having 100 year return period was predicted to be 77.07 m with equation (3) and the datum
level is given as 71.30 m from the data collected. This implies that the highest water level at Oshin is the difference
between the predicted height and datum levee i.e. (77.07 71.30 =5.77 m) and with an additional freeboard of 1.50
m the designed height of the levee embankment becomes 7.27 m. The top width of levee is 3.0 m and the design
shows that the structure is stable with factor of safety higher than 2 and the eccentricity is also less than 1.83.
7

Figure 5 A typical structural element of a levee embankment


3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The study involves collection of flood level data and information concerning the extent of flood hazards at the
NISUCO, Bacita. The causes of the flood were majorly identified as a result of release of excess water from the Kainji and
Jebba dams and the runoff from the adjoining catchments. The effect of flood that occurred in 1994, 1998 and 1999 are
studied and the cost incurred due to the floods were discussed.

A total of 34 years record of maximum and minimum flood stage data were obtained for three gauging stations (near
Bacita). The variations of the collected data are presented in Figures 2 4. From Figure 2, it can be observed that two peaks
flood level occur at Oshin gauging station. The first peak occurs in the month of J une while the second peak occurs in the
month of September. The highest flood level at Oshin is 81.38 m and the datum level is given as 79.40 m. From Figure 3, it
can be observed that at Belle gauging station the peak flood occur in the month of September and the value of the
maximum flood level is 74.14 m, while that of the datum level is given as 71.51 m. Also from Figure 4, the maximum flood
level at Yelwa occurs in the month of September as 74.87 m and the datum level is given as 71.30 m. For the purpose of
curve fitting, the return periods for the maximum flood level at each gauging station were estimated and plotted against the
corresponding maximum flood level. The fitted curves for Oshin, Belle and Yelwa gauging stations lead to the developed
model equations used to predict flood level of 100 years return period which was used in conjunction with the datum level
for the estimation of the height of a levee. The predicted flood levels are 81.56 m, 76.34 m and 77.07 m for Oshin, Belle
and Yelwa respectively. The design of the structural flood control levee was based on the predicted flood level. The heights
of the embankments (H) were determined as 3.70 m, 6.33 m and 7.27 m for Oshin, Belle and Yelwa respectively. Other
information concerning the levee sections is summarized in Table 4.

4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This study has highlighted the causes, effect and control of flood at the Nigeria Sugar Company, Bacita. The identified
causes include sudden release of water from the two hydropower dams located at the upstream of the study area. Many
damages have occurred to the sugar cane plantation of the company as a result of flood in the years 1994, 1998 and 1999
which led to a total rehabilitation cost of N1.3 billion. A structural control measure was suggested and designed. The
structural control measure suggested is a levee and its design was based on the predicted flood level of 100 years return
period. The implementation of the suggested control measure would help in mitigating the flood problem at the study area.
Based on the outcome of the study, the following recommendations are made:
0.5m

W

3 m
3.5m 3.5m 0.5m 0.5m
11m
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* The construction of the levee should be implemented in order to alleviate the effect of flood as related to the total loss and
other hazards at the sugar cane plantation.
* The management of Sugar Company should always liaise with the management at PHCN at Kainji and J ebba to regulate
the release of water especially during the months of August October.
* Flood routing along the Niger River need to be carried out to study flood from Kainji to J ebba and Bacita, a stretch of
about 130 Km along the Niger River channel. This would enable the prediction of flood waves.
* With the established routing model, forecasting of flood waves would be easier and the downstream water users can be
informed adequately so as to avoid damages to the farm lands, houses and sugar cane and other crops.

Table 4 Design summary of levee section
Location Height
of
embank
ment H,
(m)
Slope

Weight
W,(KN)
Top
width T
(m)
Base
width, B
(m)
Hydrostatic force
(KN)
Uplift
force,
U
f

(KN)

Factor of Safety eccentri-
city (e)
Horiz
ontal
(Hf)
Verti
cal
(Vf)
Over
turning
Sliding
Oshin 3.70 1:2 695.17 3.0 11.0 23.74 21.58 118.70 4.2 6.37 0.41
Belle 6.33 1:2 1107.8 3.0 11.0 117.8 48.07 264.38 2.83 4.92 0.31
Yelwa 7.27 1:2 1321.83 3.0 11.0 194.68 61.80 339.92 4.5 6.76 0.31

5. REFERENCES

Adeniyi, E.O. (1973). Downstream impact of the Kainji Dam in Kainji Lake. A Nigerian Man-made Lake. Vol. 2.
Mabogunje, A.L (ed.). NISER, Ibadan Nigeria.
Afini, A.E (2002). Flood Dyke design for flood control at Tada-Shonga Rice Irrigation Project, Kwara State, Report
presented to the Design and Planning Unit, Lower Niger River Basin Development authority, Ilorin. Pp 24 -30
Bolaji, T (1999). Sacked by the Almighty River Niger, Newspaper Publication. The Guardian on Sunday, October 23,
1999. pp 4 -5
Falade, O.K (1998). Design of the retarding basin across Maafa stream, B.Eng Project report, submitted to the Department
of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Framji, K.K (1976). Flood control in the World, Printed in Indian at the Central electric press, Delhi. Pp 4 6
Framji, K.K (1977). Manual of flood control and practice, International Commission for Irrigation and Drainage (ICID).
Printed in India at Central electric Press, Delhi. pp 10
Lawal, A.F and Nagya, M.T (1999). Socio-Economic effects of flood disaster on farmers in Mokwa Local Government
Area, Niger State, Nigeria. A paper presented at the 33
rd
Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria held
at National Cereal Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria. pp 1 10
Salami, A.W (2007). Operational performance of water management models for a hydropower system under reservoir
inflow forecasts. A Ph.D. Thesis report presented to the Post graduate School, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Wilson, E.M (1979). Engineering Hydrology. 4
th
edition, Macmillan Press Limited.

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