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The World of Fashion in Vogue, Voguepedia

Yves Saint Laurent
Catherine Deneuve once said of her friend Yves Saint Laurent that he designs for women
who lead double lives.[1] Indeed, the themes of contrast and duality were pervasive in the
late designers legendary body of work: Saint Laurent was the first to bring gritty streetwear
(leather jackets, for instance) into the somber and magisterial couture salon. He appropriated
mens tuxedos and fedoras and put them on women. He glorified proletarian garments (the
pea coat and the peasant blouse) in luxurious fabrics. And he debuted African and Asian
models on what had been predominantly white runways. In constantly playing double Dutch
with his divergent instincts, he created a new fashion template for the ultra-posh woman with
a subversive streak.
But the word paradox also sums up the designer himself, whose conflicted and contrarian
nature made him one of fashions most ambivalent figureseven as he became one of its
most feted. Described alternately as a very strong character who knows exactly what he
wants[2] (by Susan Train, writing in Vogue) and as having been born with a nervous
breakdown[3] (by his longtime partner, Pierre Berg), Yves Saint Laurent built a
groundbreaking fashion empire, only to feel so trapped by its ritualistic demands that he sank
into depression and self-abuse.
Few designers have approached the colossal stature of Saint Laurent. His sprawling, 45-year
career can be seen as a capsule version of the modern fashion industryfrom its beginnings
in couture to the eventual dominance of ready-to-wear to the rise of global conglomerates
through branding and licensing. Saint Laurent not only witnessed these changes, he helped
instigate them, with the assistance of Berg.

Yves was first with everything and has inspired practically everybody,[4] Vogue wrote
upon his retirement in 2002. He took over the house of Christian Dior in 1957, succeeding the
legend himself at the vulnerable age of 21. It was a time when politics and society began
edging toward a more youthful, antiestablishment, and pop sensibilitythe days of Elvis, the
Beats, and James Dean. Saint Laurent sampled these countercultural flavors in his designs for
Dior. In the 1960s and 1970s, he feasted on the aesthetics of political protest movements,
working-class uniforms, the gangster underworld, and the gay demimonde. He provoked both
outrage and adorationand, along the way, spurred fashions transformation from the
preserve of titled ladies to the inalienable right of the masses. As one commentator noted, If
Chanel liberated women, Yves liberated fashion.[5]
Yves Saint Laurent grew up in Oran, Algeria, the son of wealthy and prominent French
parents. A sensitive and artistic schoolboy who loved drawing and the theater, he was
mercilessly taunted by the macho sons of the other French colonists. I didnt have what it
took to be a boy,[6] he later reflected. At eighteen, he moved to Paris to study couture, and
soon found a job assisting Christian Dior.
The meek, bespectacled Saint Laurent started by decorating Diors shop but quickly moved
on to designing accessories and sketching couture ideas. One of his earliest looks, a black
gown with a long white sash, was immortalized in Richard Avedons 1955 photograph
Dovima with Elephants. He was so precocious that within two years, his mentor confided to
Mme Saint Laurent that her son was the one wholl succeed me.[7] Months after his
prediction, Dior died of a heart attack, and Yves was named his successor.
The fashion press received the Dauphin of Dior on the salons balcony as if they were
crowning a new king. But within a few seasons, the grandes dames who frequented the
housewho once even boycotted one of Diors looks because it was named the Jean-Paul
Sartrebecame livid at his successors looser shapes and impertinent styles. The final straw
was Saint Laurents Beat collection, inspired by the art students who hung about the Left
Bank jazz clubs. Alarmed, the business heads of the house arranged for him to be conscripted
into the army, and he soon found himself in the barracks back in Algeria. After nineteen days,
he suffered a breakdown and was transferred to Val-de-Grce, a nightmarish psychiatric
hospital in Paris where he was forcibly injected with sedatives and given electroshock
therapy. The ordeal turned the shy and fragile Saint Laurent into a frightening wraith, and
served as a prelude to his later drug abuse and emotional agony.

