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Klein1

TheInfinitudeBetweenandAbove

"Thecreditbelongstothemanwhoisactuallyinthearena,whosefaceismarredby
dustandsweatandbloodwhostrivesvaliantlywhoerrs,whocomesshortagainandagain,because
thereisnoeffortwithouterrorandshortcomingbutwhodoesactuallystrivetodothedeedswho
knowsgreatenthusiasms,thegreatdevotionswhospendshimselfinaworthycausewhoatthebest
knowsintheendthetriumphofhighachievement,andwhoattheworst,ifhefails,atleastfailswhile
daringgreatly,sothathisplaceshallneverbewiththosecoldandtimidsoulswhoneitherknowvictory
nordefeat."TeddyRooseveltoncespokeofdedicationovertemerity,ofthesurrenderofdevotionover
thedefeatoffear.Thisis,inanexistentialcase,notabattlegroundwhichmancanshyawayfromthisis
thearenaofhisdecision.Thewallsaretoohighforhimtoclimbout,evenmoresoitisabattlethatheis
alwayswinningInsuchabattle,thebattleisnotonewhereonewillwinorlose,butwhathisopponent,
theabsoluteendofhisdecisionwille.Ultimacywillbechosen,finalitywillbeevokedtheinstanthislips
part,thuswhatlieswithinhimwillinevitableconjureoutsideofhimthisfoe.Manisalwaysspeakingto
himselfasthisoutsideother,composingandconstitutingandcreating.Hecan'tnotcreate,thisdouble
negativeindicateshispower,thepowertoovercomewithinthedivisorymoment.Thisishisgreatest
obligation,bothhistelosandhisfaith:toacknowledge,ifheiswilling,thepowerbehindeverywordhe
utters.
Inthisinstantofhislanguage,heisrequiredtomaketheonedecisionhenevercould,to
relyontheonlypremisethathecouldneverguarantee:himselfThenatureofotherisuptohim,buthe
cannotchoosewhethertheotherwillstandbeforehim."Theundecidableisnotmerelytheoscillationor
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thetensionbetweentwodecisionsitistheexperienceofthatwhich,thoughheterogonous,foreignto
theorderofthecalculableandtherule,isstillobligateditisofobligationthatwemustspeaktogive
itselfuptotheimpossibledecision,whiletakingaccountoflawandrules.[1]"This"justice"isman's
highestconcern,thatmanoughttospeak,evenwhenhethinkshecannot.Hiswordsincessantly
destroyandinventhimselfandhisreality,inwaysthathecouldneverknowbeforetheyoccur.He
directshislifeandhisworldviahisparticipationinitandhisalone.Noonecanspeakforhimonwhat
hisdirectionwillbe.Hislifecontinuesindifferentandbeyondhimstillmanisrequiredtodecidewhatis
inthispurepresent.Hedeniesthelawsinordertospeakitandforevermightbeopposingthem.He
onlyspeaksintheblindingsecondheknowshecouldcomprehendwhatheisdeciding.
Yetthisveryprincipleilluminatesthesignificanceofthisstepintoimpossibility.Ifhe
couldreducesuchadecisiontoanyprinciple,itwouldnotconsumehim.Anyregulatedchoicecould
neverreducemantoinsanity,couldneverdeconstructhimineverysecond.Itcoulddestroyhis
paradigmsandbuildnewoneswitheverybreathhedraws.Itisthisdevotiontohimself,thisviolent
paradoxofeveryhisselfspeech,thatmakesmanwhoheis.Witheverysecond,ineverypresent
moment,heputstodeathpossibilitiesandglorifiesanother.Heproceedsasifhisquestionshavebeen
answered,byrealizingthatthesequestionscanneverbeanswered.Cannotbe,buttheymustbethisis
theparadoxtospeakbeyondthepresentwhilstremainingcompletelywithinit.AsGodtoldAbraham
onIsaac:"youhaveactedonit,youhaveputitintoaffect.youwerereadytocarryitoutthisvery
instant.(Godstopshimattheveryinstantwhenthereisnomoretime,whennomoretimeisgivenitisif
AbrahamhadalreadykilledIsaac...)"[2]Isaac'sdeath,isthedeathofourdecision.Theknifeisour
speech,isourwillingnesstosaywhatourrealityis.WhoisourIsaac,andwhatisourknife?Manmust
alwayslookintothedesperateeyesofhissonwiththeweaponordainedtohimineverysecondofhis
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existence.WhetherGodisornot,himselfastheothermustbethenewGodwhichdeterminesreality.
Thisfaithinthepowerofspeechdirectshimwithjustasforcefulahandasanysupernalentity.Hemust
movebeyondlawsbywhichhecannotbejudged,beyondwhatheunderstandstodiscoverwhathewill
neversee.Everydecisionunmakeshim,destroyshispastinordertoacknowledgejustthepresent.This
isallhehas.
Thequestionofultimacy,ofthiscreatedandsubjectivepurpose,alwaysconcernsthe
isolatedman.Hedoesnotdeviatefromonepathoranother,hehasonlycreatedonebydenying
another.Thisfinalitybeyondandwithintimetakesintoaccountsubjectivityandobjectivity,his
completenessandhisincompleteness,andhislifeanddeath.Thisfaithmakessuchadecisionoverand
overandover,andwiththisnewnesscaneventranscendthebinaryoppositioninlightoftheabsolute
other.Theinstantofhisfaithcontainslimitlesspower.Thispower,anddirectionaredirectedupwards
anddownwards,outwardstotheother,andinwardstowardshimselfastheother.Shiftinginorderto
remainconstant,anddyinginordertolive,thisishisphenomenology.Canthisquestbedirected,what
kindofotherrelatesandunrelatedhimselftoman?Faithis"religiousandtranscendsreligious,itis
universalandconcrete,itisinfinitelyvariableandalwaysthesame.[3]"Mantakestheseoppositions
ontohimselfwithhiswords,hemustsaythem,andcannotavoiddoingso.Yetwhenheturnstothem,
whenherealizesthathehasalwaysbeenspeakingandwillforeverbedoingso,hisfaithcomesalive.In
thesecondheknowshedoesnothaveit,thatinstantrelaysittohim.Thisarenaofepistemology,thatis
builtanddestroyedineverystepdownthewalkoflife,iswheremanfinallyaffirmswhatguideshim
withouthandsanddirectshimwithoutguidance:BeingItself,
Itisimportanttoestablishouttheoutset,aprotectionagainstwhatcouldpotentiallybreak
downanycomparisonbetweendeconstructionandTillichiantheology.Hisopponentsproposedthatthe
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terminologyandconceptualbasesTillichusesrelytooheavilyonessentialistontologicalterminologyto
trulymaintainapplicabilityinapostmoderncontext.Furthermore,doestranscendenceofBeingItself
[4]

notactasanepistemicandontologicalorigin,toactasatranslatoroffullspeechthatwasfully
present?
[5]
EvenwithTillich'sinsistenceondifferentiatingthetwo,dotheynotplaysimilarroles?The
utilizationoftheontotheologicalelementsseeminglyimpliedbyBeingItselfisatfirstglanceunavoidable.
Thiswouldneverallowthesetwoauthorstofaceeachotheronalevelplayingfield.Theproposed
solutionistotranslateTillichianideasintoamorerelatableusingdeconstructionasabasis.Thiswill
allownotonlyforbeingitselftobecomemoreaccessible,butalsodoawaywiththedissimulation
portrayedbyapureontologicallanguageintheprocess.Onemustestablishapremiseofsimilitude
betweenontologicalappearanceBeingItself,andtheantilogocentricnatureofDerrida'shermeneutic.
Tillichsideashaveremainedvivaciousagainsttheravagesofideologicalprogression,yethistheories
mustcomeintothismodernlightDerrideanthemesinordertodemonstrateandfortifyhisperspective.
Thustheintensityoffaithandpurephenomenologyoftheirproposalsarenotatodds,but
beautifullyinterrelated,andinfactwillbeshowntobecontingentuponeachother.Thegreatest
commonalitybetweenthetwoworksisnotacorrelationofonespecificconcepttoanother,butrather
theseparationoftheirrespectivetheoriesintophenomenologicalandexistentialaspects.The
nomenclatureisdifferent,forwithintheirrespectivespheresobservationistitledthepoliticalandthe
theological.respectively.Whattiestheseexternalitiestogetherisarealityconstitutedentirelybytheir
respectivehermeneutics.Thisselfinvestitureamidsttheformless,inaccessiblerealm,beyondany
epistemology,willallowfortwopreliminarymovementsofinterpretationtobemade.Thefirstofwhich
istosummonTillichianontologyintoaphenomenologicalcontextsoastoseparateitandaffirmitamidst
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theexistentialqualitiesoffaith.Secondly,uponestablishingthisnecessityofontologicallanguage,itcan
bejuxtaposedwithDerridasothermovements,allthewhiledemonstratingtheirdependenceon
existentialverification.DoingsocannotonlypreserveTillichsontology,butbringforwardthecommon
grounduponwhichboththeoriesrest.Allthisistorepresentdeconstructionnotjustasalaudable
supplementto,butanecessaryrevelatoryfactoroftheGodbeyondGod.Suchapremisecan
additionallybeusedtorefutemoremoderncritiquesofhistheology,andservetofurtherfortifythe
insideastheoutside[6]astheamalgamofalloftheseprinciples.
AnappealoflanguagetopreHeideggeriantheologyisanecessaryillusionforTillichitdoes
notsomuchspeakofadownfallsimilartoDasein,asitdoesilluminatemanparticipatingfullyinthe
other.Suchanpremisemotivatesanewlanguageofparticipationintheworldonethatdepictsa
constantrelationtotheother,butneverbasedonqualitiesofpresenceandexistence.Thusthereisvalue
andmotivationforhisontologicalspeech,evenastheinherentlimitsofthisendeavorarestatedfromthe
outset.:therelationofmantothegroundofhisbeingmustbeexpressedinsymbolstakenfromthe
structureofbeing...
[7]
.Linguisticfallibilityis,ifanythingarequiredillusiontoachievetheendresultsof
hisendeavorsAnyreferencetobeing,aremostfundamentallyatranslatablecontextwhichnecessarily
createswithinsymbolsandsignsofbeing.Thesignificanceoftermsarebothfunctionalonlywithinan
ontologicalcontext,andthisveryideaofbeingiswhatstrengthensthetermsinorderforthemto
expressthemselvesaccurately.Thisambiguityisnotaweakness,butinfactthefirstevidenceandentry
pointofdeconstructionintoTillich'sparadigm.Allofthisisdoneonlywithinthemythologicalrealmof
thesymbol,allofwhichareacknowledgebyTillichaspurelymetaphoricalinnature
[8]
,andareas
absolutenonsubstanceastheyarefullypresent.
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AnydisinterestinTillichongroundsofhisontology,
[9]
then,canbeshowntobevaluable.Not
simplybecauseitarticulatesthehumanconditionuponwhichTillichsexistentialquestionsrest,butthat
istheonlyanswerstosuchpropositions.Hisontologyseemstodepict,asopposedtoaproclamationof
telos,orobjectivebeing,ratherapurephenomenology.ThissimilitudeisatranslationofTillichianideas
ratherthansimplyutilizingthem,theyaredeconstructedandthenreapplied.Yet,uponfurther
examinationofthis,hisideaoffaithreliesuponthisveryidea.Whilethispremisemightseemlikesimple
garrulousness,theologyhasalwaysplacedthesupernalbeyondwhatisspoken,hecanneverbenamed.
ThisshowstheimportanceofTillichssimulationofanenvironmentdependentuponbeingand
intentionality.Inthisartificialartificeofwhereinwhichbeingitselfseemstobethebeginning,itwould
appearthatTillichhimselfiswillingthebasisthesimilarbasisbetweenlogocentricthoughtandhisown.
OnlybytransposingGodontoaplaneofontologicalequalizationanddistinction,isacomprehensionof
thecouragetobeevenapossibility.

ThefirstquestioncouldbeontheactualnatureofBeingItself,isitdirectlyrelatedtomans
selfactualization,andifsoinwhatform?Furthermoreifmanisnotsolelyrelatedtoanontological
positivistGod,canhisparticipatorystatuswithintheGod,beyondGod,actasapanaceaforthe
existentialquestionsofdeath?BeingItselfisnotinfinitegoodnessorendlessnessingeneral,itisthat
whichliesbeyondthepolarityoffinitudeandinfinityselftranscendence."Godinthedivinehuman
encountertranscendsmanunconditionally.Faithbridgesthisinfinitegapbyacceptingthefactthatin
spiteofitthepowerofbeingispresent,thathewhoisseparatedisaccepted.[10]"BeingItself
manifestsitselftothefinitebeinginthefinitedriveofthefinitebeyonditself.Thereisnocontentbeyond
whathewilledto,formanistoointerrelatedyetequallysodistantfromanyencountertoaffirmany
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absolute"presence."Anyquestionofhimbothnegatesandpresumeshim.Finitudeisman'sdestiny,yet
BeingItselfisdifferent.BeingItselfcannotbeidentifiedwithnegationoffinitudebeingcloakedonlyin
theholyandlife.Italsoparticipatesinthislackofabsolution,inanambiguitythatgenerateshispower.
