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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology


Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 1
Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power
- -- - Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries
Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems
Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems Aircraft Electrical Systems
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power
Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power Sources of Aircraft Power
- -- -
- -- -
Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries
Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 2
Lesson Outcomes
Upon completion this chapter, you will be able to:
List different type of aircraft power supply.
Inspect installation of aircraft battery.
Carry out removal and installation of aircraft battery.
Describe the operation of aircraft battery circuit.
Carry out operational testing on battery installation.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 3
Sources of Aircraft Power
Aircraft can be powered from several different
sources as listed below:
Battery
Lead Acid
NiCad
Engine Driven Generators
AC Generator
DC Generator
Starter Generator
DC Alternator
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 4
Sources of Aircraft Power
APU Driven Generators
AC
DC
External Power
GPU
Battery Cart
Converter
Emergency Generator
RAT
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 5
Batteries
Review of principle of primary and secondary cells
Primary Cells
Supply small current for limited period
Is one which chemical action eats away and destroy one of the
electrodes
Electrodes must be replaced cells must be discarded once they go flat
Example : Carbon-zinc, Alkaline Manganese-dioxide
Secondary Cells
Voltage is developed between 2 dissimilar plates that immersed in an
electrolytes
Have reversible cycle & can be charged time and time again over long
period.
Example : Lead Acid and NiCad Battery
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 6
Aircraft Battery Introduction
They change electrical energy into chemical energy
and hold the state until it is needed
When needed, the chemical energy changes back in
to electrical energy.
Aircraft batteries do not supply electrical for the
normal operation of electrical system in flight.
Types of Aircraft Battery
Lead Acid
Nickel Cadmium
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 7
Main purpose of batteries in aircraft system
To supply power for engine / APU starting.
To provide emergency power for the Inertial Navigation
System (INS) or Inertial Reference System (IRS).
To provide under emergency conditions limited amounts of
power to operate essential flight instruments and radio
communications equipment.
To provide power for emergency lighting.
Supply power for intermittent electrical loads whose current
demands exceed the output generator
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 8
Lead Acid and Nickel Cadmium Batteries characteristics:
-+ve plates : lead peroxide (PbO2)
-ve plates : made of spongy lead (Pb)
electrolyte: sulphuric acid (H2SO4) diluted with distilled water
(H20) of SG typically 1.25 to 1.27
Indication of a fully discharged cell:
- Voltage : 1.8V (per cell)
- SG : 1.150 (or fall to minimum value as OEM manual)
Lead Acid
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 9
Lead Acid
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 10
Indication of a fully charged cell condition:
While still on charge the voltage of the cell will reach
approximately 2.7V.
The specific gravity rises to its maximum value.
Releasing a constant stream of bubbles, known as gassing.
Note:
Nominal Voltage : 2.0 volts
Fully Charged (Off Charge) : 2.2 volts
Fully Charged (On Charge) : 2.7 volts
Fully Charged SG : 1.275 to 1.7.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 11
Varley type Lead Acid
The advantages are:
Longer service life
More power (less internal resistance)
Less maintenance
Higher power to weight ratio.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 12
Nickel Cadmium
+ve plate : nickel hydroxide Ni(OH)2.
ve plate: cadmium hydroxide Cd(OH)2.
electrolyte: potassium hydroxide (KOH) and distilled water
(H20) of SG 1.24 to 1.3
fully charged condition:
- Voltage : 1.5V (per cell), nominal (1.2V)
- SG : 1.24 to 1.30.
fully discharged
- Voltage : 1.0 V(per cell)
-SG : same (1.24 to 1.30) The electrolyte specific gravity does
not change from charge to discharge.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 13
Nickel Cadmium
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 14
Advantages :
Better power to weight ratio
Lower internal resistance
Longer life
Easy Replaceable Cells
More robust
Higher charging rates
Wider Operating Temperature range
Disadvantages :
Higher Cost
Need Expensive & Complicated
Charging and control circuitry
Prone to Thermal Runaway
Advantages :
Cheaper
Easier to maintain.
Disadvantages :
No cell replacement
Nickel Cadmium Lead Acid (Non sealed type)
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 15
Thermal Runaway (in Ni-Cad batteries) or Vicious Cycling.
Two conditions for the thermal runaways.
High overcharging rates for long periods of time.