Its as though he has a layer of skin missing. Hes very sensitive to whatever is going on and
feels things very, very deeply,[8] Susan Train once said. Saint Laurent acquired that
protective layer of skin in the form of Pierre Berg, his ferociously loyal companion, whom
he had met before his military service. It was Berg who finally extricated him from Val-de-
Grce. When Saint Laurent came home to find that he had been supplanted at Dior by Marc
Bohan, Berg blunted this fresh trauma by springing into action. He tended to Saint Laurents
daily needs with single-minded devotion, while quickly assembling the elementsa salon
space, an investorfor their own couture house.
Yves Saint Laurent opened for business in 1962. Fashion editors packed into the salon to see
what this upstart would unveiland over the next several years would be treated to a dazzling
parade of ingenuity, wit, and transgression. The brightest and freshest he has ever done,[9]
crowed The New York Times of his 1965 Mondrian-inspired shift dresses, which were a feat
of engineering that allowed the fabric to hang as flat as the artists canvases while still
conforming to the curves of the body. It was quite a look,[10] declared the same paper of
his landmark 1967 gangster-inspired le smoking trouser suit. Later, it was a joke[11]after
he presented a sheer black chiffon dress with the models breasts clearly visible beneath. And
a tour de force of bad taste[12] when, in 1971, he showed a collection of forties-inspired
palazzo pantsuits and platform sandals that evoked the days of the Nazi Occupation. These
looks have long since become canonical, accepted as groundbreaking and visionary for their
Sensing that ready-to-wearand not couturewas the future of fashion, Saint Laurent
opened his Rive Gauche prt--porter boutique in 1966. It was a move that tapped into the
1960s spirit of democratization, youth, and rebellion. A telling symbol of Rive Gauches
revolutionary significance was that the future designer Miuccia Prada, then a student from a
Milanese family of luxury-goods makers, would wear his Rive Gauche ensembles to political
protests. Id stand on street corners handing out left-wing leaflets in my YSL outfits. Maybe
it looked a little strange to other people, but I didnt care, I loved the clothes so much,[13]
she would later say.

The emotional seesawing of the fashion cycle, along with Saint Laurents drinking, drugs, and
club-going, were taking their toll by the 1970s. By 1973, when the house switched to a
grueling new schedule of presenting four shows a yeartwo couture and two prt--porter,
instead of just two couture showsthe designer was feeling increasingly shackled in his own
ever-expanding kingdom, which now included not only two clothing lines but numerous
licenses for perfumes, sunglasses, and beach towelsall engineered by the shrewd business
genius of Berg. Saint Laurent confessed to Newsweek, Ive made a rope to hang myself
with. Id love to be able to do fashion when I want to, but Im a prisoner of my own
commercial empire.[14] He described couture to Vogue as quite horriblea system of
meshing cogs, a cycle that one is caught up in which cuts short many relationships one could
have with friends, family . . . lots of things.[15]
The despairing designer again suffered a nervous breakdown in 1976 but, while hospitalized,
conceived of his most stunning and exotic couture collection to date: lush furs and foulards
inspired by the fantastical costumes of Serge Diaghilevs Ballets Russes. It was yet another
sudden and astonishing shift in Saint Laurents careeraway from the streamlined ready-to-
wear that he so boldly championed in the 1960s, and toward a more theatrical, ornate, escapist
aesthetic. The collection also represented a turning point in Saint Laurents private life, as he
became increasingly fearful and reclusive, retreating to the apartment he now kept separate
from Berg, obsessively rereading the works of Proust and amassing a vast collection of
opulent objets dart.
More meltdowns would follow in subsequent years. While Saint Laurent always commanded
respectas an oracle touched with geniushis collections would never quite regain their
luster or originality. By the time he retired, he had become a man all but crippled by his own
fears, an image of leonine decrepitude[16] who had long since passed day-to-day operations
to the hands of others. As The New Yorker noted, The dauphin of couture had become its
King Lear[17]with his own Learjet, and a succession of pampered French bulldogs who
all bore the name Moujik.
Yet the legacy of Saint Laurent endures. Without doubt, more people today recognize the pure
elements of the Saint Laurent style than did in his glory days. When asked toward the end of
his career what his motto was, the aging designer replied, The main thing is to last![18]
Judging by his legions of admirersincluding Marc Jacobs, Miuccia Prada, Donna Karan,
Giorgio Armani, and Christian Lacroixhe has had his wish.less
Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent born in Oran, Algeria, to Charles Mathieu-Saint-
Laurent, a prominent owner of an insurance business and chain of cinemas, and his wife,
Lucienne. Grows up the favorite of his mother, advising her how to dress as well as showing
an early interest in drawing, writing, and theater.