ThefactthatmanknowsnotofGod,andwhathedoesknowaffirmsbothlifeanddeath,ratherthana
hierarchyofoneovertheother,createsadifferentapproachthantheChristianGod.Thus,itisnot,and
wasnevermeanttobeanabsolutetelostoconquersuchquestionsbynegatingthem.
Thelackofabsolutedependenceontheobjectivenatureoftheman'sobjectoffaith,butrather
man'sdevotiontoassumethatanysuchentityisbothnecessaryandincompleteiswhatgivesultimate
concerntheproperauthority.Anobjectoffaithalsocanneverassumetobethecompleteand
necessarypresenceofwherefaithlies.BeingItselfisalwayssyntheticyetgenuine,anddependentupon
thesymbolsuponwhichitisrepresented."Godistheanswertothequestionimpliedinman'sfinitude
heisthemeforthatwhichconcernsmanultimately.Thisdoesnotmeanthatfirstthereisabeingcalled
Godandthenthedemandthatmanshouldultimatelyconcernedabouthim.Itmeansthatwhatever
concernsamanultimatelybecomesagodforhim,and,conversely,itmeansthatamancanbe
concernedonlyaboutthatwhichisaGodforhim."
[11]
Mancannevermovebeyondarelationwith
thefundamentalotherbutatthesametimegivescontentinordertoinvestigatetherelation.Thenature
ofthequestioncanandmustchangeaslifeandsociologycontinuetheircourse.Beingitselfisnotan
absolutelovethatsummonstomantoregulationsandabsolute,distanttruth.Anysuchconceptoftruth
isonethat,whileparticipatesandinteractswiththisentity,reliesnotonitsfinalitybutit'sopenness.This
ishowultimacycanassumesomanyforms,thisisasmucharepresentationofpowerastobeseenas
"constant"Theonlynonvariablethen,isitsabilitytorelatetoman,andneverexactlywhatsucha
relationwillcontain.Itisnotarelationlinkedtochronologicalpointsastheirbeginning,butrathera
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synthesisofthetwo.Thefinitudeofmandemarcatesqualitieswhatconcernshimultimately,and
thereforemanunderstandsitspecifically.ThisexactnessneverreliesonastaticidentityofGod,butthat
tomansuchultimacywillalwaysappearcomplete.Theselfactualizingpowerofoneisthatofthe
other,andviceversa
BeingItselfisnotdependentupontheseculturalsymbols
[12]
allthatbeingsaid,yetthe
simplicityofits"presenceistheonlythingthatisimplied".Anythingspecificitycanandmustbe
attributedtoman'sinteractionwithsymbolsforthedivine.Alwaysassertedintononexistence,forthere
isnocontentbeyondthecontext.The"religioussymbolusesthematerialofordinaryexperiencein
speakofGod,butinsuchawaythattheordinarymeaningofthematerialisusedbothaffirmedand
denied.Everyreligioussymbolnegatesitsliteralmeaning,butitaffirmsitselfinitsselftranscendent
[13]

meaning"ThusBeingitselfaddsanewdimension,onethatisneitherherenorthere,presentnornon
present,transcendentorimmanent.Thenecessityofthesesymbolscommunicatesboththe
incompletenessofwhattheyaddress,butalsothefinalityofsuchsymbolstheyexpresstheentiretyof
whoheistoman,fornothingcanmovebeyondthis.Hisinterpolationintolanguageconstructshis
ultimacywithallthenecessaryfullness,thusreferringtotheabsoluteOtherspokenofinthesesymbols.
Somethingelsemovesbeyondthesign,butwhatexactlyisthestateofthisrelationtoit?
Beingitselfisthegaplyingbetweenthequestionandtheanswer.Itincitesinquiryonitself,then
flipsaroundtoactastheanswer.Thesequestionsarenotone'sofpresenceornonpresence,whether
thegroundofbeingisorisnot,anddoesassumeimportanceorunimportance.Itisaspropadeuticasit
isfinalitisaswithinstructureasitiscompletelybeyondit.Thisotheriscompletelyabsolute,itdoesnot
exist,hasnopertinencewithinsucharealm,yetthephenomenologicalaffectsarefeltwithman's
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couragetodecide.Itisascompletelydeniableandsyntheticasitistheobservableaffirmationofman's
creativepower.Itbothallowsmantospeakhislanguage,yetisconstructedbytheveryspeechinto
existence.Hetranscendsnotfromabove,butintoitisoftheutmostconcernbeforeman,andyetit
achievesthisonlywhenitisfirstpresumedtobe."ThedevelopmentoftheideaofGodisnota
dialecticalthreadspunoutoftheimplicationsofultimateconcern,independentofuniversalhistory.On
theotherhand,neithertherisenorthedevelopmentoftheideaofGodcanbeexplainedintermsof
socialandculturalfactorsindependentofthegivenstructureofultimateconcern..."Ithasmovedbeyond
thequestioninordertojustanotheranswertoit.Ithasnoorigin,yetimpliesanoriginwheneverbeing
itselfisaffirmed.Itiscompletelyconcreteandfinallyabstractsothatman'sdecisioncanbeultimate.
Equallyso,itisneitherofthose,andissimplytheother,intheguiseofwhateverculturalformconcerns
manultimately.
Onecanobservethatexistenceisnotapertinentideatogaugethevalueofultimacyorof
beingitself.NeithertheexistenceoftelosimpliednortheexistenceofGodingeneralareimpliedin
questionsoffaith.Theanyabsolutecontent,ordirectionprovidedbyadherencetoBeingItself,isnot
onethatcancompletelyanswerthequestionofGod.Ratherthatwhichsimplyaskssuchaquestion.
Thetruthofthereligioussymbolhasnothingtodowiththetruthoftheempiricalassertionsinvolvedinit,
betheyphysical,psychological,orhistorical.Areligioussymbolpossesssometruthifitadequately
expressesthecorrelationofrevelationinwhichsomepersonstands.[14]"Soonecanreturnonceagain
tothepoweroflanguageinhisconstruction.Ifbeingitselfwereactuallyfinal,thesymbolsofhim
thereforewouldaddressthis,inademonstrationthattheabsolutecontentwouldatfirstappeartolie
behindwhatissaid.[15]Suchaproposalwouldatfirstseematoddswithanycorrelationwith
deconstruction.Yetaswhathasbeensaidpreviously,onlyanabsoluteotherisreferenced,thereisno
Klein10
contentormeaningtohimbeyondthatwhichisalreadycloakedinsociologicalmeaning.Thesealso
providetheanswersforhowman'sultimateconcernwillmanifest..Yetinorderforultimacytoexist,
theindividualmusthavealreadyaskedthequestionabouthim.Thisbothcreatesandprovidesa
backdropforthepossibilityofultimateconcernmovingbeyondthesymbols.
Yetit'sexistencebeyondthemisbroughtinbetweenthemwheninquiringuponhim.Itis
foreverseparateandintegrated."Theultimacyofreligiousconcerndrivestowardsuniversalityinvalue
andinmeaningtheconcretenessofthereligiousconcerndrivestowardparticularmeaningsandvalues,
thetensionisinsoluble."
[16]
BeingItselfislessthecontentandmoretheconcern.Thereligiousorsocial
comprehensionsofitwillalwaysascribecharacteristicstoactualizeitselfinspecificcontext.However,
moveitoutoftheconstructedsociologyofthequestion,andhismeaningislost.Hisuniversalizabilityis
notbasedonthespecificityofwhatultimateconcernistothismanorthat,butratherthefactthatbeing
itselfcanhavetraitsitistheoriginoftraitsandthecreativepowerofexpression.
OnecanfurtheranalyzeBeingItselfnotasGodthebeing,butastheabsenceofcontent."Any
statementwhichmakestheideaoftruthpossibleisnotvalidifthisunconditionalelementisunderstood
asthehighestbeingcalledgod.TheexistenceofGodisnotimpliedinsuchabeing."
[17]
Thereisan
ideaoftruthabouttheGodaboveGod,whichiswhyhehaspertinenceandcreatesthepotentialfor
actualization.Hisphenomenologicalvalueisthusanassumptionofwhatitmeanstointeractwith
BeingItselfandrelatetotheother.Itisnothingbeyondhisrelevancetotheparticularasanother
particular.Itistheabsolutenonexistentother,thebeginningofcontext,butnotcontainingitinthisway
orthatway.Anyarchaicideaofabsolutismwilldothis,sotheonlyappropriatecanvasuponwhichto
painttruelimitlessnessiswithbothfinalityandambiguity.
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Thereisalwaysconcretenessappliedtoit,becauseinitsconcretenesshetranscendsany
oppositionallanguagewithinitsrelationtoman.Thatisthefundamentalnatureofitstranscendent
arbitrariness:theabsoluteelementofman'sultimateconcerndemandabsoluteintensity,infinitypassion
inreligiousrelation
[18]
Whatwecanobservefromthis,is,evenwithoutcontent,hehascontent.Heis
anobjectofobsessionbywhichmanconstituteshimselfandtheobject.Heneverexistsbeyond
symbols,yetdoesinanequalmanner.Mandoesnotinteractwithhimtoacquirehisspecifictelos
rather,itistheabilityformantocreateatelos,oranideaofselfactualizationwhichmanconcerns
himselfwithcompletely.Thisishisfaith,thefirstconstituentofaphenomenologicalapproachto
BeingItselfandtheindividual.Heaffirmsthiswithabsolutefaith."Itistheacceptingoftheacceptance
withoutsomebodyorsomethingthataccepts"
[19]
ThisistheabilitytochooseGodbyparticipatingin
him,andinthissameactionalsonegatesanactiveresponsetoultimateconcern.Itisthe
acknowledgementthatheisbeyondexistenceandyetinit,thatheisgoneyetcompletelyhere.This
mustalwaysbeanelement,forthisisthestrengthrequiredtooverwhelmanxiety.
[20]
Itishisabsolute
ambiguity,andthereforecompletephenomenologicalpresence,thatmakesitthemostapplicable
answertodivinequestions
IfmanisnotanactualizationofBeingItself,orcompletedviathecontentofanotherbeing,this
relationshipisbeyondessenceorfundamentalassertions.Ifhispresencehasalreadyassumedthatman
wonderswhoheis,hecannotbesaidtoexistwithoutsuchaninterest.Theholyisnotsimplyalayer
betweenpurityandthesocial,itisonlyhowhemanifestsandcanneverdoanymorethanthis.This
lackingisnothisdefeatbutwhatmakesactualizationandmeaningsorelevant.Itisbecausenothingisan
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intrinsicrepresentationof,ofthisequallyinconcreteentitythatmakesfaithsosignificant."Everysecular
isimplicitlyrelatedtotheholy.Itcanbecomethebeareroftheholy.Thedivinecanbecomemanifestin
it.Nothingisessentiallyandinescapablysecular."[21]Theirusageofbeingisagroundsimilitude,but
clearlytheyarenotusedinadirectlylinearmannerinthesamewaythatontotheologydid.Whatthen
canbededucedabouthisontologicalpresuppositions?
Onphysicalontology,manynotescanbemade.Itisnotedthelocationandusageofontology,
inrelationtootherspheresofactualization.Ontologicalselfaffirmationprecedesalldifferencesof
metaphysical,ethical,orreligiousdefinitionoftheself.Ontologicalselfaffirmationisneithernaturalnor
spiritual,neithergoodnorevil,neitherimminentnortranscendent.Thesedifferencesarepossibleonly
becauseoftheunderlyingontologicalselfaffirmationoftheselfasself.
[22]
Ontologyisshownto
providelaw,structure,andbasistotheprocessofcomprehensionitself.Followingthis,itwouldappear
asthoughitactsasanysystemicpositiveontologywould,inordertodirectmantowhomheoughtto
be.
Itisthefunctionofanontologicalconcepttousesomerealmofexperiencetopointto
characteristicsofbeingitselfwhichlieabovethesplitbetweensubjectivityandobjectivityandwhich
thereforecannotbeexpressedliterallyintermstakenfromthesubjectiveortheobjectiveside.Ontology
speaksanalogously.Beingasbeingtranscendsobjectivityaswellassubjectivity.Butinorderto
approachitcognitivelyonemustuseboth
[23]
.Ontologyisbothaportionofthestructureandthe
completionofit.Astheparticular,itismanifestedinman'sinquiryonGod.Itreferencessomethingthat
isnotevenreal,yettomantheyarehisstandardandhisquestion.Astheuniversal,theyarethebasis
fortheanswerthatbeingitselfis,andfallsintotheinexpressiblewerethisdualitynotinplace.The
Klein13
greatestactualizationispurepotential,ambiguityofexpression,anabsenceofitthatmakesanything
beyonditselfpossible.AsBeingItself,aspresentedtotheself,mustbeseeninbothlightsinorderfor
itspowertobefullyutilizedandcreatedatall.