Electrolyte has a negative temperature coefficient and its resistance decreases
as temperature increases further increasing charging current. The sequence of
events will continue until the battery is destroyed.
Battery is exposed to any combination of high busbar voltage, excessive ambient
temperature and is unable to dissipate the heat.
Internal resistance goes down and the charging current gets higher, the
resistance goes down further and so on.
It causes a heat generation rate that is greater than heat dissipation rate.
Causes a rising and accelerating battery temperature up to its boiling point
(220-250F).
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 16
Safety Precautions (Lead Acid and Ni-Cads)
Sulphuric acid electrolyte is highly corrosive and could result serious
burns.
Potassium hydroxide is a caustic material and could result serious
burns.
To prevent contamination, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron and
protective goggles when handling the electrolyte.
If electrolyte gets on the skin, the area should be irrigated with large
quantities of water.
If electrolyte gets in the eyes, irrigate with large quantities of water
and seek immediate medical attention.
Use bicarbonate of soda to neutralize sulphuric acid.
Use 3% solution of acetic acid, vinegar, lemon juice or a 10% solution
of boric acid to neutralize a potassium hydroxide.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 17
Safety Precautions (Lead Acid and Ni-Cads) (Contd)
Always add acid to water and in small quantities to keep the heat of
reaction to a safe level.
During overcharging, hydrogen and oxygen gases are generated, any
form of flame or spark must be avoided as an explosion is possible.
A battery room must have completely separate areas for servicing
lead acid and Ni-Cads. All equipment and containers must also be
kept separate.
Electrolytes are highly corrosive. Keep off all aircraft parts and
structure. If any structure becomes contaminated treat immediately.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 18
The following are typical batteries tests
Note: All tests on batteries must be carried out in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions, which are supplied with each battery.
Capacity test
This test is typically carried out at three-month intervals and 80% of its
capacity must be achieved for aircraft use. Also need to look at previous
test look for any trend.
Cell balance test / deep cycle (Ni-Cad only)
If a Ni-Cad battery fails its capacity test
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 19
Insulation test
A breakdown in electrical
insulation between the cells and
the battery case will result in a
'leakage' current.
(1 MOhm for a lead acid and
10MOhm for Ni-Cads with a
steel case).
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 20
Battery Installation
Installed in areas where adequate heat dissipation and
ventilation of gases can take place
Temperature switch is installed to monitor the battery
temperature
Some system use an acid trap
which inserted in the line
between battery and the
fuselage and have
neutralizing agent to prevent
acid being sprayed on to the
aircraft fuselage
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 21
Most modern aircraft use the effect of
pressurization to cause air to flow
across the top of the battery to
atmosphere
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 22
They are normally mounted and clamped to a tray, which is
secured to the aircraft structure in a pressurized area in
electronic equipment compartment
Batteries are usually connected to
the aircraft dc system using a
single screw attached two pole
plug.
(Clockwise rotation of the handwheel to
engage with the pins.
Reverse rotation of the handwheel to
disengages the pins.)
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 23
All power should be OFF when connecting / disconnecting
batteries to / from the system. When fitted, the battery must be
mechanically secured as per the AMM and the system tested
for correct operation.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 24
Typical Batteries Installation
Example of battery
installation
- on the BAE 146.
There are two 24V
23Ah nickel cadmium
batteries.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 25
The batteries consist of 20 individual cells linked in series and
assembled in a steel case with a detachable lid. Each cell vent
incorporates a safety valve set to avoid internal pressure build-
up beyond the limit of the cell. Inside the battery case, the cells
are held tightly packed by insulator linings.
Vertical movement of the cells is further restrained by a molded
silicon rubber linear attached to the inside of the lid assembly.
The lid assembly also includes a non-return valve and an
integral hold down bar and strap which accepts hold down
securing attachments.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 26
The non-return valve, in conjunction with a ventilation pipe
fitted at the side of the battery case, provides passage for
cooling air and the extraction of battery gases.
Battery temperature sensing is provided by two thermostats,
37C, to give a flight deck indication of HI TEMP and the other
set at 71C will inhibit the battery supply to the emergency dc
bus bar.