Attends the Lyce dOran. Bullied at school by the other settlers children for being
effeminate. Retreats into books, drawings, theater, later recounting, I began to lead a double
life. On one side was our home, happiness with my family, and the world that I invented with
my drawings. And on the other in school. . . . I was mocked, intimidated, and beaten by my
Submits sketches for a coat, dress, and suit to the International Wool Secretariats
competition in Paris for young designers. Wins third place. Attends the awards ceremony in
Paris with his mother. Meets Michel de Brunhoff, editor in chief of French Vogue, and asks
him for advice on pursuing a career in theater design or couture. De Brunhoff advises him to
pass his baccalaureate first.
Begins studies at the Ecole Chambre Syndicale de la Couture in Paris, but is bored with his
courses. Re-enters the International Wool Secretariats competition and places first, beating
out Karl Lagerfeld.
Presents more sketches to Michel de Brunhoff, who is stunned that the designs bear the
same A-line that Christian Dior has conceived for his current collection. Meets Dior, shows
him his sketches, and is hired on the spot. Begins working as an assistant to Dior. Quickly
starts to design for Diors accessories licenses and contributes ideas for the couture collection.
One of his earliest dresses is featured in Richard Avedons Dovima with Elephants.
Diors fall couture collection includes 35 outfits designed by Saint Laurent. Dior confides
to Saint Laurents mother, Lucienne, that Yves will be the one to succeed him. October: Dior
dies of a heart attack. Marcel Boussac, owner of the company, temporarily considers shutting
the house down. November: The company announces that Yves Saint Laurent will be its new
design head.
January: Presents his first couture collection for Dior, including trapeze dresses without the
padding and linings that had made Diors designs stiff. Journalists respond with tears of joy.
March: Vogue celebrates Saint Laurents ascent, hailing the exciting first collection by this
grave young man, slender, myopic, charming, and the baby (22) [sic] of the knowing team
that carries on the house of Dior.[20] The magazine highlights the trapeze shape in
everything from tulle to tweeds to sequins.[21] Meets Pierre Berg; soon becomes
romantically involved with him. August: Shows his Arc Line collection for Dior, including
looser silhouettes and longer, below-the-knee hemlines. Reaction is mixed, with applause
from younger clients but disapproval from the older ones.
January: Shows a safer collection dubbed the Long Line, with traditionally pretty looks.
Roundly praised by the press. August: Unveils another daring, youth-oriented collection
featuring hobble skirts with hems above the knee, which shocks Diors older clients.
January: After being warned by Diors head to tone down his looks, retreats to more
cautious designs. August: Shows the Beat collection. Conservative couture clients are
outraged. Fearing profits will fall, Marcel Boussac plans for Saint Laurents removal by
refusing to continue blocking his conscription into the French army. September: Saint Laurent
reports for military service and is dispatched to Algeria to fight the colonial independence
movement there. Suffers a mental breakdown and is admitted to Val-de-Grce, a psychiatric
hospital in Paris. Dior announces that Saint Laurent will be replaced by Marc Bohan.
November: Berg secures Saint Laurents release.

Wins a suit against Dior for breach of contract. Sets up temporary headquarters at 66 rue La
Botie. November: Saint Laurent and Berg sign a deal with American businessman J. Mack
Robinson securing a $700,000 investment over three years, in exchange for 80 percent equity.
Several of Diors staffers decamp to Yves Saint Laurent, prompting Dior to issue a writ upon
the new house.
Moves headquarters into Htel Forain, in the Sixteenth Arrondissement. Saint Laurents
family flees Oran for Paris as Algeria approaches independence. January: Stages his first
couture show under his own name, at Htel Forain, with conservative designs evoking his
looks at Dior. Press reaction is mixed. July: Presents his second couture collection, with more
adventurous items that hint at street chic, such as suits with tunics. The press praises it. Diana
Vreeland becomes editor in chief of Vogue, reshaping it into a younger, more spirited
publication for the 1960s. She becomes a key champion of Saint Laurent.
Berg strikes a deal with Richard Salomon, of beauty company Charles of the Ritz (which
merges the following year with Lanvin), to create perfumes for Yves Saint Laurent.
