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CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign

PlasticThreads
TechnicalUniversityofGabrovoYordankaAtanasova
Threadsinplasticproductscanbeproducedinthreeways:
a) bydirectmouldingwiththreadpunchordie;
b) byplacingathreadedmetalinsert;
c) byremovingchips

When designing plastic products with threads produced directly in the moulding
process, we should account for the shrinkage of the material during the cooling
process, which is different for the different types of plastics. This should be taken
into consideration when producing thread punches necessary for moulding of
internalthreadsandthediesshapingtheinternalthreads.
Placingathreadmetalinsertisrequiredintheproductionofplasticnutswhenthe
screwortheboltismadeofmetalorinthecaseoffrequentscrewingorunscrewing
ofthenut.
Removing chips is a method for producing plastic threads of small diameters and
highbatches,whichcausefrequentfailuresofthreadpunches.
Whenproducingthreadedplasticproducts,thethreadprofilemayvary,butunless
theserviceconditionsrequireadifferenttype,metricthreadisrecommended.
Metricthreadcanberepresentedthroughatriangularprofilehavingadepth,the
crest of which has been cut at a distance /8, and the root is at a distance /4
(Fig.1).

Plasticthreads1

Fig.1

Therateddimensionsofthethreadare:
External diameter d the diameter of the round surface circumscribed round the
crestsofthescrewturns;
Internal diameter d1 is the diameter of the cylinder formed by the surfaces of the
roots;
Howareplastic
threadsproduced?

Geometrical
parametersofthe
thread

CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
Plasticthreads2
Mean diameter d2 is the diameter of the cylinder at the surface of which the root
widthisequaltohalfofthetheoreticalthreadpitch;
Thread pitch s is the distance between the parallel sides of two adjacent turns,
measuredalongthethreadaxis;
Depth of thread h is the depth of the planecut rated profile formed by the output
triangularprofilehavingadepth;
Angleofthreadistheapexangleatwhichthesidesoftheprofilearelocated;
Lengthofwindinglisthelengthofcontactareabetweenthesurfacesofthescrew
andthenutmeasuredalongtheaxis.Forstandardthreadedjointsl0,8d.
Thedeviationoftheactualthreadprofilefromtheratedoneislimitedbyadopting
a set of tolerances. The set of tolerances for threaded joints is structured in such a
wayas to allow contact of surfaceareas onlyalong the side partsof the turn, con
tactintheareaofthreadcrestsorrootsisruledout.
Dependingontheangleofthreadthreadscanbeclassifiedasmetric
threads,inchthreads,pipethreads,etc.
Thesharpprofilesofmetricandinchthreadsleadtointernalstressesand
lowerstrength.Thereforethreadsofpitchslessthan0.4mmarenotrec
ommended.
Incaseofthreadedproductsmadeofelasticplastics(PEHD,PELD,PP),the
depthofthreadshouldbesufficienttopreventlooseningorfailureofthe
joint.
Theminimumallowablethreaddiameterforpartsmadeofthermoplastics,
suchasABS,PMMA,PE,PP,is2,5mm.
Theminimumthreadpitchdependsonitsdiameterandischosenaccord
ingtothedatagiveninTable1.
Theratedbendingradiusofthethreadrootrn=H/6=0.144s.Themini
mumpermissiblebendingradiusrmin=H/8=0.108s.Toincreasethe
strengthofplasticthreadedjoints,bendingradiilowerthantheratedones
shouldbeavoided,especiallywhendimensioningboltsandscrews.
Thelengthofwindinglshouldnotexceeditsdiameterdmorethantwice.
Toimprovethegrip,wingscanbeaddedatthethreadstart/l1/andtermi
nation/l2/./Fig.2/
Theheightofthewingl1atthethreadstartforpitchs<0.75mmis1.0mm,
fors=0.75mmitis1.5mmandfors>1.5mmitis2.03.0mm.The
heightofthewingl2atthethreadterminationdependsbothonthepitch
andthediameterofthethread.Ford<30mmands<1.0mml2=2mm
,andfors>1.0mml2=4mm;ford>30mml2=6.010.0mm.
Therearerulesdeterminingtheminimumspacebetweenthethreadedhole
andtheendofthepartb1.Itdependsonthethreaddiameter/Fig.3/,Table
2.Topreservetheproductstrength,therearealsonormsdeterminingthe
minimumspacebetweenthethreadedholesb2,aswellasthebottomthick
nessb3inthecaseofblind(closed)threads.

Dimensioning

CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
Table1.Threaddimensioning,mm
Threaddiameter
Externald Meand2 Internal
d1

Pitch,s
Depthofthread,
h
2,5 2,208 2,013 0,45 0,243
3,0 2,675 2,459 0,50 0,325
4,0 3,546 3,242 0,70 0,379
5,0 4,480 4,134 0,80 0,433
6,0 5,350 4,918 1,00 0,541
8,0 7,188 6,647 1,25 0,676
10,0 9,026 8,376 1,50 0,812
12,0 10,863 10,106 1,75 0,947
14,0 12,701 11,835 1,0 1,082
18,0 16,376 15,294 2,5 1,353
24,0 22,051 20,752 3,0 1,624
30,0 27,727 26,211 3,5 1,894
36,0 33,402 31,670 4,0 2,165
42,0 39,077 37,129 4,5 2,435