Electrical connection is by an ELCON quick release connector,
and a six pin connector on the battery front face connects the
temperature sensing elements to their respective circuits.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 27
- on the B757.
shows the
battery /
battery
charger and
APU battery
layout
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 28
The main battery/battery charger provides a dedicated source
of dc power operation of the standby and auto-land systems.
A separate APU battery provides power for the APU starting.
The main and APU batteries are identical 20 cell Ni-Cad
batteries with individual cell venting pressure at 2 to 10psi. A
thermistor thermal sensor provides the battery charger with
battery temperature information. If the battery reaches a set
temperature the battery charger is de-energized.
The chargers are identical and have an input of 115V, 400Hz, 3
phases. They have forced air and convection cooling and can
be used as an alternative 28V dc supply
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 29
There are three methods of charging a battery on an aircraft.
Constant voltage
Constant current
Pulse
Batteries Charging Method
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 30
Constant Voltage Method
The supply to the battery is a constant potential, either from a
voltage regulator controlled 28V dc generator or a battery
charger with a constant voltage output.
The initial charging current will depend on the:
Ampere hour capacity of the battery.
State of charge of the battery
in a fully discharged state, a battery will initially
accept a higher current than when it is partially charged.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 31
Advantages of Constant Voltage charging are:
- It permits relatively rapid charging.
- A constant voltage is available on dc generator systems, so
batteries can be connected direct to the main dc busbar.
- Under normal conditions it minimizes water loss.
- It may cause cell imbalance and possible thermal runaway.
- It requires periodic reconditioning treatment of the battery.
- It tends to overcharge if charging voltage is set too high and
undercharge if set too low.
Disadvantages of Constant Voltage charging are:
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 32
Constant Voltage
Charging Circuit
DC System
Constant Voltage
Charging Circuit AC
System - 1
Constant Voltage
Charging Circuit
AC System - 2
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 33
Typical Aircraft
Charging Circuit
During main supply failure
the battery will supply to
essential services (e.g.
essential instruments, fire
bottles, flight controls etc)
to enable flight to continue
under these emergency
conditions for a minimum
period of 30 minutes.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 34
Constant Current Method
The battery charger maintains a pre-determined and
relatively constant current throughout the charge and
overcharge intervals.
This method is generally slower than the constant
voltage charging method.
Preferred method of charging for Ni-Cad batteries as it is
much more effective in maintaining cell balance and full
capacity.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 35
Advantages of Constant Current charging are:
- No excessive gassing.
- Charging current is easily monitored.
- Keeps cells in a 'balanced' condition, there is less chance
of thermal runaway.
Disadvantages of Constant Current charging are:
- Greater water loss on overcharging
- Longer time generally required charging the battery.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 36
Simplified Battery DC/AC Relationship Layout
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 37
Pulse Method
- Used on the earlier
Boeing 747's
- This pulse cycle is
repeated for a total of
eight pulses the battery
charger then switches to
a constant voltage
output of 28V just trickle
charging the battery at
less than half an amp.
- Trickle charging, or float charging, means charging a battery at a similar rate as it
is self-discharging, thus maintaining a full capacity battery.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 38
Small helicopter or a single engine fixed wing aircraft.
Aircraft Battery System
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 39
Small helicopter or a single engine fixed wing
aircraft.
When the battery switch is placed to on, relay K2 is
energised and battery power is connected to the bus.
On these aircraft the battery may be charged from the
external power supply. When the external power supply is
plugged into the external power receptacle, the small pin
positive supply energizes the external power relay. This
will route the external power to the bus and at the same
time charge the battery.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 40
Battery System Medium Size Aircraft
The battery charger is normally powered by three phase 115V
ac from the ground service busbar (GSB). The charger delivers
28V dc to charge the battery.
In the air, GSB is powered by Gen Bus 1. On ground, it is
powered by Ext AC Bus. If GSB fail, the battery charger is
powered by Main Bus 2.
The Charger is deenergised during APU starting to prevent
overloading the charger.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 41
Battery System
Medium Size Aircraft
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 42
Battery System Large Size Aircraft
On large aircraft, battery powers several bus.
Hot battery bus is always powered as long as the battery is
connected. It powers fire extinguisher bottles, engine fuel shut
off valves, standby power control.
