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February 1998

Process Industry Practices


Piping
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES
In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over
this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or
application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be
made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from
time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as
normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally
correct and may be substituted for those named. All practices or guidelines are intended
to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To
the extent these practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable
laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate
professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the
Practice.
Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The
University of Texas at Austin, 3200 Red River Street, Suite 340, Austin,
Texas 78705. PIP member companies may copy this practice for their internal
use.
Not printed with state funds
February 1998
Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 15
Process Industry Practices
Piping
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Table of Contents
1. Introduction.................................3
1.1 Purpose...........................................3
1.2 Scope..............................................3
2. References ..................................3
2.1 Process Industry Practices ..............3
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards.........3
3. Definitions ...................................4
4. General Requirements................4
4.1 Code Compliance............................4
4.2 Documentation................................4
4.3 Access for the Company
Representative................................4
5. Materials ......................................4
5.1 Piping Materials...............................4
5.2 Records...........................................4
5.3 Cleanliness......................................5
5.4 Repairs............................................5
5.5 Identification....................................5
6. Welding ....................................... 5
6.1 Procedure and Welder
Qualification.................................... 5
6.2 Welding Identification and
Workmanship.................................. 5
6.3 Buttwelds........................................ 6
6.4 Socket Welds.................................. 6
6.5 Slip-on Flanges............................... 6
6.6 Seal Welding .................................. 7
6.7 Backing Rings and Inserts............... 7
7. Branch Connections................... 7
7.1 Unreinforced Stub-Ins ..................... 7
7.2 Reinforced Stub-Ins ........................ 7
8. Machined Surfaces..................... 7
9. Forming and Bending ................ 7
9.1 Cold Bends ..................................... 7
9.2 Induction Bends .............................. 7
9.3 Bending Tolerances ........................ 8
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 2 of 15 Process Industry Practices
10. Flanges........................................ 8
10.1 Bolt Hole Orientation ...................... 8
10.2 Lapped Flanges.............................. 8
11. Supports And Lugs.................... 8
12. Tolerances.................................. 8
13. Heat Treatment ........................... 8
13.1 Before Heat Treatment ................... 8
13.2 Furnace Heat Treatment................. 9
13.3 Local Heat Treatment ................... 10
13.4 Threads and Machined Surfaces .. 10
13.5 Inspection and Records ................ 10
14. Orifice Runs.............................. 11
15. Cleaning.................................... 11
16. Leak Testing............................. 11
17. Painting..................................... 11
18. Marking ..................................... 11
19. Shipping or Storage................. 12
20. Rework.......................................12
21. General Requirements -
Examination...............................12
21.1 Examination Sequence .................12
21.2 Preparation ...................................12
21.3 Procedures....................................12
21.4 Examiner Qualification..................12
21.5 Acceptance Criteria.......................12
21.6 Defects .........................................12
21.7 Report ...........................................13
22. Examination Requirements......13
22.1 Examination D ............................13
22.2 Examination N ............................13
22.3 Examination S ............................13
22.4 Examination M............................14
23. Examination Methods...............14
23.1 General .........................................14
23.2 Visual Examination (VT)................14
23.3 Radiographic Examination (RT) ....15
23.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT)15
23.5 Ultrasonic Examination (UT) .........15
23.6 Magnetic Particle
Examination (MT) .........................15
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 15
1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to describe fabrication and examination
requirements to those fabricating and examining ASME B31.3 Process Piping,
hereinafter referred to as the Code.
1.2 Scope
This specification applies to both shop and field fabricated piping. Piping to be
fabricated and examined, the heat treatment required, and the extent of examination to
be performed are set forth in specifications and drawings referencing this specification.
Fabrication requirements include requirements for materials, welding, forming, and
heat treatment. Examination of materials, components, fabrication, assembly, erection,
and records is covered. Examination methods, criteria for acceptance, and correction
of defective work are also covered.
2. References
The following documents have been referenced in this specification and are part of the
requirements. It will be necessary to understand the applicable requirements of each of the
references. Refer to the latest edition. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate.