Andr Courrges unveils his Space Age collection and is hailed as the new couture star.
Saint Laurent puts out two relatively conservative collections, which provoke negative
Berg announces that Richard Salomon of LanvinCharles of the Ritz is buying J. Mack
Robinsons 80 percent stake in the company. Saint Laurent debuts several wool shifts with
bright color blocks and lines evocative of Piet Mondrians work. Receives a standing ovation.
Creates costumes for Catherine Deneuve for Belle de Jour, inspired by military uniforms
he sees in an Army & Navy store in New York City. January: Presents couture Army-Navy
pea coats and bell-bottoms, which are hailed as the best of the couture offerings. July: Shows
ensembles inspired by artists Niki de Saint Phalle and Andy Warhol, including tailored
trouser suits and Pop Art wool dresses with red lips and colored hearts. September: Opens the
Rive Gauche prt--porter boutique at 21 rue de Tournon. A media frenzy ensues; $24,000
worth of clothes are sold before the day ends.
Meets model Betty Catroux, who becomes a close friend, muse, and alter ego. January:
Makes the trouser suit from his previous collection the centerpiece of his couture show,
calling it le smokingafter the French for smoking jacket or tuxedo. The models are
made to resemble gangsters, in shirts, ties, and fedoras. The collection is received with
glowing praise. July: Presents a tribute to Coco Chanel, with little black dresses and
camellias. Chanel herself will soon call Saint Laurent her heir apparent. He buys a house in
Marrakech with Berg and begins spending time there among society friends J. Paul Getty,
Jr., and Talitha Getty, as well as rockers Mick Jagger and Marianne Faithfull.
January: Saint Laurents LSD use in Marrakech inspires a sudden shift in his work. Shows
a couture collection mingling different maverick styles, including safari jackets, a jumpsuit,
and a sheer black silk-chiffon dress with breasts clearly visible beneath. July: The autumn
ready-to-wear collection, featuring duffel coats and fringed cowboy boots, pays homage to the
French students who rioted in Paris in May against the police. The press criticizes both
collections. September: Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche opens its second boutique, at 855
Madison Avenue in New York, to a mob of paparazzi and customers. The store sells $25,000
worth of clothes on its opening day. In Paris, the designer meets Paloma Picasso and Loulou
de la Falaise, both of whom become friends and muses. Saint Laurent and his clique are the
talk of gossip columns wherever they go.
Saint Laurent and Berg buy and begin decorating a new apartment at 55 rue de Babylone.
Saint Laurents restlessness with fashion grows. Opens a Rive Gauche boutique in London.
Shows a couture collection in July mixing maxi-dresses and miniskirts. Richard Salomon sells
Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz to Squibb Beech-Nut, whose primary interest is Ritzs cosmetics
properties; YSLs fashion business is transferred along with its perfumes.
Starts designing and producing menswear modeled on his own wardrobe, which includes
velvet and pony-skin jackets, safari suits, printed silk shirts, caftans, and chain belts.
January: Shows a 1940s-inspired collection. For the French, these silhouettes evoke the
Occupation as well as the gay camp aesthetic of Warhols drag queens and the gay liberation
movement. The press is outraged. Saint Laurent openly dismisses the critics as narrow-
minded and reactionary, petty people paralysed by taboos[22] and denigrates couture as a
museum that is bogged down in a boring tradition of so-called good taste and
refinement.[23] Younger fans who did not live through the war take to the looks. May:
Bianca Prez Mora de Macias marries Mick Jagger in a Saint Laurent white 1940s suit. July:
Saint Laurent presents a subdued couture show, with many of the press banned in the wake of
their reaction to the 1940s collection. October: Mounts a triumphant first Rive Gauche prt--
porter show in Paris. Poses nude for a YSL mens cologne ad shot by Jeanloup Sieff,
becoming the first designer to use his own image to promote his products (and causing a mini
scandal). Begins going regularly to Club Sept, drinking more heavily, and using cocaine.
Hires Loulou de la Falaise. Along with Berg, strikes a deal with Squibb Beech-Nut that
allows them to own the Yves Saint Laurent fashion enterprise outright, in exchange for giving
Squibb exclusive ownership of the perfumes, with small royalties to Berg and Saint Laurent.
