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Looking through walls - Coatings on glass for buildings

by Wolfgang Theiss
M. Theiss Hard- and Software for Optial Spetrosopy! "r.-#ernhard-
$lein-Str. %%&! "-'(&)* +ahen! ,er-any
Abstract
Modern buildings are e.uipped with windows ha/ing ther-al insulating
properties like solid walls. +d/aned thin fil- oatings not only effiiently
suppress the e-ission of heat radiation but pro/ide a large /ariety of possible
olors for arhitetural design. Optial spetrosopy fro- the ultra/iolet to the
infrared plays an i-portant role in the de/elop-ent of these produts. The
relation between deposition onditions and optial properties of the produed
-aterials is studied! and the interation of the indi/idual layers with their
neighbours in the stak is in/estigated. The optial design of opti-i0ed
-ultilayers and spetrosopi prodution ontrol is disussed.
Moderne Gebude sind mit Fenstern ausgestattet, die thermisch so gut
isolieren wie massive Wnde. Die dabei eingesetzten Dnnschichtsysteme
unterdrcken eizient die Wrmeabstrahlung des Glases und geben
gleichzeitig dem !rchitekten eine grosse Gestaltungsm"glichkeit bezglich der
Farbe der #erglasung. $%tische &%ektrosko%ie vom ultravioletten bis zum
inraroten &%ektralbereich s%ielt eine gro'e (olle bei der )ntwicklung dieser
*rodukte. Der +usammenhang zwischen den De%ositionsbedingungen und den
erzielten o%tischen )igenschaten der %roduzierten Materialien sowie die
Wechselwirkung der einzelnen &chichten mit ihren ,achbarn im
&chichtsystem werden untersucht. Das o%tische Design der
#ielachschichtsysteme und die s%ektrosko%ische *roduktionskontrolle werden
diskutiert.
Introduction
The way we build houses and large buildings has hanged dra-atially during the last
entury. + o-parison of two -odern offie buildings 1see figs.% and (2 shows that
solid walls! gi/ing shelter fro- wind and rain as well as low and high outside
te-peratures! are -ore and -ore replaed by transparent windows.
This hange in arhiteture is based on two industrial de/elop-ents! the large sale
prodution of al-ost perfetly flat glass and the large area oating tehnology. The
-ass prodution of glass panes is possible using the float proess where a ontinuous
strea- of glass -o/es 1on a bath of li.uid tin2 fro- the hot li.uid state to the solid
state. 3iees of typially 4 - 5 6.(& - are ut at the end of the line. The pane
prodution is followed by a oating step7 The ther-al properties of unoated glass
would lead to a tre-endous heat loss if the te-perature inside an offie building like
the one shown in fig.( is signifiantly higher than outside. On sunny days in the
su--er! on the other hand! buildings e.uipped with unoated glass would strongly
heat up and produe signifiant osts for air-onditioning. Thin fil- syste-s on glass
a/oiding heat losses are alled low-e oatings! whereas so-alled 8solar ontrol
oatings8 a/oid to so-e e9tent
the building8s heating up by
sunlight. The funtion of both
oating types is disussed in the
ne9t setions.
The ost-effeti/e prodution of
large area oatings is a
per-anent struggle for
ho-ogeneity7 The deposition of
layers with thikness /ariations
of less than % n- on a 4 - 5 6.(&
- substrate would be diffiult
enough :%;. <nfortunately! this
proble- is doubled by the fat
that the sputtering de/ies -ust
be operated in a way ausing their harateristis to drift away in ti-e. The setion
about thin fil-s deposited by
large area oaters addresses
the proble-s related to this
deposition tehni.ue. =n
addition! the interation of
ad>aent layers during and
after the deposition is
disussed.
The design of new oating
produts -ust take into
aount the wanted target
properties of the oating! the
a/ailable range of optial
onstants and fil-
thiknesses in the prodution
line! possible ho-ogeneity
proble-s and osts.