Thereisnoobjectivecontenttoontologyitself,andneitherdoesitaffirmmetaphysicalconcepts
ipsofacto.Tillichssysteminherentlywill,buttheideaitselfispertinentwithoutcontent.Thisisimportant
andwillbereturnedtolater.Secondly,itsanalogousnatureisonlyvalidbecauseitisnotonlyapositive
expressionofbeing.Itmakesnoattemptstodescribemanpositivelyinrelationtoadivineentity,but
ratheriscompletedwithbothnonbeingsintobeing.Inthisway,wecansaythatbeingisnotbeingper
say,atleastnotinthearchaicpreHeideggerianmannerItisinsteadathephenomenologicalaffirmation
offornegationandaffirmation.Beingisnotanultimateexpressionofman,asithasisnevercompleted.
Ratheritsabsoluteformisonlyincompletenegationcompleteindirectednesstowardsbothsidesthe
absolutismofnegationasdeath,andcompletelifewithinthepowerofdecision,completeastheyever
couldbe,forontologyisascompleteasitwillbewithinthesesocialboundaries.Thelackofits
contrapositiveisafurtherrevelation,thatbeingwasnotmeantandcannotaffirmacompletelypositive,
butonlythatwhichappearswithinphenomenology.
Ontologyalsoincorporatesintoitstructuresthatarenot.Everythingthatparticipatesinthe
powerofbeingismixedwithnonbeing.Itisbeingintheprocessofcomingandgoingtowardnon
being.
[24]
Dasein(Heidegger)hereisanimportantconcept,foritisnotanyconstant,butratheritis
simplybeingwithintheworldthatisbecoming.Thereisnoobjectivecontentbeyondbeingimpliedin
everymomentyetisalwaysbecoming.Thisisnotasurreptitioushandofftoontology,butratheran
incorporationofboththepositiveandnegativeasaqualityofbeing.Itdoesnotconstituteanyobjective
content,foritincludesthelackofcontentasnonbeing.Anyparticipation,inBeingItselfismore
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valuablewithoutobjectivitythanwithit.
Thusheincludesnothingness,aswellsubstancewithinontology.Ontologyisnotsimplya
positivereflection,butsimplyonethatreflectsthetemporalityofthepresent.Yetitassertsnothingother
thanthepresent,fortogobeyondhisfinitudeForheisnothingotherthanwhatheis,finitebeingisa
questionmark.Itasksthequestionoftheeternalnowinwhichthetemporalandthespatioare
simultaneouslyacceptedandovercome.
[25]
Thusevenontologyisnotapositivequality,notsimply
onethatisassertedbeforemetaphysics,butalsothatwhichisneverasserted,possibilitythatisnot
spoken,creationsthatarenot,anddeath,thelifethatisnot.Ontologyincludesobjectsandnotobjects,
itisthesubjectandobject,andyetbyacknowledgingtheambiguousnessofBeingItselfallowsmanto
movebeyonditselfwhilestillremainingwithinit.Itistheprerequisiteforanysuchmovements.
Theinclusionofcompletenonbeing,iswhatmakesBeingItselfnecessary.Manmustovercome
thisimpossibilitythisdreadwithsometypeofobject.Anyarticulationofapositiveobjectthatis
comprehensible,isfurthermoreonlycomprehensibleinrelationtononbeing.Theyexpressbeing,butat
thesametimetheyexpressnonbeingtowhicheverythingthatis,issubject.Theultimatecategorization
isthennotthelifeoffinitudeorthelifeofinfinitudeasimpliedinontotheology,butrathertheabsolution
ofabsence.Itsubjectsalltoitself,justasitleadsalltoaskthequestionofGod.EvenwithBeingItself
impliedinexistence,nothingconductshischaracterabsolutelyinordertocounternonbeingabsolutely.
Itisthisqualitywhichmakeshimcapableofincludingwithinhimselfallphenomenologicalassertionsof
ontology,andthereforeincludethecompletehumancondition.
Anyassertionofnonbeing,ofabsoluteotherness,eitherintheformofBeingItselfordeath(or
aswillbeseen,thetrace)whethertheyactuallyexist,orrequirepresenceornot,becomeanepistemic
assumptionalltheirown.ThisisTillich'sabsolutefaith[26],onethattranscendsthegapsbetween
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beingandnonbeingandismansdependenceonhisabilitytobecome.Notthatheisrequiredto
become,notthatheshouldbecome,orthatanystateofhisbecominghasarequireddemeanor,but
simplythatitcanoccur.Thisisimpliedineverydecision,yetisalsoonlyrelevantwiththetemporalityof
decision.Faithisthepowerofbeing,forinthismancanstatenotonlywhatheisnotbutcreateanew
selfconstantlyanddenyotheropportunitiesfromcomingintoexistence.Howeverthisisonlydoneby
acquiescingtoabsoluteambiguity,orthatofambiguityatalli.e.thepowerofchoice.
Freedom,anddestinyaretwotraitsthatarenecessarypositivepartsofman'screativepower.It
takesituponhimself,thischoiceofBeingItself(and,aswillalsoberevealed,deconstructionwill
removeanyunnecessaryobstaclestoaccessthis),toacknowledgehisfinitude."Freedomisnotathe
freedomofafunctionthewillbutofman,thatis,ofthatbeingwhoisnotathingbutacompleteselfand
rationalperson
[27]
"Itisadeclarationuponthenatureofman,thatmoveshimbeyondthesubjectand
theobjectintocreativityintowillthatcanaccessandcomprehend.Hisselfspeechimplieshisfreedom,
forheisawarecanalterthisateverymoment,toassignultimacytoaddressconcern.
Thisisanabsolutefreedomthatmovesbeyondeverything,butamalleabledestinythat
transcendsinordertoremainpurelywithinthemoment.itisnotnecessitywhichcontrolshim.Any
objectivecontentinontologyorBeingItself,negatesthecreativepotential,thenothingnessthat
BeingItselfdestroysandincludes.Thereisnomandatebeyondwhatmancommands,beyondhis
expression,yeteventhisislimited.Bothbythenegationofwhatisn'tchosenbutalsobyman'sstatusas
finite.Thusthereisalwaysdirection,controllednegatively.Destinypointstothissituationinwhichman
findshimself,facingtheworldtowhich,atthesametimehebelongs.
[28]
"Hebelongspurelytowhatis
beforehim,forthisistheplatformbywhichhecanactualize.Mancancreatethisdirection.Notthatthe
Klein16
destinyisobjective,astheworldandanyrepresentationsofitwillalsobe.Itisinitslackofdefinition,
asparticipationinidenticalnonsubstanceofBeingItself,thatmakesdestinythemostpowerful
expressionorcreation.Finaldirection,wouldbeanimpossibleinterruptionofDestinyassuch.Itis
man'sconfirmationofhisultimateconcern,thatcreatesthisdestiny.Thustheremainwithinexperience,
inthesamerealmthathisphenomenologyismadecomplete.
Thecategoriesofperceptionmentionpreviouslycontinue,andformulatemoreground
workofbeing.Thelogicalforms...areontological,andthereforearepresentineverything.Themindis
notabletoexperiencerealityexceptthroughthecategoricalforms.
[29]
Thisisasignificantepistemic
qualityhereanirreduciblerelationbetweencategoriesandontology.beingisnotauniversalassuch,
yetalsocreatestheperceptionofcategoriesinthefirstplace.Theyrevealnotanabsolutebeing,and
furthermorenotonewhocreatesabsolutesasandforindividuals.Rathertherequirementsofbeingare
similartootherexistentialqualitative.Firstly,Itmusthavealackofcontent.Universalsaremeansof
communicationwithoutanypowerofbeing.beingassuch,therefore,doesnotdesignateanything
real.
[30]
Itnaturallyindicatessomethingwithinreality,whateveraspectthatisofbeingandnonbeing.
Yetitisnotspecificity,eitherinactualizationasanabsoluteendorofBeingItselfastheabsolute
answertomanssearch.Thereforehemustprovidethemtohimself,astheparticularassertinghisbeing
inlackofthelightofauniversaldivine.Thustheobjectivecontentofwhatiscannotbeverifiedusnot
containeditwhatitmeansforsomethingtobeontological.Itdoesnotdictateassuch,inthesameway
thattheGodofontotheologydid.Thusthesuperficialcharacteristics,inaveryHumeansense,arethe
completenessofanobjectsontology.
Anexpansionontheselawsperhapsisnecessary,forobjectivitymightseemtopresent
Klein17
tothefinalityofpositivebeing,anotherobstaclethatmustbenegated.Naturallaws,arebasedonthe
rationalstructureofmanandsociety,thereforetheyareunconditionallyvalidUponafirstglance,it
mightseemasthoughthisdeflatesanyrevitalizationevokedbydeconstruction.Thesetermsaresimplya
positiveaffirmationofman,andfurthermorebythisarevelationofBeingItself.Theyrelatemantohis
God,anontologicalentity.Acloserlookatallofthisismerited.
Thiswillbeginwithanexaminationofmanandsocietysnatureinordertodeterminetheusage
ofthetermsuniversalandunconditional.Theselawsareunconditionallyvalidinthesensethatthey
containeverythingwithinreality,asmentionedpreviously.Theyarethefoundationforsenseitself,and
sucharerelevanttohumanityinitsentirety.Yetthisuniversalityitisnotpositive,butsimplyan
expressionofwhatis.Thisisobservedthemomentthatnonbeingisapositivecharacterbeing.their[
ontological]polarcharacteropensthemuptothethreatofnonbeing.acompletebalancebetweenthem
presupposesabalancedwhole.yetsuchawholeisnotgiven.So,inspiteofontologicaldeclarations
madehere,theyarestatedasincomplete.However,tolookbackwardsBeingitselfisascompleteasit
mustbe,asarethelawssuchfinalityisassumedintheverytermlaw.Sowhatderivesfrombeingitself,
manasanentity,andallofhispositivisticgestures,areallbothincompleteandformless,yetfulfilling
theirrolesastheyought.Theinteractionwiththefundamentalothergeneratesontology,yetisnever
willingtodefinewhatontologyshouldbe.Itsubsumesallbinaryopposition(orpolarityinTillich'scase)
intoitself,andthisirresolutionisthefinalanswer,andwhatmanaffirmsinhisdiscussionsoftheGod
beyondGod.
Thisunconditionalityisshownlaterontonotextendbeyondthespecificsocialcontexttowhich
itisapplicable.Asobjective,itwouldthusinteractbecomeprogress,capableofprogressionupwards.
Thisistypicallyacharacteristicofdivineentities.Yet,thatisnotthefinaldefinitionofprogress.
Klein18
meaningofprogressisauniversal,metaphysicallawofprogressiveevolution,inwhichaccumulation
produceshigherformsandhighervalues.Theexistenceofsuchalawcannotbeproven.equally
potent,theselawsnotprovenaslawsinafinalsense.Theythemselvesaresubjecttochange.Every
changerevealstherelativenonbeingofwhatchanges.thechangingrealitylackssubstantial,thepower
ofbeing,theresistanceagainstnonbeing.
[31]
.thusbeingisshown,inanycontext,tonotonlybe
finite,andnotanaffirmationofwhatmustbe.Yetwhatmustbeisequallysoiswhatoughttobe.For
theyaretwopartsofthesamecoin.Onenecessitatesandindicatestheother.Itrequiresonesideto
illuminatetheother. Thisincludesbothbeingandnonbeing.
."Theplaceofthisencounteristhecommunity.Man'sparticipationinnatureisdirect,insofar
asheisadefinitepartofnaturethroughhisbodilyexistence.Hisparticipationinnatureisindirectand
mediatedthroughthecommunityinsofarashetranscendsnaturebyknowingandshapingit.Without
languagetherearenouniversalswithoutuniversalsnotranscendingofnatureandnorelationtoitas
nature."
[32]
Inallcasesregardless,thereisadependenceuponaninteractionwithanotherinorderto
orchestrateaphenomenologicalresponse.Thisuniversalityisman'srelationtotheother,inwhatever
guiseitmaytake.ITisthespreadingofishumanitythroughout,theallowstheconveyanceandpassing
onofreligioussignificance.Itis,perhapsonecouldsay,theabsolutelysyntheticsocialsphere,thatofa
universallanguage,oftermsandofhumaninteraction,thatmakespossibleultimateconcern.Inthis
particularinstance,thetranscendencedeniesthelinearityofculturalprogressinordertoactualizeas
enabledbyBeingItself.Itisthispowerfrombeyondhimthatallowsforhisselfexpressionwithinthe
trace,inanywaythatfaithwouldallow.
.Thesocialelement,ortheexternalformulationoflanguage,hasbeenrevealedtobeof
Klein19
ultimateconcerntobothauthors.Faithandpassionarenothingwithouttheprovisionofsymbolsin
whichtoexpressthemselves.Theyrequireit,perhapsonecouldsay,justastheyarenotdependenton
them,butnonethelessleavetherealmofcoherencywithoutamethodofarticulation.Asenseofchoice,
oftheinfinitepowerofpossibilityandtheimpossiblenegatingwhatcannotbesaid,requiresan
availabilityofthesign."Thereisnofrontbetweenresponsibilityandirresponsibilitybutonlybetween
differentappropriationsofthesamesacrifice,differentordersofresponsilbitydifferentotherorders[33]"
Anycontext,anyscenario,anyarena,humanityinanyguiseandformalldemandthesamequestion
affirmationoftheother.Theyalwayspresentthisquestiontohim,anditfallsupontheindividualtostride
underitsweight,todecideBeyondthepresentmoment,thereisnopowerindecisionorachanceofthe
infinitegraspingman,thereforethepastisalwaysunderstoodasthepresentandinrelationtoit.