Begins a new yearly cycle of four shows: two for couture (January and July) and two for
ready-to-wear (April and October). Begins working regularly with models of varied ethnic
backgrounds, including Marie Helvin, Iman, Tina Chow, and Mounia.
Strikes an agreement with clothing manufacturer Maurice Bidermann to make Rive Gauche
menswear in America. Berg begins to aggressively expand Yves Saint Laurent licenses, for
everything from sunglasses to beach towels and pens. Uncomfortable with being recognized
everywhere he goes, Saint Laurent begins to shy away from public outings.
Moves headquarters to 8 Avenue Marceau, a grander space near the other Parisian couture
houses. Featured, along with muses Loulou de la Falaise and Marina Schiano, in a February
Vogue piece titled European FashionThe Movers.
Collapses and is admitted to the American Hospital of Paris. July: Presents the houses
most expensive couture collection to date, inspired by the theatrical costumes of Serge
Diaghilevs Ballets Russes and by Vermeers painting Woman with a Pearl Necklace. The
collection is a complete departure; the press is ebullient. Vogues editor in chief, Grace
Mirabella, says, I dont think any of us will see a presentation like that again. Its been a long
time since we had that sense of excitement about clothes. In fact, Im not sure Ive ever seen
it.[24] Vogue writes that with his small-waisted, big-skirted rich peasants in lam and furs
and passementeried wools he has knocked the town on its ear. . . . The world wont change,
but it will look a little different.[25] The collection is a windfall for both couture and Rive
Gauche; the Russian look sweeps fashion. October: He presents a ready-to-wear collection
inspired by the opera Carmen, with bullfighter shirts, cummerbunds, and cigarette pants. In
frail health, he can barely stand to receive the applause. December: Vogue features a
meditation by art critic Pierre Schneider on Saint Laurents Ballets Russes: What Saint
Laurent has done, with his latest collection, is to remind us that fashion, in its radical form of
haute couture, is costume.[26]
Saint Laurent and Berg still present themselves as a couple socially, but in private begin to
lead separate lives, on different floors of rue de Babylone; Yves also takes an apartment on
Avenue de Breteuil, where he can see other lovers. January: Presents a couture collection to
tepid reviews; appears physically weak. March: Amid rumors of his failing health, a report
appears of Saint Laurents death. Presents his ready-to-wear show, assuring journalists that he
is in fine health. Soon he will be sent back to the American Hospital for treatment of alcohol
and cocaine addiction. July: Presents a couture collection inspired by eighteenth-century
China. Fall: Unveils a new perfume in Europe called Opium, with an advertising campaign,
shot by Helmut Newton, featuring model Jerry Hall reclining on gold lam in purple harem
pants beneath the line, Opium, for those who are addicted to Yves Saint Laurent.[27] There
are protests. Saint Laurent is accused of making drug addiction look chicbut sales are
Becomes increasingly introverted, avoiding public appearances and retreating from friends;
rereads Proust obsessively, draws, and writes poetry. Tells Vogue, I often feel incapable of
communicating with people, even with those that I love and admire profoundly, because I
dont have the time and because I am in a frenzy.[28] Loulou de la Falaise becomes the
public face of Yves Saint Laurent, attending events in Yvess place, and soon begins
overseeing the Rive Gauche collections with Anne-Marie Muoz and other assistants. Yves
Saint Laurent makeup debuts. Critics begin to bemoan the lower standards of Rive Gauche, as
Saint Laurent indulges more in couture. September: Opium launched in America with a
decadent $300,000 party aboard the Peking, docked in the East River of New York City.
October: In discussing his return to a focus on couture in the past two years, tells Vogues
Barbara Rose, There must be someone at the head of the lineas master to transmit the
messages of the past.[29]
Rive Gauches autumn collection is greeted with scathing reviews.
Presents a January couture collection inspired by the costumes of Picasso, Matisse,
Rouault, and de Chirico for Diaghilevs Ballets Russes in the 1920s. Vogue spotlights the
designers evolution and enduring impact in Saint Laurent All the Way. Writer G. Y.
Dryansky notes, No kingdom has ever asked such painful rites of a ruler.[30] In private, at
home, Saint Laurents tastes grow more sumptuous and expensive. Buys a property, Villa
Oasis, in Marrakech, filling it with rich decor and books covered in snakeskin.