The last setion is about the
optial inspetion of the
prodution whih is an
i-portant tool to ontrol the
deposition. =nfor-ation about
thiknesses and optial onstants of the layers produed at present is used to take
appropriate deposition ontrol ations to obtain wanted and stable oating properties.
+ll o-putations shown in this artile ha/e been done with the CO"? software :(;.
Low emission coatings
@eplaing a solid wall by a piee of glass does not only inrease the throughput of
light but also that of heat. The transfer of heat through a wall is usually speified by
the so-alled <-/alue 1o/erall oeffiient of heat trans-ission2 :6;. This .uantity gi/es
the trans-itted power per wall area and te-perature differene between the inside and
the outside of the building. The usual unit is WA1-
(
$2.
+ (6 - thik wall of si-ple brik stone has a <-/alue of (.( WA1-
(
$2 whih -eans
that there is a power strea- of (( W through eah s.uare -eter if the inside-outside
Fig. - ! large modern ./00 years ago1 oice building
Fig. 2 ! large modern oice building in the year 2003
te-perature differene is %&BC. Ca/ities and additional heat insulation 1e.g. by foa-s2
an redue the <-/alue of a wall to &.' WA1-
(
$2 or less.
+n unoated glass pane has a <-/alue of about 4 WA1-
(
$2 whih is %& ti-es higher
than that of a typial wall. Windows with single gla0ing an easily reah te-peratures
below &BC in old winter nights. While this -ay lead to beautiful ie sulptures
growing in the kithen there is a strong de-and to derease the <-/alue and a/oid
energy strea-ing out of the window.
The easiest way to blok the heat ondution through the glass is to introdue an air
gap 1typial thikness7 %& ... (& --2 between two glass panes7 Windows with double
gla0ing ha/e redued <-/alues of about (.) WA1-
(
$2. The re-aining heat transfer
-ehanis-s in double gla0ings are heat on/etion through the air gap and the
trransfer of energy by infrared radiation. The on/etion losses an be redued
replaing the air by 8hea/y8 filling gases 1+r is standard today! $r and Ce would be
better but are -ore e9pensi/e2. Howe/er! the <-/alue is lowered only by about &.% ...
&.( this way.
=n order to
understand the
energy transfer by
infrared radiation
we ha/e to
in/estigate the
properties of float
glass for
wa/elengths abo/e
'&&& n- 1far
infrared2. Here the
trans-ission of a
typial D -- pane
is 0ero! and the
refletane is a few
perent only 1see
fig.62. This -eans
that glass is al-ost o-pletely 8blak8 for -id and far infrared light. + -aterial that
absorbs -ost of the inident radiation is! on the other hand! also a /ery effiient
e-itter of radiation. Hene a
glass pane ats as an al-ost
perfet blakbody radiator.
=n a double gla0ing window
one has two effiient infrared
light soures and absorbers
opposite to eah other. =f
there is a te-perature
differene between the
interior of the building and
the outside! a .uite large net
flow of radiati/e energy fro-
the war- side to the old
ours. Eig. 6 shows the
spetral distributions of
blakbody radiation e-itted
Fig. 4 5ransmittance and relectance o a 3 mm loat glass rom the 6# to
the ar inrared. 7n addition, the s%ectral distribution o blackbody radiation
emitted at 280 and 400 9 is shown or com%arison.
#lakbody radiation and float glass properties
'&&& %&&&& %'&&& (&&&&
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Trans-ittane
@efletane
6&& $
(F& $
Fig. 3 6:value o a double glazing with a silver coating on the
interior %ane to su%%ress inrared emission. 5he window has a
-; mm !rgon illing.
<-/alue /s. +g thikness
& ' %& %' (& (' 6& 6' D&
+g thikness :n-;
%.&
%.(
%.D
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%.*
(.&
(.(
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(.4
(.*
6.&
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eGauu-
Eloat +
D.&&& --
+rgon
%4.&&& --
+g
%(.& n-
Eloat +
D.&&& --
Gauu-
=nside
Outside
at (F& and 6&& $.