2.1 Process Industry Practices
PIP PNE00012 - Piping Examination and Leak Test Guide
PIP PNF00001 - Miscellaneous Pipe Support Details (under development)
PIP PNSC0021 - Specification for Leak Tests of Piping
PIP PNSC0012 - Welding Specifications (under development)
PIP PNSC0030 - Piping Supports Specification (under development)
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section V - Nondestructive Examination (BPV Code, Section V)
ASME B16.25 - Buttwelding Ends
ASME B31.3 - Process Piping (Code)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM E 165 - Liquid Penetrant Examination
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 4 of 15 Process Industry Practices
Piping Fabrication Institute (PFI)
PFI Standard ES-3 - Fabricating Tolerances
PFI Standard ES-5 - Cleaning of Fabricated Piping
PFI Standard ES-24 - Piping Bending Methods, Tolerances, Process and
Material Requirements
3. Definitions
Company Representative: Person designated by the Owner to act on the Owners behalf
Fabricator: The firm hired to do the fabrication
4. General Requirements
4.1 Code Compliance
Piping fabricated in accordance with this specification shall meet all of the
requirements of the Code.
4.2 Documentation
Records required by the Code, and any others required by the Owner shall be retained
by the Fabricator or others designated by the Owner. These records shall be made
available to the Company Representative on request. Requirements for documentation
are described in Sections 5.2, 6.1, 13.5, and 21.7 of this specification.
4.3 Access for the Company Representative
The Fabricator shall provide the Company Representative the opportunity to witness
part or all of the work, including access to facilities required to verify the results.
5. Materials
5.1 Piping Materials
All materials shall be in accordance with the piping drawings and the applicable piping
material specification. Substitutions, including thicker wall materials, shall be
permitted only with the Company Representatives written approval.
5.2 Records
The Fabricator shall have all required documents available for examination by the
Company Representative. As a minimum, record keeping shall be per the Code. Other
records and retention times shall be per Owner requirements. Copies of records shall
be furnished at Owners request.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 15
5.3 Cleanliness
Components shall be clean and dry prior to welding. For operations that include
heating, affected surfaces shall be cleaned of harmful contaminants such as lubricants
and paint prior to performing the operation.
5.3.1 For P-Nos. 8, 2X, 4X, 5X, and 6X materials
5. 3. 1. 1 Direct contact operation such as brushing shall be done using
stainless steel tools that have not been used on other materials.
5. 3. 1. 2 Grinding shall be done with wheels that have not been used on other
materials.
5.4 Repairs
When welding is required to repair a component, the Fabricator shall obtain approval
from the Company Representative before proceeding.
5.5 Identification
A marking system acceptable to the Company Representative shall be used to maintain
traceability of pipe and pipe components.
6. Welding
Welding requirements including welding procedure preparation, filler metals, approved welding
processes, hardness testing, weld overlay and miscellaneous requirements are contained in PIP
PNSC0012. This specification supplements welding requirements contained in PIP PNSC0012
and provides requirements applicable to all welding processes and requirements for specific
processes and materials.
6.1 Procedure and Welder Qualification
Qualifications of the welding procedures to be used, and of the performance of welders
and welding operators, is required in accordance with the Code, Paragraph (Para.)
328.2, and PIP PNSC0012. A copy of each Welding Procedure Specification (WPS),
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), and the qualification record of each welder
and welding operator shall be available and shall be furnished to the Company
Representative when requested.
6.2 Welding Identification and Workmanship
6.2.1 Welds shall be identified per the Code. Stamped marks are not permitted on
nickel alloys. See Section 18 of this specification for permissible marking.
Weld maps are an acceptable alternative if approved by the Owner.
6.2.2 Tack welds shall be of the same quality and material as the completed weld
and shall be fully fused with weld beads otherwise the tack weld shall be
removed during the welding operation.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 6 of 15 Process Industry Practices
6.2.3 Arc strikes on pipe and fitting surfaces shall be avoided. If arc strikes occur
they shall be removed. Repairs to the pipe and fitting surfaces shall not reduce
the wall below the minimum required thickness.