In emergency, battery bus is powered by hot battery bus
through a relay. It is normally powered by TRU. It is normally
feeds the passenger address system, fire and smoke detection
system, flight, cabin and service interphone system
The standby dc bus normally powers, flight controls, standby
attitude indicators, radio systems normally powered by TRU. In
the event of TRU failure, it is supplied by the battery bus.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 43
Battery System Large Size Aircraft
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 44
Maintenance Practices
To be inspected at the periods specified in the approved
Maintenance Schedule, AMM and manuals issued by the battery
manufacturer.
The following paragraphs serve as a guide to the checks typically
required.
The battery tray should be checked for security, signs of
electrolyte spillage and corrosion.
The latches holding the battery should operate smoothly and
firmly secure the battery in position.
The battery should be checked externally for signs of
overheating, damage, leakage the connector pins and the
connector socket should be checked for signs of
contamination, burns, cracks, pitting etc.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 45
The connector may be subjected to a GO-NO-GO gauge test to
ensure there is no slackness between and socket when
connected.
Cable insulation should be checked for signs of damage,
contamination, burning and security.
The ventilation system should be checked to ensure security of
connections and freedom from obstruction. Where acid traps are
fitted, check for overflow and if necessary remove for cleaning.
Non return valves should be checked for correct operation.
The top of all cells should be inspected for signs of electrolyte
leakage and cleaned where necessary. In Ni-Cad batteries the
intercell links should be checked for correct torque loading and
signs of overheating and cells checked for distortion.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 46
Check the temperature sensor for correct fitment and the
connections are serviceable.
Check electrolyte level. An important point to note here is that as
the electrolyte level rises when charging and lowers when
discharging. Distilled water must only be added when the battery
is fully charged, also always allow the battery to stand idle for 2 to
4 hours with vent caps loosened so all the gas may escape
before adjusting the electrolyte level. (Usually the battery has to
be removed from the aircraft when adjusting electrolyte level)
If a cell requires more than a specified amount of distilled water
then the cell must be considered as defective and the battery
replaced.
Check the capacity test is in date.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 47
Check earth connection for security and any signs of corrosion;
also check ammeter shunt and connections for security and
corrosion.
Carry out open circuit voltage and load checks as stated in the
maintenance manual.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 48
Aircraft Battery Testing
Voltage Checks and Load Tests
To assess the serviceability of a battery for flight on an aircraft with constant
voltage charging, i.e. no battery charger, the following is a typical check.
Procedures:
Ensure internal and external power switches are OFF
Check battery volts by selection on voltmeter, ensure battery is 24V or
above.
Select the load as stated in the maintenance manual, e.g. switch on
emergency inverter, landing lights, fuel pumps etc for the time period
designated, typically 20 to 30 seconds. A typical load could be 30A - but
depends on the manual
Monitor the battery voltage whilst on load. There should be no greater
than one volt drop (from the on-load value to the off-load value.
Switch off load after designated time period; ensure the battery voltage
returns to its original off-load value.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 49
A check on an aircraft with a battery charger system.
Procedures:
Trip the main battery charger circuit breaker.
Set the standby power switch to ON.
Select BATT on the dc meter panel.
Check the ammeter indicates a negative current flow and the voltage is
above 23. 5V.
After 1 minute set the battery switch to OFF, and close the main
charger circuit breaker.
The ammeter should indicate a positive current flow and the reading
should drop from an initial high level to 26 amps when the charging
current will drop to zero.
If the battery falls to 27. 5V the charger should be monitored to ensure
a high current pulse of 5 to 10 seconds is put out.
Again, check that a maximum of eight pulses is produced and then the
charger produces a trickle charge, i.e. battery is charged.
Place standby power switch to OFF.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 50
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
Lead Acid Batteries
Stored in a clean, dry, cool, well ventilated area entirely separate from
nickel-cadmium batteries. The area should be free from corrosive
liquids or gases. New batteries may be stored either dry and
uncharged, or filled and charged.
Ni-Cad Batteries
Stored in a clean, dry, well -ventilated area and should be completely
segregated from lead-acid batteries. The area should be free from
corrosive liquids or gases. Recommended to be stored in the condition in
which they are normally received from the manufacturer, i.e. filled with
electrolyte, discharged and with shorting strips fitted across receptacle
pins.
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPIR
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Subject Code AKD 20403 / AAB 30403
Page 51
Wassalam Wassalam Wassalam Wassalam