=n order to suppress the
radiation e9hange it would
be nie to be able to swith
off the 8war-8 light soure.
This an be ahie/ed by the
deposition of a -etalli layer
on the pane -ounted on the
interior side of the building.
The layer inreases the
refletane! dereases the
absorption and this way
di-inishes the e-ission of
infrared radiation. Sil/er
turned out to be the best
-aterial for this purpose. Eig.
D shows the strong effet of the sil/er thikness on the <-/alue. <-/alues signifiantly
below %.& WA1-
(
$2 annot be ahie/ed with double gla0ings. With triple gla0ings
/alues of &.4 WA1-
(
$2 are possible.
Howe/er! the positi/e i-pro/e-ent of the heat insulation is ao-panied by the
unwanted side effet of se/erely dereasing trans-ittane in the /isible 1Eig. '2.
Eortunately! surrounding the sil/er layer by two dieletri layers 1o9ides in -ost
ases2 of appropriate
thikness and refrati/e
inde9 one an al-ost
o-pletely restore the
trans-ittane of the
unoated glass while the
suppression of the infrared
e-ission re-ains
unhanged. Thin fil-
syste-s like this are
alled low-e 1for 8low
e-ission82 oatings 1see
fig. 42.
The o9ide layers of low-e
oatings an be used to
/ary the olor of the
window. Seleting different types of o9ides and different thiknesses for the
indi/idual layers one an ad>ust the /isual appearane of a building to the arhitet8s
ideas 1see fig. )2.
Solar control coatings
=f a large fration of a building fassade is -ade of glass a lot of sunlight is trans-itted
into the building. Most of it will be absorbed inside and signifiantly heat up the
roo-s on sunny days. This an ause high air-onditioning osts. Whereas the
trans-ission of light in the /isible annot be a/oided 1that8s the purpose of the
windowH2 the large fration of infrared light in the solar radiation arri/ing at a
building 1shown in fig. *2 is unwanted and an be bloked by so-alled 8solar ontrol8
oatings.
Fig. < De%endence o the transmittance o a double glazing
.layer structure as in ig.3 1 on the silver thickness.
D&&
D'&
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4&&
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Wa/elength
:n-;
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%&
%'
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6&
6'
D&
+g thikness
:n-;
&.&
&.(
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&.*
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&.&
&.(
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&.4
&.*
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Trans-ittane
Fig. ; 5ransmittance s%ectra o an uncoated double glazing, a
double glazing with a -0 nm silver layer on the interior %ane, and a
ty%ical low:e coating .also with -0 nm silver1
D&& D'& '&& ''& 4&& 4'& )&& )'&
Wa/elength :n-;
&.&
&.(
&.D
&.4
&.*
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<noated double gla0ing
%& n- sil/er oating
Low-? oating
Eig. * shows a o-parison of the trans-ittane spetra of typial low-e and solar
ontrol oatings. The latter is -uh -ore 8seleti/e8! i.e. there is a sharp derease of
the trans-ission fro- the /isible to the infrared. This ideally step-like feature annot
be obtained with a single sil/er layer. =n -ost ases! two sil/er layers being e-bedded
in and separated by o9ide layers are applied to ahie/e high seleti/ity. Solar ontrol
oatings are deposited on the inner side of the e9terior pane in double gla0ing
windows. Their perfor-ane is e9pressed in two .uantities7 The 8Light trans-ittane8
1a/erage trans-ittane in the /isible! weighted with our eyes8 sensiti/ity2 :'; indiates
how well we an look through the window. The 8Total solar energy trans-ittane8 g
:'; gi/es the o/erall throughput of solar radiation! inluding the diret solar
trans-ittane and seondary energy strea-s by absorption and re-e-ission. + good
solar ontrol oating has a high light trans-ittane and a low g-/alue. + ratio of (
between the two .uantities is onsidered to be al-ost ideal.