6.3 Buttwelds
6.3.1 When seam-welded pipes are joined by butt welding, longitudinal weld seams
should be positioned at least 1 in. (25 mm) or 30 degrees apart.
6.3.2 Buttweld joints shall be prepared in accordance with the appropriate figure in
ASME B16.25. For buttwelded joints of unequal thickness, the weld ends shall
be prepared in accordance with ASME B16.25.
6.3.3 Buttweld end valves that have PTFE or other heat-sensitive parts shall be
protected from the heat of welding, or Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
6.3.4 Internal misalignment of piping components to be joined shall not exceed 1/16
in. (1.5 mm). The following methods are recommended in descending order of
preference to minimize misalignment:
a. Rotating the pipe or fitting
b. Use of spreaders or line-up clamps to correct out-of-round conditions
c. Tapering or counter boring with taper to align butt weld ends. Slopes,
angles and minimum remaining thickness shall be per ASME B16.25,
Fig. 1.
d. Back welding of the root pass
6.4 Socket Welds
6.4.1 Weld leg length shall be at least equal to the pipes nominal wall thickness.
6.4.2 Pipe insertion into a socket weld fitting should be at least 1/4 in. (6 mm) or the
pipe nominal wall thickness, whichever is greater. The minimum gap between
the end of the pipe and the bottom of the socket shall be approximately 1/16
in. (1.5 mm) before welding.
6.4.3 Socket weld end valves that have PTFE or other heat-sensitive parts shall be
protected from the heat of welding, or PWHT, in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.
6.5 Slip-on Flanges
Slip-on flanges shall be welded inside and outside as shown in Code, Fig. 328.5.2B(1).
The toe of the inside fillet weld shall be 1/16 to 3/16 in. (1.5 to 5 mm) back from the
face of the flange. The flange face shall be free of weld spatter.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 15
6.6 Seal Welding
Seal welding of threaded joints is permitted only when specified. When so specified,
both male and female threads shall be free of oil and joint sealant, and the threads shall
be fully engaged. All threads shall be covered by the weld metal.
6.7 Backing Rings and Inserts
Permanent backing rings are prohibited. Consumable inserts are permitted with the
Owners approval.
7. Branch Connections
Unless otherwise specified on the drawing, 90-degree branch connections shall conform to the
branch connection chart in the applicable piping material specification.
7.1 Unreinforced Stub-Ins
Unless otherwise specified, welding shall be in accordance with the Code, Fig.
328.5.4D(2).
7.2 Reinforced Stub-Ins
Reinforcing pads shall be of the same nominal composition and properties as the
header (run) pipe. Each pad, or separately welded portion of pad, shall have a 1/4 in.
(6 mm) diameter vent hole drilled prior to installation of the pad. All required
examinations and repairs shall be completed and approved before reinforcing pads are
welded onto the pipe.
Unless otherwise specified, welding shall be in accordance with the Code, Fig.
328.5.4D(4).
8. Machined Surfaces
Machined surfaces, such as flange faces, shall be protected from damage and deterioration
during all operations. Damaged machine surfaces shall be repaired, or the component shall be
replaced. See Section 5.4 of this specification.
9. Forming and Bending
9.1 Cold Bends
Cold bends shall meet the requirements of the Code, Para. 332.
9.2 Induction Bends
Induction bends shall meet the requirements of the Code, Para. 332. Induction bending
done below the upper transformation temperature shall meet the Code requirements for
cold bending.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 8 of 15 Process Industry Practices
9.3 Bending Tolerances
Unless shown otherwise on the drawings, tolerances for dimensions of pipe bends shall
be in accordance with PFI Standard ES-24.
10. Flanges
10.1 Bolt Hole Orientation
Unless otherwise shown on the drawings, bolt holes of fixed flanges shall be oriented
as follows:
a. Vertical flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the vertical centerline
b. Horizontal flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the plant north-south
centerline
c. Sloping flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the plane defined by the
centerline of the pipe and a vertical line
10.2 Lapped Flanges
Lapped flanges shall be prevented from sliding back more than 1/2 in. (13 mm) by two
or more evenly spaced weld buttons or other means that will not hinder rotation.