Whetheritisacompletelydisrelation(contrastingsociologies,foreignconcepts)orinterrelatedness(
Americanindividualismasacaricatureofselfactualizationagainstimposedreligiousoppression),the
pastisalwaysunderstoodinlightofthepresent.Onecouldneverfindaconceptforeignoranother
familiarbeyondanimposedsystemtoprovidecoherencetotheseideas.Thisgivesthesign,the
potentialtocontinue,beyondthemoment,andinfactiswhatpullsitintothepresentateverymoment.
Thefreedominallbeingsmakesanabsolutedeterminationimpossibilitythusmanisnevermeant
toabsolutelybecome,yetbecomingisalwaysapartofit."Hisfreedomunitedwithhiscreateddestiny
asheaffirmsBeingItself,andthisparticipatorysynthesisiswhatmakesthispossible.Theymustbe
spontaneous,bothbeyondthestructureyetonlycontinuingwithinit.Ontologywasnevermeanttohave
objectivecontentbeyonddescriptionsofexistence.Thelawofnaturedoesnotremovethereactionsof
selfcenteredgestalten,butitdeterminesthelimitstheycannottrespass.
[34]
.Beingisthennot
complete,yetalsoalwaysapartoftheabsentandpresentsolutionascompleteandfinal.Mans
Klein20
willingnesstoassertultimacy,ratherthanthespecificityofhimself,istheimportantnotemadehere.The
finalityofcontentpresumesthefinalityofbeing,apositivistontologyofdayslonggone.Thereforeitis
moreunderstoodaspossibility,onethatissociologicallyandindividuallylimited,butpossibility
nonetheless.
Astheanalysisoftheseconceptshascontinued,ithasrevealednotaseparateofideaof
ontologyandGod.Itisindicativeoftheabsoluteseparationwhichiscompletelystillimmanent,asone
conceptinteractsandformulatestheother.Thisconceptofinteractionaryformulation,isequallysoone
whichrequiresfinitude."ThisisthereasonwhytheideaofGodhasahistory,andwhythehistoryisthe
basicelementinthehistoryofreligion,simultaneouslydeterminingandbeingdeterminedbyit."[35]In
thesameinstance,byclaimingthatBeingItselfisdemarcatedbythesymbol,itputshimentirelywithin
andbeyondphenomenology.Notasabeing,notasanentity,butsimplyastheabsoluteotherimpliedin
decisionandactualization.Hereisnomoreought,nomoreconstraints,butsimplythepowerof
becoming.Ontologyisacompleteacceptanceofthislackofcontent,ofanotherthatmustthenexclude
contentbyinordertocreateit.Thesubjectivityofontologyhighlightsnotonlythatindicatestheworld,
butmostimportantlyonetheworldindicates.Itisbothbeyondtheworldasabasisforcomprehension,
butalsoonlypresentwithintheworld.Itequallysoincludesnonbeing,andtheideaofpositivityof
beingisdiscardedaswell.
Itcanbenoted,aftergraspingthesetenants,thatTillichisnotreferencingatheologyinthe
classicalsense,butratherapurephenomenologyconstructedwiththetermsandrolesoffaithand
ontology.Ultimacyistoosubjectiveandparticular,andyetequallytoouniversalandomnipresentto
movebeyondthisrelationship.Thisiswhyhisparticularityissoimportant.Man'sformlessBeingItself
canmovebeyondparticularityaswelltocreateit.Hisabilitytopresentbothsidesandthereforeno
Klein21
completesideatall,movesBeingItselfbeyondnegativetheology,beyondandinbetweenlifeand
death,andthereforedeconstructedintofullnessonlyintherealitybeforetheindividualTheontological
language,usedtodescribebothmanandBeingItself,areinbothcasesequallyorlessandarealways
indicativeofnegationaswellasaffirmation.Thislayerofequalitythataccompaniesthem,inthiscase
absolutesubjectivityastranscendence,istheunitingfactorbetweenbeingandBeingItself.Finite
possibilityisimpliedinboth,butequallysotheyarebegunasmuchnegationasbypresence.Theseare
characteristicsalsoattributabletodeconstruction,andmustbedonehereforthesephenomenological
assertionsmadealsobyTillich.
Forbothauthors,theirmethodoftranslationarenotadepictionofanabsoluteexternalcontext,
butinfactconstitutesasubjective,completereality.Thephenomenologicalbearsdifferenttitlesfor
each,asDerridaspeaksofamotivatedorpoliticalsignifier,andTillichasenthralledwithanontology
thatspokeofdynamicsandfaith.Thecompletenessofthehermeneuticistheirinhale,andit'sincomplete
assessmentistheirexhale.Itrelinquishesoppositioninfavorofthepresent.Therearenonounsthatare
notproper,noverbalmodesbuttheinfinitive,notensebutthepresent.
[36]
Itisatherequirementthat
nothingescapefromphenomenologyorthenow,yetthatanythingthatisinexpressiblewithininbe
comprehendedinrelationtoit.Thisisthephenomenologicalsideofthesepropositions,theonethat
interactswithandcreatesreality.Thisisexpressability,tobecontainedwithinreality.Thegapbetween
thatandtheinexpressibleisbridgedbyparticipationinthepurerealityofthemoment.Thereisalwaysa
senseofrelation,andinthisformlessnessoftheinstantoftherealwhentruthisspokenbymanto
himself.InthisheproclaimstheKierkegaardiandevotiontotheother,thattheconstituentofrealityis
final,andthrowsoutallsenseofempiricismandorigin.Thisgivesthenecessaryselfconstitutionoffaith
tohimselffromtheother."Onehastogiveittooneselfbytakingitupononeself,foritcanonlybemine
Klein22
alone.irreplaceablely[37]."Man'sexistentialproclamationsisthefreedomtocreatetheworldoflifeand
death.
ForDerrida,acruxofhisepistemologicalsubjectsandobjectsisarelianceonthe
syntheticand"arbitrary[38]"sign.Thesedistinctionswillremainimpossibletomakesenseofif
terminologyisnotfirstintroduced.PlayingonceagainoffSaussurianideas,heretainstherhetoricyet
deconstructstheoriginalmeaning."Iproposetoretainthewordsign[signe]todesignatethewholeand
toreplaceconceptandsoundimagerespectivelybysignified[signifie]andsignifier[signifiant]"
[39]
.
Ashebreaksdownhisterminology,thesoundimagehascometorepresentthesignified.Howeveritis
notsimplyashiftingoftermsonwhichtobuilddeconstruction,somethingliesdeeper.Thesoundimage
iswhatisheardnotthesoundheardbutthebeingheardofthesound
[40]
Basedoffoftheseseparate
terms,anelaborationondeconstructioncanbegin.
"Therehasneverbeenanythingbutsupplementssubstitutivesignifications,whichcouldonly
comeforthinachainofdifferentialreferences,therealsupervening,andbeingonlyaddedwhiletaking
onmeaningsfromthetrace
[41]
.Ifthereneverwasanorigin,anythingthatarisesafterit,cannotescape
thissyntheticnature.Itisnevermorerealthanthatwhichcausedittocomeabout,yetlanguageisstill
usefulastheonlytoolwhendescribingreality.Inlightofthisnonorigin,thereisnothingbeyondthe
syntheticsign.Itisunrelatedfromthestateofnatureduetothesyntheticsign,yetpossessthefullnessof
thenewsimplyinspeech.Hegelsformulamustbetakenliterally:historyisnothingbutthehistoryof
philosophy,absoluteknowledgeisfulfilled.Whatexceedsthisclosureisnothing:neitherthepresenceof
being,normeaning,neitherhistorynorphilosophy
[42]

Klein23
Theimportanceofphilosophyinthiscase,isnottoproclaimAristotelianEros,butinsteadthe
articulatednatureofphilosophy.Philosophyisimportantherefortworeason.First,itisspoken.Inthe
sensethatitisspokeniteffacesconstantlybetweenthesubjectandobject,orphenomenologicaland
existentialrelation..Philosophyisobjectineverymomentthatisanalyzedandspokenabouttothe
individual.Anabsoluteseparationisagainimpossible,butanyabstractingfromthepersonalelementof
philosophy,andinsteadonasystemthatiscreatedbythatphilosophy.Second,itacknowledgesthe
systemofsignsbyusageofspeech,whichisonlypossiblefrombeyondtheindividual.Yetitrequires
theindividualtomovebeyondhimself,toholdfirmofthesigns,andthisitissubject."inspeaking,one
variesthemeaningsbyvaryingonestoneofvoice,determiningthemasonepleases.Beingless
constrainedtoclarity,onecanbemoreforceful.Anditisnotpossibleforalanguagethatiswrittento
retainitsvitalityaslongasonethatisonlyspoken[43]Itsubmitsitselftothevoracityvolitionofhewho
utilizesit,thesign,butalsomusthavethemtohavevolitionatall.
Thesystembywhichcompleterealityiscomprehended,whatgivesitthepropernames
toexpressitselfisthepoliticalsystem.Thepoliticalbodyisnotsimplyacongregationofman,a
gatheringofthosewhopreservethe"ofman"overthe"congregation".Itisthephysicalactualizationof
systemicrepetition,statingthatwhatisnowcancontinuethereisnodegradationinwhatexistsnow.It
perpetuatesthecompletemomentbydemarcatingitasthepresentalone.Inthelackofametaphysical
presupposition,theabsoluteothercreatestheneedforcontiguity.Birthisstillcomprehendedasbirthin
everyinstance,thenewnessdoesnotnegatethedeathneededtocreatenewlife.Thetraderinventsa
systemofgraphicsignswhichinitsprincipleisnolongerattachedtoaparticularlanguage...Itgains
universalityitfavorstradeandmakescommunicationwithotherpeoplewhospeakotherlanguages
easier.Butitisperfectlyenslavedtolanguageingeneralthemomentitliberatesitselffromallparticular
Klein24
languages
[44]
Itssyntheticnaturedoesnotattributetoitanystabilityonceculturesasindividual
expressionsarepulledoutofreach.Itiscreatesbridgesbetweenculture,andthenmakesindistinctthe
bridgesthatwerejustbuiltwiththeillusionofnaturaluniversalizability.Thealphabeticsignholdsthe
powerofexpressioncontainedintheideaofculture.Itunitestheotherandtheindividual,infactgoes
asfartodeclarethat"Everyother(one)isevery(bit)other.[45]"Thisabsolutearbitrarinessisinevitable,
evenwithinanindividualculture.Whatare,onalargerscalecrossculturalgaps,impliestranscendence
andparticipationonanindividuallevelviainteractingwiththeselfandtheother.Hecannotmove
beyondthesepretensesthought,forotherlanguagespokenbywhatsurroundshim.Whenhefinds
himselfunabletospeak,heencounterstheselfnegationoftheinexpressible.Thisdialectictakesplace
withintheindividualbothontheinsideandtheoutsideyetitisnegatedthemomentonespeaks.Onan
existentiallevel,itis"thesacrificeofotherstoavoidsacrificingoneself.Notonlyisittruethatsociety
participatesinthisincalculablesacrifice,itactuallyorganizesit[46]"Theotherhasbecomethe
inexpressible,thepriorityofonecultureoveranother,andthegapsthispresentstohumanity.Man
overcomesthiswithsacrificeinatwofoldsense:heiswillingtofocusonthewillofthecongregationin
ordertoremainexpressible,andherelinquishesallrealitiesotherthanhischoice,hedisregardsthe
otherofwhatisnotchoseninfavorofhimself.
Thiscoldrationalityofduplicationofothersbymanaretheexpressedexternalsign,andare
basisbywhichthesigniscomprehendedandutilizedbythepresentman.writingnaturalizesculture.It
isthepreculturalforcewhichisatworkasarticulationwithinculture,workingtoeffaceadifference
whichithasopened.Politicalrationalitytherationalityoffact...favorswritinganddispersionatthesame
time
[47]
.Politicsaretheestablishmentofreason,thesystembywhichtheindividualisnotonlyalways
Klein25
relatingto,butmakesonecapableofunderstandinghisrelation.Theydonotasserttheobjectivevalue
ofreasonassuch,butinsteadthereasonabilityofreason,ortheirpowertoperpetuateit.Thepolitical
speakswithsuchfinality,presentingthemselveswithinthepowerofcontinuity,thattheyarethebasisfor
theestablishmentofstandardsofreason.Itispossibletoformalizetheselaws,andindeedtheyare
formalized.WhatIhavejustnoticedwithinthepoliticalorderisapplicable,alsothegraphicorder
[48]
.
writingisthustheperpetuationofthesignonthegroundsofreason,whichisanotherbinaryopposition
hetaciturnlydeconstructshere.Dispersion[49]hereisthedeclarationofauthority,thatthevoiceofthe
volitionhereisabsolute,andpresumesenoughauthoritytospeakforhewhoisnotspeaking.The
commonnoun,hasapplicabletoallascommon,hencetheusageofthewordcommon,isactive
dispersion.