Fig. / =olor variation o low:e coatings with the same 6:value o -.2 W>.m?2 91
I I J J I I J J
Fig. @ 5ransmission s%ectra o double glazing windows without coating, with low:e and solar control
coatings. 5he intensity distribution o incident solar radiation .the so:called !M -.< radiation
distribution is taken rom A4B1 is shown as well.
'&& %&&& %'&& (&&& ('&&
Wa/elength :n-;
&.&
&.(
&.D
&.4
&.*
%.&
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<noated double gla0ing
Low-? oating
Solar ontrol oating
+M %.' radiation
Thin films produced by large area coaters
The layer staks disussed abo/e -ust be deposited on large glass panes with a /ery
high degree of ho-ogeneity and at reasonable osts. +t present the prodution she-e
skethed in fig.F is the -ethod of hoie :4;. The unoated panes are -o/ed into a
large e/auated /olu-e. Linear sputtering de/ies 1usually operated with +r gas2
opti-i0ed for ho-ogeneity perpendiular to the -otion of the glass deposit -etals or
1with additional reati/e gas inlets2 o9ides or nitrides. "epending on the speed of the
substrates! the re.uired layer thikness and the a/ailable sputtering rates se/eral
athodes are grouped together to produe one of the oating8s funtional layers.
To -aintain the /auu- and to properly separate the 8o9ide areas8 fro- the 8-etal
areas8 a tre-endous pu-ping e.uip-ent is re.uired. The sputtering de/ies onsu-e a
lot of eletrial power! too.
Hene the goal is to finish
as -any panes as possible
without interruption
typially e/ery -inute a
oated pane lea/es the
oater. =f e/erything works
fine about ('&&& -
(
glass
an be oated on one day.
Howe/er! reati/e
sputtering of o9ides is a
stable proess only in the
so-alled o9idi -ode
where the partial pressure
of o9ygen is /ery high.
<nfortunately! in this -ode
the deposition rates are
/ery low 1see fig. %&2.
?ono-i oating deposition is only possible in the transition area where the
stabili0ation of the sputtering proess is /ery diffiult :);. This proble- and the slow
drift of the sputtering harateristis due to erosion of the targets 1due to the loss of
-aterial whih is used for the deposition2 -ake it neessary to onstantly wath and
regulate the proess.
Fig. 8 *rinci%le o a large area coating line or the %roduction o a solar control coating
<noated glass
Gauu- Sputtering de/ie Coated glass
#otto- O9ide Center O9ide Top O9ide Metal Metal
Large area oating line
3u-ps
Fig. -0 5y%ical relation between the s%uttering rate and the
a%%lied oCygen low. 7n the transition area the de%osition rate or a
given low de%ends on the history o the %rocess .hysteresis
behaviour1.
& ( D 4 * %&
O9ygen flow :a.u.;
&.&
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Metalli -ode
O9idi -ode
Transition area
Eor the proper design of oatings it is /ery i-portant to in/estigate the dependene of
the obtained optial onstants on the deposition onditions! e.g. the applied eletrial
power and o9ygen 1or nitrogen2 pressure. The best way to do this is to produe single
layers of all rele/ant -aterials and analy0e optial spetra 1like refletane and
trans-ittane2 to deter-ine the o-ple9 refrati/e inde9 n K i k of the sputtered
-aterials. With appropriate ad>ustable dispersion -odels 1like the OLL -odel for
a-orphous -aterials :*;2 one an desribe the optial properties of all -aterials used
in glass oatings with a few key para-eters 1see fig.%%2. The relation of these
para-eters to the deposition onditions gi/es an e9ellent basis for oating design and
prodution ontrol. This inreased knowledge >ustifies to use the e9pensi/e
prodution line for se/eral hours to produe single layers under /arious prodution
onditions.