11. Supports And Lugs
See PIP PNF00001 and PIP PNSC0030.
12. Tolerances
Unless shown otherwise on the drawings, tolerances for dimensions of fabricated pipe sections
shall be in accordance with PFI Standard ES-3.
13. Heat Treatment
The Fabricator is responsible for determining when heat treatment is required by the Code.
Heat treatment due to the process shall be specified by the Owner. The Fabricator must
exercise particular care in determining the requirements for PWHT of branch outlet fittings
(e.g. including olet type fittings) per the Code, Para. 331.1.3 since the dimension through the
weld is different with different manufacturers. Support attachments on piping to be heat treated
shall be welded on prior to heat treatment.
13.1 Before Heat Treatment
Prior to commencing heat treatment, the following work shall have been completed:
a. Spool pieces shall be fully fabricated. See also Section 13.2.1a of this
specification.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 15
b. Specified examinations shall be complete. (If P-No. 3, 4, or 5 material is to be
heat treated, examination shall follow heat treatment, as specified in the Code,
Para. 341.3.1a.)
c. Weld end valves shall be locally heat treated only. If recommended by the
manufacturer, heat-sensitive parts (e.g., PTFE packing, seats or gaskets) of
welded-end valves shall be removed, and bonnets or covers shall be reassembled
with new gaskets.
d. Thermocouples and the multipoint temperature recorder shall have been
calibrated to within 5 F (3 C) of actual temperature in the specified range.
13.2 Furnace Heat Treatment
Direct flame impingement on the piping is prohibited. The furnace atmosphere shall be
controlled during heating and holding periods to minimize surface oxidation.
13.2.1 Preparation
a. Large Spools: If a large, complex spool will not fit in the furnace, the
spool shall be fabricated in pieces. The pieces shall be furnace heat
treated and welded. The assembly welds shall be locally heat treated.
b. Piping shall be supported so that expansion and contraction will not be
hindered and dimensional tolerances will be maintained after heat
treatment.
13.2.2 Heating and Cooling Requirements
For stress relieving heat treatment of materials, temperature, holding time, and
cooling rate shall be in accordance with the Code, Table 331.1.1, or as
specified. Above 600 F (315 C) cooling rate shall not exceed 500 F
(278 C) per hour; below 600 F (315 C), cooling in still air is permissible.
13.2.3 Temperature Measurement and Control
Two or more thermocouples shall be used to measure and record the entire
heat treating cycle. A sufficient number shall be distributed on the thicker
parts of weldments and pipe to assure uniformity of temperature throughout
the heat treatment batch.
For Temperature Uniformity the differential between any two thermocouples
shall not exceed 150 F (83 C) for the heating period, 25 F (14 C) for the
hold period, and 100 F (56 C) for the cooling period unless specified
otherwise.
Controlling thermocouples shall be attached to the pipe.
13.2.4 Acceptance Criteria
A minimum of 10 percent of welds per furnace load shall be hardness tested
after heat treatment in accordance with the Code, Para. 331.1.7. Hardness
shall not exceed the value in the Code, Table 331.1.1.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 10 of 15 Process Industry Practices
13.3 Local Heat Treatment
Piping, welds, and hot forming that require heat treatment but cannot be furnace heat
treated, shall be locally heat treated by either induction or electric resistance heating.
Rosebud flame heating is not allowed.
The following requirements apply to each weld, and otherwise as shown on the
drawings.
13.3.1 Heating and Cooling Requirements
See Section 13.2.2 of this specification.
13.3.2 Temperature Measurement and Control
The minimum number of equally spaced thermocouples, for each weld, shall
be the greater of separately controlled heating zones and the following:
NPS 10 and less -1
NPS 12 through NPS 16 -2
NPS 18 through NPS 28 -3
NPS 30 and larger -4
The measured temperature differential among all thermocouples during
cooling shall not exceed 100 F (56 C).
13.3.3 Thermal Insulation
An insulating blanket compatible with the heat treating temperature shall be
used to assure uniform temperature.
13.3.4 Acceptance Criteria
Every local heat treated weld shall be hardness tested after heat treatment in
accordance with the Code, Para. 331.1.7. Hardness shall not exceed the value
in the Code, Table 331.1.1.