Surprisingly,thisisanotherinstanceoftheinternallyverifyingpowerwithinhumanity.This
perpetuatingsocietalpowerisvolitionunited,tomakepermanentthealphabet,boundtonoparticular
languagethanofothersystems
[50]
.Thissamedeconstructionthatoccursinthemomentmanappliesit
beyondhimselfisalsowhatmakesituseable.Ifitreliesnotontheabodythatrequiresdirectand
specificcontentinboththeindividualandhisenvironment,butratherontheabsoluteambiguityofthese,
iswhatmakesthemovementofdeconstructionsosignificant.Hemovesbeyondboththeinternaland
externaldistinctionsmadebyculture,andchangesthejuxtapositioninsteadfrombetweenculturestothe
syntheticandtheactual.Alphabeticwritingisthemutestpossible,foritdoesnotspeakanylanguage
immediately.But,alientothevoice,itismorefaithfultoitandrepresentsitbetter.[51]"Eveninits
falsehood,itisthecompletedforandisthesignified.Thealphabeticsigncanandmustbeusedany
standardraisedagainsthasalreadyaffirmeditsfinality.Thisistheunavoidabledeclaration,andwhat
Klein26
completesthesign.
Politicalbodynolongerreferstoadistinctcultureorpointofreference,butrathertothe
expressionofmanincivilmovements.Oneisnotgreaterthantheother,forthesearearbitraryand
effacedinlightofthenewlygrantedextirpatingpowerofthesignified.Theuniversalalphabeticsign
conductsphenomenologyasawhole,notwithinisolatedethnocentricspheresofprioritizedideologies.
Rather,theyappealtotheindividualasanexistentialbeing,onewhodiscovershimselfthrough
interaction,yetrequiresthefullnessofhimselftoaffirmwhathesees.Hispureselfexpression,evenas
articulatedwithinsigns,becomesthetotality:itishisphilosophy.Philosophyis,withinwriting,nothing
butthismovementofwritingaseffacementofthesignifierandthedesireofpresencerestored,ofbeing,
signifiedinitsbrillianceanditsglory.Itthusaproclamationandanegation,oftheinabilitytohaveone
withouttheotherindecision.Mansactualizationprocessisentirelyconsumedwithhisexistence,the
hereandnow,thecompleteanddemarcatedmoment.Inspiteofitsabilitytobespokenonlyinsigns,its
valueisthepinnacleofvaluetherecannolongerbeanyarticulationbeyondit.
Thesearenotquestionsofbeginningorends,ofwhatisorisnot,butofwhatiscapableof
beingspokenwithinthephenomenologicaltotalityofwhatis.Passionisnottheprimalorigin,butisthe
absoluteorigintotheindividualthebeginningofhistraceasselfspeechcannotbeanythingotherthan
hispassion.ThiscanonlybeunderstoodbyturningDerridasrefutationsofRousseauagainst
themselves,foruponchangingtheorderoftheprocessRousseaubegan,hestandsmuchcloserto
DerridathanitappearsOfGrammatologyacknowledges.Rightatthefirstthesoundtouchesus,
interestus,impassionsusallthemorebecauseitpenetratesus.Itistheelementofinterioritybecauseits
essence,itsownenergy,impliesthatreceptionisobligatory.
[52]
Thiscannotbeunderstoodasthe
momentoforigin,yetiswhatoccursineverysecondthetraceisexpressed.Thebeingheardofthe
Klein27
signified,doesnotimplyanessentialsignified,yetthesignifiedisstillinvasive,andevokingthefullnessof
itselfjustaspassionclaimstodowithoutexternalmotivation.Thereceptionisobligatory,andthe
contentofspeechbeingforevertranslatedonlyverifiesthis.Itslackofcontentrevealsthepassion
behindspeaking,andtheaffirmationofthisappearingasinterpretationisanexpressionofpassion.This
isthepassionofnegation,foritisonlyseeninthemomentswhereitsusagerendersitcompletely
invisible.
Inlightofthis,thesignisnotthedeathofauthenticity,butthecreationofit.Itisenabled
themomentmancanrepresenthimself,ratherthanrepresentinganontologicaldivinepresence.One
cannolongerseethediseaseinsubstitutionwhenoneseesthatthesubstituteissubstitutedfora
substitute
[53]
.Thedivineincipienceoflanguageisadequateasalreadymentioned,yetthislack
assumesthebeginningofthebeginningonwardintoanoriginasnonorigin.Anaturalbeginningto
speechwouldmakeuniversalityimpossible..Itwouldalwaysrelyonthepast,ondeathascontrasted
withinthephenomenologicallife.Thesystematicmustremainarbitrary,andmustbeproclaimedas
impossibleinordertoarticulatethephilosophyunderlyingit.
Thesignifierhasbecomethesignified,mansabilitytomakethemdistinctgivesthe
fullnessoflanguagebacktoitself.betweenthesetwopoles[phoneticwritingandthesound],
universalityislost.[theactualisdiscoveredbetweentwoconcepts]Ideasofpurepresenceasthefirst
case,presenceoftherepresentedthinginitsperfectimitation,andinthesecond,theselfpresenceof
speechitself.
[54]
Thisiswhatmakesdeconstructiononthistranscendent,universalencounter.It
makesindistincttheseparationbetweentheisolatednatureofwritingandtheintrinsicallyformlessself
expressionofpresence.Yettheirfullnessisnowpossiblebecausewhatisspokensignifiesabsolutely.
Klein28
Differanceoftheindividualisconstantlyandunavoidablyapplied.Thereisnopossibilitybeyondthe
individualparticipatinginthisother.Deconstructioncreatesandvoidsthisselfcontaineddialecticin
everymoment.
Tillichisequallyrequiredtoresideonlywithinhisinterpretationalmethodsoffaith.Their
powerisintheirexclusivity:todictatelifeandnothingotherthanlife,and.todemandcomplete
adherenceintheirsyntheticnature.Faithdoesnotcreateajuxtapositionofthesecularandthesacred,
butrathernegatesitsabilitytodosobymakingindistinctlifefromitself.Whatperhapsbeganperceived
asanisolatedreligiousexperience,wasnotsolelyaspiritualepiphany,butoflifeincompleteness.
Mansspirituallifeisunity,anddoesnotadmitelementsalongsideeachother.Allspiritualelementsof
man,inspiteoftheirdistinctcharacterarewithineachother.
[55]
Anytheorythatclaimstoencompass
entirety,toaccessanysenseoftheuniversaltodictatetheextentofthepossible,paintsapictureof
truth.Truthpresentsitselfascompleteandauthentic,asnothingbeyonditselfandbeingcompletely
indicativeofnothingotherthanitself.Thusevenareligiousmetaphor,hasabsolutepertinenceand
completenessofdefinition.Theirapplicabilityisnotintheassessmentoftheobject,orthisorthat
historicalconnection.Itisnotman'sdesperationforaccuracythatalignshimwithhisobjectoffaith.The
fullnessisrealizedonlyinaproclamationoffaithviathesymbolsgiventoit.inawillingnesstodeclare
thenatureofultimateconcern.
Thisacceptanceofhumanwill,asanontologicalfacet,requiresmantoproclaimabsolutelywhat
isineverymoment.Mansabilitytoexistasmanistoproclaimhispowerofcreation,ofthelifeand
deathhevoidsandempowerswitheverydecision.Thepersonwhodoestheweighingisabovethe
motivesaslongasheweighsthem,heisnotidenticalwithanyofthemotivesbutisfreefromallof
them.Tosaythatthestrongermotiveprevailsisanemptytautology,sincethetestbywhichamotiveis
Klein29
provedstrongerissimplywhenitprevailsEvenconsideration,isthewilltoconsider,tosubsumewithin
himselfthepotentialitycreatedbyfaith."Inlanguage,communicationbecomesmutualparticipationina
universeofmeanings.Manhasthepowerofsuchcommunicationbecausehehasaworldincorrelation
toacompletelydevelopedself.Thisliberateshimfromthebondagetotheconcretesituation,thatis,to
theparticularhereandnow.Heexperiencesworldineverythingconcrete,somethinguniversalinevery
particular."[56]Itisnotthatinonemomentheaffirmsfaithandnotthenext.Evenifnoexternalobject
hisconcerns,heassertshisvolitionagainstthebackdropofGodsdeathineveryactoftheself
transcendenceofchoice.Hecreatesthisuniverse,thissubjectiveencounterwithBeingitself,andis
capableoffindinghimonlyamidstthisarbitrariness.Hetranscendsinordertostaywithinthemoment
hisselftranscendencecontinuesthepresentineverydirectionofhistranscendence.Itmovesbeyond
theconcreteinordertobetheconcrete.Heisnotlimitedbytheseevaluations,butonlyinthefactthat
heisdeliberatelydirectinghimselftowardsthosemotivesandonlythose.
Themomentinwhichtruthisascertained,referencesanidenticalfaithinboththepast
andthefuture.Faithhasvitalitytodisregardanydifferencepresentassuch,effectivelynegatinganyidea
ofprioritizationorhierarchyinregardstotime.Faithdoesnotincludehistoricalknowledgeaboutthe
wayinwhichthiseventtookplace.Thereforefaithcannotbeshakenbyhistoricalresearchifitsresults
arecriticalofthetraditionsinwhichtheeventisreported
[57]
.Wereitsubjectandenslavedtothisnew
difference,itwouldneverhavebeenfaith.Anynecessaryrelationtospecificityofcontentcontainsan
object,orsomethingofitsownvitalitywhichexpressesitselftoman.Itgoesbeyondtherealmoffaith
andgobeyondwhatispossiblethemomentitalreadypresentsaspossible.Specificitywouldrequire
mancomingtoknow,notinactofabsolutefaithordiscovery,butofpassivityofbeing,wheretwo
creaturesencountereachother.ThisisthelackofinvestmentimpliedoftheontotheologicalGod.It
Klein30
wouldberelatedtotimespace,yetbedecayedbythemratherthantranscendthem."Adecision
exceedssimpleconsciousorsimpletheoreticalunderstanding,itisalsotruethatthesameconcept
requiresadecisionorresponsibleactiontoanswerforitselfconsciously.[58]"Faithisadeclarationof
phenomenologicalontology,thusitwouldincorporateanychangesintoitself.Itsstatusasfaithisone
thatisalwaysrequiringmantospeak,inspiteofanyfactsthatmightcontradicthisspeaking.Itisthe
greatestmanifestationofparticipationinbeingitself,theirrevocableproclamationofwhatisthatwould
leadhimpastfactsintotheimpossible.
Faithacquiresthispotency,notbecauseit'susageofhistoryisnecessarilyaccurate,butthat
anyreligiouseventisspecificandcomplete..Accuracymustbeassumedeverymomentregardless,as
investmentoffaithgoesbeyondtheimpossibilityofhistoricalvalidationintothepossibilityofultimate
concerneverymomentitischosen.Forfaithisnotanisolateddecision,butonethatspeaksofthe
completenessofdecisionandcreativity.Inorderforittodisregardlifeanddeath,andthedistinction
between,itmustpossessapowerofinfinitudeandfinitude.Faithisnotanopinionbutastate.Itisthe
stateofbeinggraspedbythepowerofbeingwhichtranscendseverythingthatisandinwhichevery
thingthatisparticipates.Hewhoisgraspedbythispowerisabletoaffirmhimselfbecauseheknows
thatheisaffirmedbythepowerofbeingitself.Inthispointmysticalexperienceandpersonalencounter
areidentical.Thisistherevolutionoffaith:itassumesanawarenessoftheultimateconcern,andthus
negatesspacinginfavorofexistentialdifferance.Ifheisrelatedtofaithinonemoment,theconstant
presenttenseoffaithpullsitbeforeman,andthereforeisalwaysdescribinghim.Ultimateconcernis
alwaysultimate,isneverpossibleofdegrading.Theobjectofultimacycanchange,butitismanandnot
theobjectwhichcanascribethisstatusitisnevernotultimatebecausemanistheonlywhocan
determinethis.Faithmustbeconstantlyrecreatedandbirthedineverymomentinordertoretainthis
Klein31
ultimateconcern.
Thisisthenatureoffaith,yetallofthishasalreadybeenassembledbyusingthe
syntheticsymbolictodemarcateultimacyandverifyitsnature.Infact,theyrequirethisontologyoffaith
tobeevencapableofexpressinganyideaofultimacy.Evenifitclaimstobeabsolutelysubjective,there
isanobjectiveformofexpressionthatmakesrevelationbothpossibleandmeaningful.Ultimateconcern
hasvalueonlyifitcanexpressitselftoman,whichhasalreadypresumedavehicleofarticulation,a
commongroundwhichallowsspeechinmantohimselfandtheultimacytotheindividual.Thesymbol
growsanddiesaccordingtothecorrelationbetweenthatwhichissymbolizedandthepersonswho
receiveditasasymbol
[59]
Thepurityofaccesstoultimacyisnotapresuppositionthatlanguagecan
affirm,infactitsabilitytolaybeartheinfinitewouldinstantlymakesuchajudgmentabsurdand
impossible.Itsrelianceisnotonthepurityofexpression,butinthefactthatitparticipatesintheits
religiouscontextwhichgrantsitsstrength.Thebeginningofhisfaithisineverymomenthissubjective
statechangesitisalwaysadaptingtotheshiftingreligioussymbols.Thereligioussymbolisthe
revelatorysign,itisalwaysgrowingandadapting,forthepersonwhoreceiveditisalwaysdoingthe
same.Theconstantstateofthesymbolhasbeendeconstructed,andinthisitcanconstantly,ratherthan
singularly,proclaimtheultimate.Thissyntheticnatureitsstrength.Justasdecisionarticulatestomanthe
realitybeforehimnotthenatureofthesign,sonowdoesthesymbolcommunicatereligiousstrengthin
lightofthevacillatingreligioussymbol.