Fig. -- !nalysis o three measured s%ectra .the red s%ectra on the right1 by itting a dis%ersion model
and the thickness o an amor%hous oCide layer on glass. 5he simulated s%ectra are drawn blue. 5he
gra%h o the obtained reractive indeC model .let side1 shows the real %art n in blue and the imaginary
%art k in red.
$nowing single layer properties is not suffiient to desribe spetra of o-ple9
oating produts with high .uality. Layers in a layer stak an ha/e different
properties than single layers on glass. The growth of a thin fil- depends on the type!
te-perature and roughness of the underlying -aterial. =n addition! high rate sputtering
is not a /ery gentle -ethod! and the deposition of a layer -ay influene 1da-age2 the
fil-s underneath. Slow diffusion proesses -ay lead to hanges of the oatings e/en a
long ti-e after finishing the deposition.
The sil/er layers whih are /ery i-portant for the funtion of low-e and solar ontrol
oatings are /ery sensiti/e to their neighbourhood in the layer stak. The high
refletane of thin sil/er fil-s depends ritially on the -obility of the eletrons.
Their free -otion an be disturbed by i-purities and defets in the bulk! but also by
surfae roughness. =n a -etalli fil- of a few nano-eters thikness there are fre.uent
boundary ollisions of the eletrons s-ooth interfaes lead to -irror-like refletions
of the eletron wa/es with no derease of the -obility whereas rough surfaes ause
diffuse eletron sattering with signifiant onse.uenes for the onduti/ity. The
da-ping onstant of the si-ple "rude -odel for the eletrons :F; in sil/er is a good
para-eter to harateri0e the .uality of the layer fig.%( shows the influene of the
@ 1oating side2
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O9ide analysis 1single layer2
+ir
O9ide
%&&.F n-
Eloat glass
D.&&& --
+ir
Thikness :n-;
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#andgap :%A-;
6%D46.D')& (&&&&.&&&& '&&&&.&&&&
Constant
6.%D6F &.&&&& '.&&&&
sil/er .uality on the <-/alue of the final produt 1low-e oating2.
+hie/ing and -aintaining a good sil/er onduti/ity an be /ery i-portant in order
to plae a oating produt on the -arket. =n order to reah this goal! one has to do
e9tra work on both sides of the sil/er layer. <nderneath surfae roughness is redued
by the deposition of thin o9ide layers speiali0ed to build /ery s-ooth interfaes :%&;.
On top of the sil/er an additional bloker layer is produed whih protets the sil/er
fro- subse.uent sputtering da-age and diffusion of o9ygen ato-s. =n so-e ases! the
final oating is -ehanially proteted by an e9tra-hard nitride topping. This way low-
e oatings whih ha/e in priniple the struture o9ide A sil/er Ao9ide an easily be
o-posed of 4 to * thin fil-s.
Window coating design
The design of new oating produts should be based on the knowledge about
ahie/eable n and k /alues! interations of neighboured layers and established
deposition rates. The .uantitati/e analysis and desription of single layer sa-ples and
already e9isting oating produts 1see fig. %62 an be used to build up a database of
optial onstants and partial layer staks. This an be used as a soure of suessful
building bloks for new o-binations.
Sine the operation of large area oating lines is /ery e9pensi/e one an sa/e a lot of
-oney if the predition of the optial properties of new produts is reliable. =deally
the para-eters of the -odel should reflet the para-eters of the prodution de/ies
suh as eletrial power or o9ygen pressure. The design software should enable easy
seletion and /ariation of these para-eters with instant display of the results! i.e.
optial spetra and harateri0ing .uantities suh as olor oordinates! light
trans-ittane and <- or g-/alues. =n addition! it should be easy to inspet how
prodution toleranes 1e.g. pressure flutuations2 show up in the properties of a
oating.