Plasticthreads3

Fig.2

Table2
Threaddiameter
d,mm
Spaceb1,mm Spaceb2,mm Thicknessb3,
mm
Upto3.0 2.0 1.3 2.0
From3.0to6.0 2.5 2.0 3.0
From6.0to10.0 3.0 2.5 3.8
Above10 4.3 3.8 5.0
CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
When the plastic parts have several threads of different diameters, to simplify the
design of the mould, it is recommended that all threads have the same pitch. The
following requirements have to be observed in the design of threaded products
(Table3).
Plasticthreads4

Table3Designofthreadedproducts

Nontechnological Technological Note



s
R

The end of threaded


productsshouldhavea
wing of pitch s for
improvedstrength

The end of the thread


shouldhaveawingfor
improved strength and
bewithoutagroove

The end of the thread


shouldhaveawingfor
improved strength and
bewithoutagroove

The end of the thread


in a blind nut should
notreachthebottomto
avoid stress concentra
tion

R
1
,
5

The end of the thread


in a cap should not
reach the bottom to
avoid stress concentra
tion

CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
Plasticthreads5

The major norms refer to metric threads of diameter from 1 to 180 mm. When
producingthethreadsofplasticproducts,thecrestedgesoftheinternalandexter
nalthreadcanberoundedbyrimax,whichiscalculatedusingtherelationshipsrimax=
0.054sfors<0.5mm,andrimax=0.034s+0.02mmfors>0.5mm.
Theshapeoftherootoftheexternalthreadcanberoundedorflat.Whendesigning
the moulding service, it is the rounding or the plane at a distance of H/6 = 0.144s
fromtheprofilecrestthatisprimary.
The following rules are applied for the main dimensions of threaded plastic prod
ucts:
thediametersandpitchesshouldcorrespondtothedatagiveninTable1;
fordiameterslessthan4mmthepitchshouldnotbelessthan0.45mm,for
diametersgreaterthan16mmthepitchshouldnotbelessthan0.5mm,for
diametersgreaterthan18mmitshouldnotbelessthan0.75mmandfordi
ametersgreaterthan36mmitshouldnotbelessthanlmm;
fordiametersfrom3to8mmtheuseofparticularlygreatpitchesispermis
sible(Table4).Thesenormsarevalidbothforplasticmetaljointsandfor
plasticplasticjoints.

Nontechnological Technological Note






M12x1
M16x1,5

M12x1
M16x1


Multiplethreadsshould
have the same pitch for
easyejection

Threads should be
positioned outside the
product outline to avoid
deformations

Threads should be
positioned outside the
thickened places to
avoiddeformations

CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
Plasticthreads6
The tolerances for thread diameters refer to the normal length of winding N or to
theentirelengthofthethread,ifitislessthanthenormallengthofwinding.
Twotypesoffitsareusedinthreadedplasticjointsslidefitsandfitswithguaran
teedclearance.
In the case of external threads the fit is produced in the basic hole system with
deviationH/gorinthebasicshaftsystemwithdeviationsG/h(andGaremargin
tolerancesforinternalthread).
Any combinations of margin tolerances are permissible for internal and external
threads,butthesamedegreeofaccuracyispreferred.

Table4Plasticthreadsofparticularlygreatpitches
Diameter,mm
Externald Meand2 Internald1

Pitch,
s,mm
Depthof
thread,h,
mm
3.0 2.480 2.134 0.80 0.433
4.0 3.350 2.918 1.00 0.541
5.0 4.026 3.376 1.50 0.812
6.0 5.026 4.376 1.50 0.812
8.0 7.026 6.376 1.50 0.812

The margin tolerance width is determined according to the accuracy chosen. The
lengthofwindingalsohastobetakenintoaccountwhenchoosingthefitshort
M,normalNorlongL.
Themargintolerancesforinternalandexternalthreadscorrespondtothreedegrees
ofaccuracymedium,roughandveryrough(Table5).ForlengthsofwindingM
andLtheuseofadditionalmargintolerancesisallowed(Table6).
Table5Margintolerancesofthreadedproducts
Margintolerances
Degreeofaccu
racy
Screws Nuts
Medium 6h6g 6H6G
Rough 8h8g 7H7G
Veryrough 10h8h 98

Tolerancesand
fitsforthreaded
plasticproducts

CAEDSInjectionCasingDesign
Table6Additionalmargintolerancesforthreadedproductsdependingonthelengthof
winding
Lengthofwinding
M L
Margintolerances
Plasticthreads7
Degreeof
accuracy
Screws Nuts Screws Nuts
Medium 7h6h7g6g 7H7G
Rough 7h6h7g6g 6H6G 9h8h9g8g 8H9G
Veryrough 9h8h9g8g 8H8G

Theaccuracyofthreadsproducedbyinjectionmouldingorpressingfrommaterials
exhibiting different shrinkage can be determined using diagrams drawn out of
experience.Thedegreesofaccuracyshowninthesediagramscanbeachievedwhen
there are certain ratios in shrinkage variations, length of winding and diameter
providedthethreadpunchesanddiesareproducedwithpitchesthatarecorrected
usingaverageshrinkage.Ifthethreadsareproducedinmouldswithrated(uncor
rected)pitches,thedesireddegreesofaccuracycanbeachievedonlyifthelengthof
windingisreduced,becauseforgreatlengthsthethreadaccuracyisreduceddueto
shrinkage of the material along the axis. Strength is also reduced. To achieve the
samestrengthoftheturnsasthestrengthoftheproductwalls,thelengthofwind
ing must be optimal. Taking into account the shrinkage, the admissible number of
turnsncanbedeterminedusingtheformula
max
2S
S m
n

=
whereisthenumberofturns;
Svariationsinplasticshrinkage;
Smaxmaximumplasticshrinkage.

Accuracyof
threadedjoints