Thecompletenessofmansfaithalsorequireshisacknowledgementofhiscastingoffofthe
subjectobjectrelationshiponcemore.Revelationexistsasrealityisitsabilitytoactbothastheobject
ofdirection,andalsoassubject.Thismakesitaccessibletotheindividual,butalsotohumanityasa
wholebypresentingitselfinanontologicallight.forrevelationclaimstogivetruthwhichisbothcertain
Klein32
andofultimateconcernatruthwhichincludesandacceptstheriskanduncertaintyofeverysignified
cognitiveact,yettranscendsitinacceptingit.Theassertivenessofreality,bothoftheindividualandof
theactofparticipatinginitproclaimingrevelatoryknowledge,requirethestrengthofabsolutefaith.The
violentintrusionofthevoiceofmantohimselfrequiresananswer.Thequestionofmansvalueand
ultimateconcernisalwaysbeingasked,andequallysoalwaysansweredineveryexpressionof
decision.Mancouldnevernotbeanswering,forevencompleteavoidanceofwhatconcernshim
ultimatelysimplyreplaceshisultimateconcern.Manswillingnesstochooseitcompletely,negateshis
ownlackofultimacy,andrelateshimcompletelytowhatconcernshimcompletely.The
phenomenologyoffaithisbothreliantuponandconstantlycreatinganegativerelationshipsbetween
manassubjectandobject.
Faithandallofitsspecificmanifestationsallofabasis.Theremustbesomewaytoconceiveof
thesymbolsbywhichreligionmanifestsitself.Thiscommonalityderivesfromaparticipationinan
absolutelyother.Thisentityneverstraysbeyondthephenomenological,infactitsvalueonlyremains
intactifthisisthecase.Itmustneverpossessofobjectivecontentbeyondthisstatushowever,forthen
theabilitytorelatetoitisgone.Faithwillbeforeverhinderedbysomethingthatliespurelyfrom
beyond,Anythinglessthancompleteinterpolationwouldbeinadequateforanexpressionofabsolute
faith.ThiswasencounteredinTillich'scritiqueoftheStoicfortradition,fortheirremovalfromthe
phenomenologicalrealmneverconqueredtheexistentialissuesassailinghumanity[60].Anabilityrise
abovethemspeaksofindifference,notofplungingthrough,andcertainlynotofthephenomenology
theseauthorsaredependentupon.
NowthatthisinvigoratedobjectofBeingItselfhasbeenforeverconfinedandnot
confinedtosymbols,oneswhicharticulatethepreviouspowergivenbydynamicstoallowfaithtobe
Klein33
completeandtotal.Itreliesnotcompletelyonthem,butratherallowsforthequestionsofGodto
referenceGodatall.foritrequiresnotspecificarticulationtoaffirmit."Sincetherelationofmantothe
groundofhisbeingmustbeexpressedinsymbolstakenfromthestructureofbeing,thepolarityof
participationandindividualizationdeterminesthespecialcharacterofthisrelationasitdeterminesthe
specialcharacterofthecouragetobe
[61]
)heisalwaysunderstoodintheselights,ofthecontrasts
displayedbydifferenceintheevershiftingphenomenologicallandscape.Thesociologicalstructureof
BeingItself,istheessentialpremisebywhichheiscomprehended.Thisisindicativeofthe
deconstructiveimportanceofthereligioussign.Thisfurtherarticulatesmansinfinitude,aseventhe
finalizationofthereligioussignthatspeaksfullytothemanendangersthevitalpowerspreciselyby
givingitactualbeing.
[62]

Yetthisdeathnecessaryforhisknowingtoariseinthisitiswhatitappearstohim.Inhis
declarationofthissynthesis,ofanyacknowledgementofhisarchetracebyrelyingonexpressabilityhe
canactualizeandcreatelife.Hiscreationishisconfidencetoaffirm,andinthisrelyonthecourageto
be,inspiteofsymbols.Courageacceptsdividedness,contingency.Themanwhopossessesthis
couragedoesnotlookbeyondhimselftothatfromwhichhecomes,butherestsinhimself.Courage
ignoresthecausaldependenceofeverythingfinite.Justaswiththetrace,thearticulationsofitwithin
signsarenotnecessarytoaffirmititsnonpresenceandpresencearesufficientforsuchacceptance
everymoment.Itisonlybyparticipationandacknowledgingtheinfinitethathismeagerfaithbecomes
thecourageofontologicalcompletion.Itrequiresaresponsetothefundamentalotherinorderto
investigatetheunanswerablequestionofinfinitude.Itslackofananswerisonlystrengthtocourage.
Everyinstantitisdependentuponbeingitselftoforcemanabovenonbeing,yetequallythe
Klein34
nonexistenceofbeingitselfiswhatmakesthecourageactuallycourageous,andwhatmakesitscreation
riseabovedeath.
Creationisthusonlyrelevantamidstsymbols,ortheuniversalideaofinquiryontheinfinite.For
inthemisreallife,notofthesymbolsthemselves,butratherofhewhospeaksthem,andintheirimprint
iscreation.Forinhisselfproclamation,hisconfidenceisdemonstrated.Thereligiouspursuitrequires
thegreatestrepresentationofthisquality,foritisthemostdemandingofmansventures.Inthissolitude
heparticipatesinthepowerwhichgiveshimthecourageinspiteofthepresenceofthenegativitiesof
existence
[2]
Byincessantlyaffirmingbeingitselfinitsisolationastheother,heiscapableofactuallife
ratherthantheabsolutenonbeingorinexpressibilityofbeyondthetrace.Thushisdemonstrationof
passionisthatofchoosinglifetohimselfandhisultimateconcern.Itisdirectedtowardshimjustasheis
directedtowardsitinconstantrelianceuponit.Onlybyaffirmingthisdoeshisepistemologymoveinto
thetangible,andthusdeconstructinganydifferancethatmightliebetweentheindividualandhisfaith,for
hispursuitisultimate
Thisisthereasonwhythequestionsarealwaysdelineatedbetweenexistentialand
phenomenologicalquestions,foroneisneededtospeakontheother,yetneitherdotheyexisttruly.
Thepowerofdynamicspressescreationwithsyntheticsymbolsuponman,anditisopeninall
directionsitisboundbynoapriorilimitingstructure.Manisabletocreate....thespiritualrealms
[63]

Theweaknessisnotthatitisanarbitrarysign,butratherthatmanscreativepowermakesuniversalthe
religioussign.Manmakesthemirreplaceabletohimself,byconstantlycreatingandassociating,untilthe
symbolisacknowledgedasthesignified.Intheimpossibilitythattherewouldbeananswerthatconfines
itwithinthethem.
Thushisfaithmovesmanbeyondthesegapsbyacknowledgingthemanddestroyingthem
Klein35
justasitacknowledgesanddestroysitself.Itisphenomenologyitcanneverbeaddresseddirectly.
"Thiscannotbeotherwise,sincefaithisnotaphenomenonbesideothers,butthecentralphenomenonin
man'spersonallife,manifestandhiddenatthesametime.Itsreligiousandtranscendsreligious,itis
universalandconcrete,itisinfinitelyvariableandalways.thesame.Faithisanessentialpossibilityof
man,andthereforeitsexistenceisnecessaryanduniversal"
[64]
Thisistherevelationofparticipationin
theother:it'snothingness.TheabsenceofBeingItself,oritsoriginasbothnothingandsomethingare
whatconstituteandcompletefaith.Ultimacyisthedefinition,andthehermeneuticthusincludesall
possibility.Hiddenandpresent,italwaysis.Manaffirmsitineverysecondofhisexistence,yetequally
socannotspeakwithoutitforthisiswhatbringspassiontohisspeechandtranslationtowriting.Only
withininthiscontextcananyoppositionbeeffacedacknowledgedcompletely,forthisiscreative
capacityandthedivinelife.
Yetthesesystemsofcompletefaitharedependentonanaconstantdialectic,betweenthe
outsideandtheinside.Theyequaloneanother,evolveandshiftwitheachother,yetarealsoseparated.
Notbybeingandnonbeing,oralogosoftruth,thisseparationisonlymadetocomprehendone
constituentoftheseideologies.Manscreativefortitudeisnothingwithoutexternaluniversaldirection:
completeandallencompassing.Hisinterpretationalmethodsoffaitharehisreality,andthisiswhyhe
mustdeclarethemwiththeentiretyofhisexistence.Hissubjectivityisthustheonlyconstituentofhis
objectivity,andthisaffirmationiswhatgivesphenomenologyitspower.inspiteoftheabsurdityand
anxietyindicatedineverymomentThereareevenmoresimilaritiestoobservedbetweentheexistential
verificationsandthisradicalfaiththatTillichproclaimed.Thisanxietyreferstocontinuouschangeas
wellastothefinallossofsubstance.Everychangerevealstherelativenonbeingofthatwhich
Klein36
changes.
[65]
YetitisinthistrepidationthatBeingItselfoccurs,forresiststhelackofcontentby
solidifyinginmanthequestionsofinfinitudepurelywithinthefinite.Itisnottheinfinitenatureof
BeingItself,whichilluminatehisexistentialquestionsforthatwouldbeacompleteconqueringandleave
noroomfordoubtandquestion.Ratheritisthattheyareultimatelyinexpressible,thattheirnatureis
alwaysshiftingandevolving,thequestionisforeveralteringwhichprovidestherevelationofthis
solution.Onlyamidsttheambiguityofthequestion,cantheconsummatepowerofBeingItselfarise.
Changeishispower,butnotintheweaksensethatfallsswaytononbeingitinsteadnegatesthe
difference,acknowledgesnocompleteseparationbytranscendinganycompleteoppositionwithin
himself.Purecreationobtainsitspowerfromtheimpossibilitythatitcouldevercreateamidstnonbeing,
forthemomentittakesitwithinitself,itarises
Acompleteinexpressibilityoforiginconductsthepropaedeuticonbothsidesofthis
dialectic.Itisinthissinglemomentofbeginning,thattheinteractionseestheemergenceofthe
metaphoricalexpression,asanattempttoisolatesourceaborigine.Thestrengthofthemisdirection
impliedbythemetaphorispresentonlyifbothobjectsareunderstoodbothasthemselvesandin
relationtoeachother.Thusthemetaphorplayaroleinboththephenomenologicalpresenceasthe
signifier,butalsointherelationofultimateconcerntoBeingItself.Suchaninteractionofatotal
externalitygleaningitsstrengthfrominternalityiswhatmakespossibletheeffectivenessofboth
instances.Theusageofitisanexpressionofintentandnotreason,asthedesperationofperpetual
affirmationandsystematization.Theirpresenceservestoilluminateanoverconfidenceinbothreligious
expressionandthelinguisticoriginingeneral.Derridasdistinctionbetweenwritingandthesignified,is
notsimplyalinguisticseparation,butalsoisrevelatoryofseparationwithindeconstructioningeneral.
Thevalueofasystemoflanguageorwritingisnotmeasuredbytheyardstickofintuition,oftheclarity
Klein37
orthe
distinctionoftheidea,orofthepresenceoftheobjectasevidence.Thesystemmustitselfbe
deciphered
[66]
Thusitisnotclaimedtobeaderivationofreasonorthelogos,butofacombinationof
bothindividualverificationandthephenomenologicalproductsofthisintentionality.
DerridagraspedthisinwardnessofvolitioninhisanalysisofRousseau'sEssayontheOriginof
Languages.ThisworkwhichhepainstakinglyandpedanticallyinvestigatesthroughoutOf
Grammatology,revealsasyntheticthereforecompletelymotivatedorigintolanguageThusitis
necessarytograspthishistoricalevolutionasopposedtoanisolatablepointfromwhichlanguage
derives.thequestionsoforigincarrywiththemametaphysicsofpresence.