+fter -anual para-eter /ariations and /isual inspetion one would like to swith to
auto-ated design. Target spetra or wanted /alues for olors or other tehnial data
Fig. -2 (elation o the 6:value o a low:e coating to the dam%ing constant o the electrons in the
silver layer .Drude model1. For s%uttered layers, ty%ical values or the dam%ing constants are 400 to
<00 ->cm. DEigh Fuality silverD can have dam%ing constants as low as -30 ->cm.
<-/alue /s. eletron da-ping
(&& 6&& D&& '&& 4&& )&& *&& F&& %&&&
"a-ping onstant :%A-;
%.&&
%.&'
%.%&
%.%'
%.(&
%.('
%.6&
%.6'
%.D&
%.D'
%.'&
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Gauu-
Eloat +
D.&&& --
+rgon
%4.&&& --
#-o9ide
'4.6 n-
+g
%&.% n-
C-o9ide
(6.' n-
Eloat +
D.&&& --
Gauu-
=nside
Outside
are used as opti-i0ation goals. <sually se/eral para-eters related to the thiknesses
and optial onstants of the -odel are ad>usted si-ultaneously. Eor para-eter fine-
tuning one an use opti-i0ation -ethods that -o/e fro- the starting design to the
ne9t loal -ini-u- of the de/iation to the target /alues. This is a -atter of seonds
or -inutes and an be -i9ed with -anual user interations. Methods that searh for
the global de/iation -ini-u- are -uh slower and should not re.uire any user
ations in order to be applied in o/ernight opti-i0ation runs.
Optical production control
+s disussed abo/e! thin fil- deposition in large area oating lines -ust be per-antly
obser/ed and orreted. "ue to the high operational osts! one -ust detet de/iations
fro- the target properties of the oating as early as possible.
Eig. %D shows the priniple of an optial prodution ontrol syste- :4;. +t e/ery
i-portant position along the prodution line appropriate optial -easure-ents are
done. +n 8optial network8 is responsible for the oordination of the data a.uisition
and analysis of the -easured data. =t pro/ides status infor-ation about the present
ondition of the prodution line. The operator an use this infor-ation in order to
deide if prodution para-eters should be hanged and whih ations are re.uired.
=t would be ad/antageous to reord se/eral spetra at eah position7 @efletane fro-
the oating and the glass side as well as trans-ittane! if possible in a large spetral
range. These spetra would pro/ide enough infor-ation to safely deter-ine the
thikness and the optial onstants of eah -ain layer of the oating. =deally one
would like to -easure at se/eral spots 1at least 62 perpendiular to the diretion of the
glass -otion in order to hek the lateral ho-ogeneity of the deposition.
There are so-e li-itations! howe/er. @eording 6 spetra at ' positions along the
prodution line with 6 spots perpendiular to the line would -ean to buy! install and
operate D' spetro-eters. ?/en if low-ost array spetro-eters are used! this is >ust
too e9pensi/e at the -o-ent. +lso the analysis and the handling of the obtained data
Fig. -4 )Cam%le or successul Fuantitative modelling o a solar control coating with -3 layers. 5he
measured .red1 relectance rom the coating side .(1, the transmission .51 and the relectance with
backside illumination are re%roduced very well by the model .simulated s%ectra in blue1. 5here are no
measured data or the rontside relectance at an angle o incidence o /0G.
@
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Material %
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Material )
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Material 4
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Material '
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Material 6
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Material (
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Material %
%&.& n-
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Eloat
).F&& --
Gauu-
Solar ontrol oating7 Muantitati/e -odelling
would re.uire se/eral o-puters and a sophistiated software whih would also be
e9pensi/e.
+ good urrent o-pro-ise is to reord trans-ittane spetra in the oating line!
only in the enter of the panes. The final produt is inspeted outside the /auu-
ha-ber with a -o/ing syste- of ( or 6 spetro-eters 1@! T! e/entually @ fro- the
bakside2 whih reord spetra at se/eral spots perpendiular to the glass -otion 1see
fig. %'2. This way about %&
spetro-eters are re.uired.