13.4 Threads and Machined Surfaces
All threaded ends shall be gauge-checked for fit and roundness following heat
treatment. If the thread is not acceptable, the thread shall be chased with a tap or die.
Threads and machined surfaces shall be protected from oxidation during heat
treatment.
13.5 Inspection and Records
A record shall be furnished to the Company Representative certifying the specified
heat treatment of all piping covered by this specification, including the following
details:
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 15
a. All temperature charts, properly identified and dated, with a list of spools and
components to which each chart applies
b. A description of the equipment used and calibration dates of thermocouples and
the recorder
c. Hardness test results
14. Orifice Runs
Welding neck orifice flanges shall have the same bore as the pipe. Orifice runs shall not
contain welds except at the flanges. Welds at orifice flanges shall be ground or machined
smooth and flush on the inside of the pipe.
15. Cleaning
Fabricated assemblies shall be cleaned and completely drained of all liquid after fabrication
and examination in accordance with Standard Cleaning in PFI Standard ES-5.
Water used to clean piping shall be completely removed and the piping dried.
Water used to clean stainless steel piping shall contain no more than 50 ppm chlorides.
Flange faces shall be cleaned of any manufacturer applied paint or coating using a method
which will not damage the machined surface.
16. Leak Testing
Required leak tests are described in PIP PNSC0021.
17. Painting
Piping shall be painted only when directed by the Company Representative. When so directed,
painting shall be in accordance with the specifications. Flange faces, ends to be field welded,
and pipe threads shall not be painted.
18. Marking
An identification number shall be plainly marked on each fabricated section. Carbon steel
piping shall be marked in white, other metallic piping in red. Marking paint or ink for stainless
steel and nickel alloy shall contain no chlorides, metals (such as zinc, lead, or copper) or metal
salts that could cause corrosive attack on the piping. Stamping of piece mark numbers or of
any identification other than the welders mark (see Section 6.2.1 of this specification) is
prohibited.
The use of adhesive labels on stainless steel or nickel alloy piping requires a protective barrier
of paint containing no chlorides, metals or metal salts or the use of a chloride free adhesive.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 12 of 15 Process Industry Practices
Bar coding is an acceptable means of identification.
19. Shipping or Storage
Flange faces shall be protected from damage during shipment and storage by wood or plastic
covers bolted, snapped or wired on. Carbon steel flange faces shall be kept rust-free. Pipe ends
shall be covered by durable self-fastening plastic covers. Threaded nipples, couplings, and
bosses shall be protected with metal or plastic thread protectors.
20. Rework
All rework and repairs shall be in accordance with this specification and the Code.
21. General Requirements - Examination
21.1 Examination Sequence
Examinations shall be performed before leak testing.
21.2 Preparation
External and accessible internal surfaces of joints and components to be examined
shall be free of rust, scale, weld flux or spatter, and paint. The surfaces shall be
ground if necessary, to eliminate irregularities which would obscure or confuse the
interpretation of imperfections.
21.3 Procedures
Examinations shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure as required
by Code, Para. 343. The procedure, with evidence of its qualification, shall be
submitted to the Company Representative for approval.
21.4 Examiner Qualification
All examination personnel shall be qualified in accordance with Code, Para. 342, and
approved by the Company Representative.
21.5 Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria for welds are those stated in Criterion Value Notes to the Code,
Table 341.3.2. Acceptance criteria for examination of other materials, components and
workmanship, stated elsewhere in the Code or in the applicable reference specification,
shall also be followed.
21.6 Defects
Any items rejected because of defects shall be repaired or replaced, and re-examined to
the extent and by the methods and criteria that applied to the original work.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 15
21.7 Report
A report shall be supplied to the Company Representative stating the types of
examination applied to each pipeline and/or pipe spool and recording defects and
corrective measures taken.
22. Examination Requirements
The symbols listed below are used to indicate the type and extent of examination required for
each pipeline. Examination types were selected by using PIP PNE00012. See Section 23 of
this specification for Examination Methods.