[67]
Uponthedeparture
fromontotheologicaldemarcationsoflanguage,suchsingularityandselfcontainedcohesivenessmust
alsobeabrogated.Theontologicalperceptionofinnatelinguisticshasskewedeventhepresumed
objectivityofthescientificperspectiveevenobservationhasfounditselfenslavedtothisdistantand
seeminglyinescapablecaptorofdivineorigin.Theoncenecessarypresuppositionoftranscendent
motivationtolinguisticprogress
[68]
andconclusivelyisdiscarded.Fromsuchanexplorationemerges
themetaphorandtheOriginoftheLanguages
Rousseauspokeofaprimordialorigintothespokenword,asaderivationfrommansofmans
decliningnatureforhisideaofprogressforcedhimeverfartherfromtheobjectswithwhichtheorigin
oncesharedproximity.Derridaattacksthelogosunderlyingsuchanassertion.:Itnevervaries:beginning
withanoriginoracenterthatdividesitselfandleavesitself,anhistoricalcircleisdescribed,whichis
degenerativeindirectionbutprogressiveandcompensatoryineffect.Onthecircumferenceofthatcircle
Klein38
areneworiginsfornewcirclesthatacceleratethedegenerationbyannullingthecompensatoryeffectsof
theprecedingcircle,andtherebyalsomakingitstruthandbeneficenceappear.Itisthus,bydestroying
theprogressofthehumanspiritthattheanteriorcyclehadproduced,thattheinvasionofthenorthern
barbariansusheredinanewcycleofhistoricaldegeneration
[69]
.Thisontologyofprogress,atelosof
ascensionandselfimprovementfallsshortineverycontradictorystepforward.aneveradvancing
humanitythattakestheformofhisinventions,hisstandards,hisconstructs,arealldependentuponthe
ideathattheyarestrayingawayfromoriginarystandards.Itisalwaysinvolvesastaticpointthatman
mustdepartfrominordertofurtheractualize.Anessentialsenseprogressandontological
transcendence,willfundamentallydrivemanawayfromthestateofnature,andthereforecontradictorily
awayfromhimself.Aseachnewpromulgationdestroystheprevious,thetruthofthenewidea
continuallyforcesmanupwards,andwithequalforceawayfromtheessenceofhisaspiration
[70]
.
Adescriptionoftheseneweverfleeingstandards,iscontingentuponthepresenceofthe
metaphor.Thisalsopresumesasystem,whereinwhichthemetaphorisnotedastheseparationbetween
articulationandintent,betweenspeechandtheobjectofspeech.Metaphormusttherebeunderstood
astheprocessoftheideaormeaningbeforebeingunderstoodastheplayofthesignifiers.Theideais
thesignifiedmeaning,thatwhichthewordexpresses.Butitisalsothesignofthething,arepresentation
oftheobjectwithinmyownmind
[71]
.Derridaherebeginstomakedistincttheexternalfromthe
internal.Themetaphoricaloutsideobjectcontainsnothingmorethanitslabel,forthetitlealonebringsit
intocoherencyandpresence.Theindividual,speaksonlyofitsappearancetohim,andrealizesits
externalvalidityisunrelatedtothefirmnessbywhichitexistsinhismind.Itisinthisreunionthatonce
Klein39
againtruthcanemerge:thatwhichunitestheabsolutelyambiguousobjectwiththesolidificationofman's
assessment.Anyexogenouspresentationtotheindividualcouldneverpossessasmuchfortitude,and
willforeverbeseparatedfrom,it'stheinternalizedpresentationtohimself.
Thehumansastheother,regardlessoftheiractualcharacteristics,presentthemselvestothe
individualwithinhisfearasmorethantheyareorotherthantheirexternalstate.Anideathatthereis
more,orevenaseparationbetweenappearancesandadescriptionofthem,isataciturnrevelationof
thelogosguidingRousseauswork.Hisseparationoftheliteralfromtheexpressionintheformofthe
metaphoric
[72]
isanactiveimpedimentofpossibilityfromexpression.."Rousseauupholdstheliteralas
archeandastelos.Attheorigin,sincethefirstideaofpassion,itsfirstrepresenter,isliterallyexpressed.
Hedoesitbyaprocessofaknowledgeandintermsoftruth
[73]
Thedescriptionofgiantisdeemed
inadequate,andillusory,fortheobjectitselfhadyettobeunderstood.Itexistedonlythroughthe
distortionoffear,Thisfurtherimplies,thatuponthedistillationofthetrepidation,theactualtitlecouldbe
given.Theinaccuracyderivesfromapremiseofacurrentlyincompleteideaoftruth,onethatcouldbe
empiricallyassembleduponfurtherinvestigation.Thusthenaturaloriginofspeech,passion,expresses
itselftotheindividual,butnottotheobject.Eventhehearingoneselfspeakofthesesigns,would
alreadybeincorrectinthiscase,foradistantliteralnesswouldrequirethatmansspeechtohimselfnot
containthefullnessofwhatisheisinquiringupon.[74]
Heprovidesanexampleofthefirstconstituent:internalsolidification.Iffearmakesmesee
giantswherethereareonlymen,thesignifier,astheideaoftheobject,willbemetaphoric,butthe
signifierofmypassionwillbeliteral
[75]
.Yetthisadditiongianttotheideaofman,isthemost
Klein40
authenticanalysisoftherelationbetweenhumanandgiant.Theinternalizedfearistheonlyverifiableand
authenticelementtotheoneseeing.Theartificialityoflanguageandofthenonoriginofthetrace
instigatethefullnessandtruthoflanguageinthesimpleactofarticulation.Thepresenceoffearisnot
interruptedbytheinterpretationsinthesamewaythatmenarewhentheybecomegiants.Sincespeech
doesnotpassthroughreferencetoanobject,thefactthatgiantisliteralassignoffearnotonlydoes
present,butonthecontraryimpliesthatitshouldbenonliteralormetaphoricassignoftheobject
[76]

Theonlyfalsehoodthen,wouldbeanassumptionthatgiantsofthemindareequaltogiantsofthe
world,andfurthermorethattheyneedtobeequivalentinordertoinstigatefear.Theindividualgives
realitytohistrepidationineverymomentthatheisrelatedtotheobjectwhichgeneratesit.Hespeaksin
fullnessandtruthofhisfear,regardlessofitstrueorigin.Thereisnoteleologicalinterconnectedness
betweenagiantandfear,humanityandcomfort.Mansacknowledgementofhisfearcouldnotbe
dependent,atitsorigin,uponanobjectiverealityofthatwhichterrifiedhim.Theseassociationsand
separationsarebuiltbyhimforhimself,andneednotneithergiantsormen,butonlyadeclarationforthe
fearitself.
Equaltothepowergrantedbytheinternalconjurationofgiant.istheexternal,descriptionwhich
alsorevealedtobesufficient.Thissamearticulationinwhichgiantsaremadepresentbyspeech
providesonlysyntheticrealizationsofdemarcationandbeing,atleastinanexternalsense.Rousseauhas
triedtoplaceauthenticityatthebaseoflanguage,andthatthesesuperficialdescriptiondeviatefromthe
intentofarticulation
[77]
.Yetinthishehasalreadypresumedtheknowabilityofhisperceptionas
separatefromhiscurrentperception,andthepossibilityofanunadulteratedrelationasdifferentfromhis
currentidea.Thistypeofauthenticityisintrinsicallyinaccessiblebyvirtueofitsproclamationina
Klein41
metaphor,wereRousseau'sobjectivepointwithintimewhereinlanguagearosecorrect.Themetaphor
isonlyusedwhenonedoesnotknowthenatureoftheobjectwhentheyaredescribing,whenliteralness
cannotbehadyetthethingmustbenamed.Yetthisoriginandverificationwasneveraccessibleinthe
firstplace,forthisbeginningofpresencehasalreadybeendiscarded..Itcannotbetheideasignofthe
passionwithoutpresentingitselfastheideasignofthepresumedcauseofthatpassion...noliteral
meaningprecedesit,norhetorwatchesoverit
[78]
Thegiantrhetoric,inordertocontainthefullness
ofthefear,soisonlycorrectwhenitiscapableofencapsulatingthatfear.Suchnomenclatureisinfact
themostaccurateineitherformbeitgiantormanaslongasitismanwhospeaksit.Theutilizationof
thatparticularselfspeechiswhatgivesitauthenticity,infactasdemonstratedthisistheonlypossible
authenticity.
Yetwhatisthisfullness,thatpresumesenoughpowertocasttheexternalmetaphor,thatwhich
disagreeswiththeinadequacyofthedesignationwhichproperlyexpressesthepassion?
[79]
As
revealed,itisnotadiscrepancybetweenmanunderstandingofhisobject,butratherthatmans
understandingofhimselfiswhatgrantsthedescriptionoftheobjectcompleteness.Lackingthetruth
oftheobject,hespeakshimselffullyandreportsauthenticallytheoriginofhisspeech
[80]
The
metaphor,hasbeenreversedandinternalized.Inthefullnessoftheselfarticulationofhisfear,he
disregardsandreplacestheobjectwiththefullnessofspeech.Whatwasinitiallyseenasalinguistic
originofpassion,whereinwhichthefullnessderivedfromaccentuation
[81]
,hasbeensupplantedand
effacedbyexpression.Areversalofthemetaphornotonlynegatestheimpossibilityofdescription,but
Klein42
moreimportantlyiswhatallowsthehappypause
[82]
tohavevalue.asitexistswithinthetrace,passion
isnotthenascentbutthenecessaryverification,thatwhichgivesthefullnessastheindividualspeaks
withfervencythatisalwaysdirected.Forthereisnothingbeyondtheindividual'sselfpresentationofthe
thingtohimself.Oncecannolongerseethediseaseofsubstitutionwhenoneseesthatthesubstituteis
substitutedforasubstitute.Thereisnothingtoverifyotherthanman,formansverificationisallthat
givespowertoarticulation.Passionisnotanexpressionoforigin,butoffullnesswhichiswithinboth
speechandtheselfarticulationofwriting,inspiteoftheevermotivatedtrace.Realityistheindividual's
andtheindividual'salongaswhathecomprehendsisbothcompleteinitsincompleteness,finalinits
vacillation.Justasthereisnooppositionbetweenthepresentationandthesignifier,soistherealsono
absolutedistinctionbetweenwhatmanspeakstohimselfandtheobjecthereferences.
Tillichisalsodirected,forcedtoeffacethenaturalbeginningofontotheology,andthereforeof
thesymbolicnatureofreligioussymbolsinrelationtowhathelabelsastheultimateconcern.Thisisa
statementmadeinfaith:thattheultimateconcernisaconcernaboutwhatistrulyultimate
[83]
This
statementmightseemoverlysimplistic,isspokeninacontextoffundamentallycorrelationwithan
objectthatisinitselfultimate.Thatwhichgavefaithitspowerwasnotthefactthatfaithwasexpressed,
butthatfaithwasanexpressionofman'srelationtoaninfinitebeingoranexternaldivinepresence.The
presuppositionof[spiritual]literalism,isthatGodisbeing,actingwithintimeandspace,dwellingina
specialplace,affectingthecourseofeventsandbeingaffectedbythemlikeanyotherbeinginthe
universe
[84]
Whatisimportanttofaithisnotthespecificnatureofthecharacteristicsthatdescribed
Godoranysortofspiritualpresence,butthattherewerecharacteristicsofthisbeingatall.whetherhe
Klein43
beGodoraStoicideology,therelationtothelogosempoweredspeechandwastheoriginofspeech
onitself.Tillichdeconstructsthisinaveryliteralsense,andbytheremovaloftheobjectasultimacy
actuallycreatesthepossibilityofexistentialcompleteness."Ourultimateconcernisthatwhich
determinesourbeingandnotbeing.Onlythesestatementsaretheologicalwhichdealwiththeirobjectin
sofarasitcanbecomeamatterofbeingornotbeingforus.[85]"Theseexistentialdemandsofreligious
expression,isinTillichaneedlesstautology,butismoreimportantlytheoriginforthereligious
experienceitself.Whathasseemedlikepointlessrepetition,willshowntobemorethanthat,yetonly
whendeconstructionoccurs.
Thusweseefirstly,thatfaithasitrelatespurelytotheobjectisnotofutmostconcern,butrather
theselfrelationoftheindividualintheformofacceptanceistheorigin.Hisfaithinfaith,ratherthanan
objectiveconcern,iswhatmoreauthenticallyrealizesmansultimateconcern.Foritisalwaysman
expressingittohimself,nottoalogosofrecognitionwhichdepictshisconcernmostaccurately.
Recognitionclaimsuniversalizability,thatamorethoroughinvestigationwouldrevealtotheobserver
whatthereligiousmanclaimstoknowforhimself.Yetheindividualcanonlystatethatthereisa
correlationbetweentheonewhohasfaithandthesacramentalobjectofhisfaith
[86]
Thisagain,
prioritizesthenotthereligiousobject,buttheassumptionandthereforedeclarationthattheobjectis
religiousinnature.Itdoesnotconcerntheobserver,foranyonewhoattemptstocomprehendanother
religiousencounterisalreadytranslatingitinlightofhisownsubjectivity.Man'sabsolutesubjectivity,is
verywellwhatmakestheeffectsofhisfaithandhisGodmoveintoapplicabilityandrelevance.Inthe
motionofGodwemustdistinguishtwoelements,theelementofultimacy,whichisamatterimmediate
experience,andnothesymbolicinitself,andtheelementofconcreteness,whichistakenfromour
Klein44
ordinaryexperienceandsymbolicallyappliedtoGod
[87]
Thisisthesamedialecticfrombefore,that
ofexistentialandontologicalproperties.ThisunderstandingofGodthuscreatesthesameselferasing
dichotomyproposedbyDerrida,andacknowledgesasimilardifferentiationtheoneseenbetween
writingandspeech.