+nother restrition onerns the
a/ailable spetral range. Sine
there is not too -uh ti-e for
spetru- reording! array
detetors ha/e to be used. These
are a/ailable at low ost 1<S"
(&&& ... D&&&2 only in the
GisAN=@ range up to %%&& n-
wa/elength 1sine they use
silion detetors2. =nfrared array
detetors whih e9tend the range
up to %)&& n- or ((&& n-
wa/elength are about a fator %&
-ore e9pensi/e 1<S" (&&&&2
and up to now not widely used
for online deposition ontrol.
With inreasing o-ple9ity of
the oatings optial
-easure-ents pro/iding infor-ation about the indi/idual parts of the deposition line
will beo-e -ore and -ore i-portant. Not only beause infor-ation about indi/idual
layers annot be e9trated fro- the final oating properties any -ore if the nu-ber of
layers is too large! but also beause s-all deposition errors in the beginning of the
prodution line an e/entually be o-pensated by proper para-eter hanges at
Fig. -3 &cheme o an o%tical %roduction control system. !ter the de%osition o each unctional layer
o%tical measurements are taken .vertical yellow bars1. 5he D$%tical ins%ection networkD is res%onsible
or %ro%er coordination and analysis o the measurements and delivers an overview o the %resent
de%osition results.
<noated glass
Gauu- Sputtering de/ie Coated glass
#otto- O9ide Center O9ide Top O9ide Metal Metal
Large area oating line
3u-ps
Optial inspetion network
Fig. -< *ossible s%ectrometer %ositions or %roduction
controlH
IetH Measurements only at the center o the de%osition
=enterH Measurements at several iCed %ositions
(ightH Moving s%ectrometer system
subse.uent deposition steps.
Summary and outlook
3rogress in glass oating tehnology has enabled arhitets to replae solid walls by
transparent glass. Co-ple9 large area oating lines produe /ery ho-ogeneous thin
fil- syste-s with tailored optial and ther-al properties at low osts. Optial
spetrosopy is used in researh and prodution ontrol to deter-ine layer thiknesses
and optial onstants.
Currently under de/elop-ent are swithable optial properties 1eletrohro-i or
gasohro-i2 and the integration of large area displays and thin fil- solar ells into
glass fassades.
References
:%; M.,eisler et al.! 3ro. D
th
=CC, 1(&&(2! p. 'F ! C.3. $lages! H. ,lOser! M.+.
+egerter 1eds.2
:(; CO"? a thin fil- analysis and design progra- de/eloped and distributed by
M.Theiss Hard- and Software 1www.-theiss.o-Awd.ht-2
:6; ?uropean standard ?N 4)6
:D; S.@. Wenha- ! M.+. ,reen and M.?. Watt! ! P+pplied 3hoto/oltaisP!
+ppendi9 #! 1#ridge 3rintery! Sydney! %FFD2.
:'; ?uropean standard ?N D%&
:4; M. List et al.! 3ro. '
th
=CC, 1(&&D2! p. D&%! L. 3uet0! +. $ur0! M.+. +egerter
1eds.2
:); S.L. Nadel et al.! 3ro. D
th
=CC, 1(&&(2! p. '6 ! C.3. $lages! H. ,lOser! M.+.
+egerter 1eds.2
:*; S.$.O8Leary! S.@.Lohnson! 3.$.Li-! L.+ppl. 3hys. Gol. 82! No. ) 1%FF)2! p.
666D-66D&
:F; 3."rude! +nn. 3hys. 6 1%F&&2! p. 64F
:%&; O. Treihel et al.! 3ro. D
th
=CC, 1(&&(2! p. 4)'! C.3. $lages! H. ,lOser! M.+.
+egerter 1eds.2