Looks increasingly elderly and feeble in public, having gained weight due to a treatment
regimen of cortisone.
In January, the Saint Laurent company celebrates 20 years in business with a party at the
Paris Lido. The designer begins to fall back on redoing his same classic styles each season
smoking jackets, safari suits, and peasant shirts.
Introduces new fragrance, Paris, which joins Opium as one of the top ten most popular
fragrances. In December, the Metropolitan Museum of Art presents a retrospective, titled
Yves Saint Laurent, 25 Years of Design, organized by Berg and Diana Vreeland.
December Vogue features an interview, Saint Laurent: The Genius of Style, and also
spotlights his Normandy retreat in Yves Saint Laurents Chteau Gabriel: A Passion for
Is made a Chevalier de la Lgion dHonneur.
December Vogue showcases Saint Laurents Villa Majorelle in Marrakech.
In July, the Yves Saint Laurent company is successfully floated on the Paris stock market.
January: A more robust-looking Saint Laurent (who has recently stopped drinking) presents
a widely hailed couture collection that reprises many of his groundbreaking looks. The same
night, an electrical fire breaks out in his bedroom, provoking a relapse of anxiety and
depression. Flies to his Villa Oasis in Marrakech, slips back into alcohol abuse, and refuses to
return to Paris to work on the Rive Gauche collection to be presented in March. March: Is
flown back to Paris and admitted to the American Hospital for treatment and detoxification.
Rive Gauche is presented without him. Upon his release, he looks ill and frail again, and is
suffering from twitches and spasms.

In February, Saint Laurent celebrates 30 years in business with a gala at the Opra de
Sluggish sales due to recession, along with the increasing costs of running a luxury
business, lead Berg to sell the Yves Saint Laurent company to Elf Sanofi. The deal gives
Sanofi control of the beauty division, while Berg and Saint Laurent will retain managerial
control of the fashion business till 2001.
A new generation of designers, including Helmut Lang, Vivienne Westwood, Anna Sui,
John Galliano, Marc Jacobs, and Miuccia Prada, begins to pay tribute to Saint Laurent by
imitating or evoking his designs in their collections. Meanwhile, Edmund White writes in the
Sunday Times Magazine of Saint Laurent's personal health, He was certainly lucid and had
no trouble recalling names and dates, but he seemed heavily tranquillised or perhaps just
depressed; enormous silences crept into our conversation.[31]
Presents his final couture collection in January at the Centre Georges Pompidou. I have
grappled with anguish and I have been through sheer hell, he says in a statement. I have
known those fair-weather friends we call tranquilizers and drugs. I have known the prison of
depression and the confinement of a hospital. But one day I was able to come through all of
that, dazzled yet sober.[32] The documentaries Yves Saint Laurent: His Life and Times and
Yves Saint Laurent: 5 Avenue Marceau 75116 Paris released.
Dies of brain cancer. Berg announces that he will auction his and Saint Laurents
collection of art, antiques, furniture, and decorative objects at Christies, saying, I decided to
sell everything because the collection doesnt exist if he doesnt exist.[33]
LAmour Fou, a documentary on Saint Laurent and Berg, released.

From Vogue.com
When Haute Hit the Streets: A New Exhibit in Paris Highlights the Beginnings of YSLs
Rive Gauche
When Haute Hit the Streets: A New Exhibit in Paris Highlights the Beginnings of YSLs
Rive Gaucheby Leslie CamhiMarch 8, 2011
YSL Retrospective at Petit Palais in Paris
YSL Retrospective at Petit Palais in Parisby Andr Leon TalleyJuly 15, 2010
Yves Saint Laurent at the Petit Palais
Yves Saint Laurent at the Petit Palaisby Leslie CamhiMarch 12, 2010
The Last Dfil of Yves Saint Laurent
The Last Dfil of Yves Saint Laurentby Beth ArnoldFebruary 25, 2009
Yves Saint LaurentPierre Berg Sale
Yves Saint LaurentPierre Berg SaleFebruary 23, 2009

Swann Song, by Judith Thurman. The New Yorker, March 18, 2002.
The Many Faces of Yves, by Susan Train. Vogue, March 2002.
Saint Laurent All the Way, by G. Y. Dryansky. Vogue, January 1980.
Saint Laurent All the Way, by G. Y. Dryansky. Vogue, January 1980.

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