22.1 Examination D
Examination D requires:
a. A minimum 20 percent random visual examination of materials, components,
fabrication, joint assembly, and of alignment and supports during or after
erection
b. Visual examination of 100 percent of bolted and threaded joints if pneumatic
testing is specified
c. Progressive examination in accordance with Code, Para. 341.3.4 when a defect is
found
22.2 Examination N
Examination N requires:
a. A minimum of 20 percent random visual examination of materials, components,
fabrication, joint assembly, and of alignment and supports during or after
erection
b. Visual examination of 100 percent of longitudinal welds made during fabrication
by the Fabricator. If pneumatic testing (Symbol P) is specified, 100% of bolted
and threaded joints
c. A minimum of 5 percent random radiographic examination of circumferential
butt and miter welds
d. Progressive examination in accordance with Code, Para. 341.3.4 when a defect is
found
22.3 Examination S
Examination S requires:
a. Visual examination of 100 percent of materials, components, fabrication, joint
assembly, and of alignment and supports during or after erection
b. Radiographic examination of 100 percent of circumferential butt and miter welds,
and of branch connections similar to those shown in the Code, Figure 328.5.4E.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping February 1998
Page 14 of 15 Process Industry Practices
c. Examination of 100 percent of all other pressure-containing welds by the liquid
penetrant method
22.4 Examination M
Examination M requires:
a. Visual examination of 100 percent of materials, components, fabrication, joint
assembly, and of alignment and supports during or after erection
b. Visual examination of 100 percent of longitudinal welds made by the Fabricator
c. A minimum of 20 percent random radiographic examination of circumferential
butt and miter welds
d. Progressive examination in accordance with Code, Para. 341.3.4 when a defect is
found
23. Examination Methods
23.1 General
Visual examination, including any in-process examination, should be performed and
repairs made prior to any other examinations being performed.
23.1.1 Methods
23.1.1.1 Methods of examination shall conform to requirements of the BPV
Code, Section V, except as modified herein. Article 1, General
Requirements for Nondestructive Examination, applies to all
methods of examination listed below.
23.1.1.2 The Company representative shall retain the right to designate the
piping to be randomly tested.
23.2 Visual Examination (VT)
23.2.1 Direct Examination
Mirrors, magnifying lenses, and supplementary illumination may be used to
aid direct vision, within 24 in. (600 mm) and at least a 30 degree angle from
the surface to be examined. Rulers, calipers, and other instruments may be
used to evaluate imperfections.
Qualified examiners shall have passed an examination within the preceding 12
months demonstrating ability to read J-1 letters on a standard Jaeger near-
vision chart.
23.2.2 Indirect Examination
Indirect examination may be used to resolve uncertainties from direct
examination or if specified by the Owner. Devices such as telescopes,
borescopes, fiber optics, and remote-operated cameras may be used.
PIP PNSC0001
Fabrication and Examination Specification
February 1998 for ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping
Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 15
23.2.3 Method
The method of visual examination shall conform to the BPV Code,
Section V, Article 9, Visual Examination.
23.3 Radiographic Examination (RT)
The method of radiographic examination shall conform to the BPV Code, Section V,
Article 2, Radiographic Examination. Article 22, Radiographic Standards, also
applies.
Where the Code permits, and the Owner agrees, ultrasonic examination may be
substituted for radiography.
23.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT)
23.4.1 Materials
Only visible post-emulsifiable penetrants (Procedure B-2 of ASTM E 165,
Practice of Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method) are to be used. Products
are subject to the Company Representatives approval. If more than one
manufacturers products or product lines are accepted, no intermixing is
permitted.
23.4.2 Method
The method of liquid penetrant examination shall conform to the BPV Code,
Section V, Article 6, Liquid Penetrant Examination. Article 24, Liquid
Penetrant Standards, also applies.
23.5 Ultrasonic Examination (UT)
The method of ultrasonic examination shall conform to the BPV Code, Section V,
Article 5, Ultrasonic Examination for Materials and Fabrication.
23.6 Magnetic Particle Examination (MT)
The method of magnetic particle examination shall conform to the BPV Code, Section
V, Article 7, Magnetic Particle Examination.

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