Itdoesnotconcerntheonewhoisonlycontentwhenhemeetsthehumansasthemselves,but
onlytheonewhoseesDerrida'sgiants.HeisacknowledgingtheinfinitudeofDerrida'sdifferanceby
claimingsuchknowledgeforhimself.Thecausemakesitseffectreal,inthoughtaswellasin
reality
[88]
Thisphraseologyhasbeenreversed,thankstotheexistentialmovesmadehere.Thecause
isnolongeraderivationfromthelogos,butthatmanencountersa"logos"manisthecausewhereas
hisultimateconcernistheeffect.Thisdeconstructshisultimateconcern,astheindividual'swillingnessto
speaktohimselffullyandwithutmostdevotioniswhatmakeshisconcerntrulyultimate.Suchultimacy,
inthesensethatitcanspeakontheother,theunknowable,becomestherevelationofwhatbeingitself
is.Onehaslookeduponreligioustexts,ofanyvariety,todeterminewhatsuchreligiousquestionswill
be.Theyhavepresumedexternalityasfinalsothatitmaymoveinwardandfindmanfromthere.Any
religiousdeity,thatreferstoitselffromwithinatextorhistoricalevent,presentsitselfinthisway."In
HinduismtheecstaticexperienceofBrahmanistheultimate...Christianityclaimstobebasedon
revelationinJesusastheChristasthefinalrevelation."[89]Thebeginningofthisisanontotheological
one,theonewhichTillichdistinctlymovesawayfrom,mustmoveawayfromparticularlynowthat
deconstructionisthemotivatingforce.InthemotionofGodwemustdistinguishtwoelements,the
elementofultimacy,whichisamatterimmediateexperience,andnothesymbolicinitself,andthe
elementofconcreteness,whichistakenfromourordinaryexperienceandsymbolicallyappliedto
Klein45
God
[90]
Thisisthesamedialecticfrombefore,thatofexistentialandontologicalproperties.This
understandingofGodthuscreatesthesameselferasingdichotomyproposedbyDerrida,and
acknowledgesasimilardifferentiationtheoneseenbetweenwritingandspeech.Tobeginthis,let's
comparecategoricallythestepscontainedwithinDerrida'smetaphor,andseewhatquestionswithin
linguisticorigincanbeansweredhere.
Firstly,wemustdetailtherelationshipofrevelationtoknowledge(insimilarterms,the
correlationbetweenselfspeechandtheobjectofthespeech).Tillichhasdichotomizedherethe
secularandthesacred,.Hejuxtaposesanawarenessofbeingitselfinareligioussensewithnaturalistic
awarenessinsociologicalsense.Faithhasbecomeseparatedfromrealitylinguistically,butinwhatform
phenomenological?Knowledgeofrevelationcannotinterferewithordinaryknowledge.Thereisno
scientifictheorywhichismorefavorabletothetruthofrevelationthananyothertheory."Firstly,itseem
thatrevelation,whilstremainingrelevantatalltimes,isdonesofordifferrentreasonsthan"truth"could
affirm.Itinteractswithscience,butnotinanattempttodisplaceit.Whatisofultimateconcerntoman
cannotbeanylessrelevantofscientificprogressweretoreachanewstage.Anydependenceof
ultimacyonthisnegatestheexistentialelementofrevelation.Byrelyingonabsolutescienceasthe
absoluteexternality,manisexcluded.Onlyrevelationcanspeakabsolutely(andthisoccursonlybynot
doingso)inrelationtoitself,andscienceisthesameway.Theexternalnatureofrevelationhasless
significancethantheinternalone.Revelationderivesfromitmakesknown,afactorthatcanneverhave
anexogenousbeginning.Inordertoknow,itmustnegate,atanindividuallevel,whatwasknown
previously.Itisnotmeanttodisplacethepastbutdefinethepresent.Thisnegatesthecontentelement
ofrevelation.Thefinalityofexternalcontentisnotwhatgivesrevelationsignificance,andisthefirst
boundaryofinternality.
Klein46
Secondly,historicalcontentremainsbothunobstructedandwithinrevelatorycontent.
"Knowledgeofrevelation,althoughitisprimarilymediatedthroughhistoricalevents,doesnotimply
factualassertions,andIisthereforenotexposedtocriticalanalysisbyhistoricalresearch.Itstruthisto
bejudgedbycriteriawhichliewithinthedimensionofrevelatoryknowledge.[91]"Thisspeaks
specificallyonthechronologicalnatureofrevelation,anddescribesit'srelationtomankind.Whatwas
revelationbefore,doesnotinterferewiththestatusofrevelationnow.Itcouldnotinterruptthis,for
revelationquarevelationpreservesthepurityofcompleteselfpresence.Itspeakstothenow,onboth
alargeandindividualscale.Thesymbolicstatusofbeingitselfmeansthatitalsomanifestsinacultural
sphere,butissubjecttochangethere.Thechangedoesnotnegateultimacy,butrathertheformthat
ultimacytakes.Theoriginofultimacyisthusnotwithinhistoryasitrelatestoaspecificeventwithin
history.Theremightbeapointwhereinwhichanindividualoragroupclaimstohaveencountered
divinity,yetbyclaimingsuchultimacyitisalreadymovedbackintoandabovehistory.Aslongasthe
storyistoldasonewhichconveyedthenatureofthesupernal,evenifitchangesitwillstillclaimtobe
anultimateconcern.Man'svoicecomesbeforethenatureofthingheisobserving.
ThephenomenonofGod,thusbeginsbothbybeingrevelation,butalsobeingacknowledgedas
revelation."Actualrevelationisnecessarilythefinalrevelation,forthepersonwhoisgraspedbya
revelatoryexperiencebelievesittobethetruthconcerningthemysteryofbeingandhisrelationtoit.If
heisopenforotheroriginalrevelations,hehasalreadylefttherevelatorysituationandlooksatina
detachedway.Hispointofreferencehasceasedtobetheoriginalrevelationbymeansofwhichhehad
enteredanoriginalcorrelation.[92]"Thisistheorderofthings,anequalitywhichcouldonlybebrought
aboutbythelifeofdeconstruction.Ifhedeviatesfromultimacy,itisnolongerultimate.Itneverwas
ultimatehim,andthereforeneverwillbeinthefuture.Yet,werehetoreturntoit,thesameprinciples
Klein47
wouldbetrue.Itwouldnothavebeenultimateinthepast,foritisonlyultimatenow,itcannotbe
conservedorretained.Therewouldbenofuturetoiteither,forman'sselfspeechmightchange
direction,it'stranscendencewouldpotentiallydisregardthisobjectforanother.
ThequestionoftheexistenceofGodhasplaguedallsidesofthediscussion,butfundamentally
ignoresanyquestionofultimacyinfavorofhistoricity.Theprioritizationofargumentationover
affirmationhasonlyactedasadistractionfromthereligiousfulfillingitsstatusasultimateconcern.As
revealedpreviously,thequestionofGodsexistenceornonexistence,presenceornopresence,no
longerconcerntheusageofontologicalterminologyhere.Underlyingallsuchassertionsisa
dependenceonabsoluteorigin,onobjectivecharacterandnatureofbeingitself.Yetallthislanguage,
andontotheologyasawhole,ismisleading.Thequestionhaschanged,fromhowdoesoneascertain
God,towhatistheGodthatwillbecreated.Despitearelianceonsymboliclanguage,itsabilityto
symbolizeisnotthatwhichmissesliteralnessinthemannerofthemetaphor.Rather,asitsymbolizes,
completelyaffirmstheindividualsuseoftheandspecificitysymbol.faithisnotthebeliefinsuchstories
[religiousmyths],butitistheacceptanceofsymbolsthatexpressourultimateconcernintermsofdivine
action.
[93]

"Hereagainitwouldbemeaninglesstoaskwhereoneoranotherofthefiguresinwhichan
ultimateconcernissymbolizeddoesexist.Ifexistencereferstosomethingwhichcanbefoundwithin
theroleofreality,nodivinebeingexists.Thequestionisnotthis,but:whichoftheinnumerablesymbols
offaithismostadequatetothemeaningoffaith.
[94]
Themeaningoffaithimpliesitself,isneededto
verifyitselfratherthanbeingcaughtupinthemisguidedpursuitfortheexistenceofthedivine.An
externalobject,hasnotonlyceasedtoprovidewhatisimportant,eventhequestionofitasexternal
Klein48
existenceatallnownolongerisofanyvalue.HeisBeingItselfbeyondessenceandexistence.
Therefore,toarguethatGodexistsistodenyhim.
[95]
Thisisthebeautyofthedeconstructionofthe
logos.Assoonasmanmustspeakonlytohimselfonthatwhichoughtconcernhimcompletelycanhe
investtheentiretyofhimself.Hehasalreadyremovedtheneedforhistory,andscienceto"verify"his
ultimateconcern.Thereisnodisparityforhisparadigmofultimacyhasalreadyansweredthequestion
forhim.Thiscannotbeconfusedwithnegativetheology,orjustafidiestoppositiontoapologetics.The
actualexistenceofGoddetractsfromthefullnessthatismansdevotiontowhatconcernshim.When
ultimacydependsonGod'shistory,onwhoGodis,onwhetherthegiantisagiantorman,hehasfallen
fromGodhood.Thesymbolsforhimareonlythisbecausebeingitselfisnotanentity.Theycanchange
infinitely,fortheabsoluteliteralisthegreatestdeathofGodineverycase.Ultimacycannotbe
contradictedbythistypeofbeginning,butonlyremovedfromultimacyentirely.
Theoriginunitestheexistentialwiththephenomenologicalhere.Whattheindividualproclaimsto
beultimateisnowhistorical,itexistswithinhishistoryandwithinhistimebecauseitwasspoken.The
sheerforceofrevelationonlyiscomprehendiblewhenitisspoken,Soasnottoreplicatebeingitself
outsideofultimacy,theremustbeapointwherewhatappliestoonecannotapplytotheother.Itcannot
bearevelationofwhatisabsolutelyandwhatisuniversal.Itcannotaninfinitudewhichincludesallthere
iswithinitself,asontologicaloriginofexistence.Rather,alltheknowledgethathasbeenrelayed
previouslybeginsandendsatthesamepoint:withinman.Itrevealswhatwashidden,whatpreviously
hadrequiredtheabsoluteliteralnowhasmadeitselfcoherentbyrelyingonwhatisspokentotheinner
man,andnotwhatexternalrevelationspeakstohim.Therevelationofthenatureofthemetaphor,of
whatman'ssymbolswillbe,evenasallofthemareincompleteandabsolutelysynthetic,arethemost
authenticmanhaseverbeen."Somethingissaidtothesoul,butitissaidneitherinspokennorinsilent
Klein49
words.Itisnotsaidinwordsatall.Itisamovementofthesoulinitself.Theinnerwordisanexpression
ofthenegationofthewordasmediumofrevelation.Awordisspokentosomeonetheinnerwordis
theawarenessofwhatisalreadypresentanddoesnotneedtobesaid...Aninnerrevelationmust
revealedsomethingwhichisnotyetpartoftheinnerman.Otherwiseitwouldnotberevelationbut
recollectionsomethingpotentiallypresentwouldbecomeactualandconscious.[96]"Itispowerful
becausenooneelsecanspeakit,becausethegianthasnodefinitionunlessmanmakesitso.The
internaldeclarationissufficientbecausesubsumesexternaldefinitionintoitself.Man'sdevotion,hisfaith
ishisfear,themostauthenticpartofwhatherelatesto.Hedisregardswhat"God"isinfavorof
beingitself,hedestroysexternalcharacteristicssothatthisultimacywillnothaveanyinterference.
Thushespeakswhennooneelsecan,whenallattemptswouldfail,andwhenthoseinnerwordsare
actuallythemostimportant.Theygobeyondwhatthetelosoflanguagebecausetheselfvoice
deconstructstheendofrevelationtothebeginning.Theendhasbecomeit'sbeginning,themostliteral
formofrevelationisfinalthemomentselfspeechbeginssothatitmayso.
Thefinalrevelation,orthecompletedformofbeingitself,shiftsintothissameinternalized
metaphor.Thisonethat,insteadofseparatingtheobjectfromitssubject,combinesthemirrevocably
withintheselfspeech.Nowthatmanhasspokentohimself,thenatureofbeingitselfwillhaveitsorigin
there.Ifman'sultimateconcernisagiant.beingitselfwillallowtheaffirmationofthisandbecomethis,
evenasitiscompletelyabsentfromman'sattempts.Iflateron,therevelationisthatitisit'sformhas
changedanditisrevealedtobeahumanitisnotarecollectionbutanabsolutechange.Paradoxically,
ultimacyasdecisionwouldhaveshifted,thegiantwasagiantthenasmuchasitisahumannow.There
isanabsolutedeconstructionbetweenthetwoitunitesthembymisrelatingevensuchoppositionsasthe
same.Deconstructioncreatesthepossibilityforultimacy,andprovidesaleveledarenawhereinwhichall
Klein50
thingsareaspotentiallysecularastheyareabsolutelysacred[97]."Theeventwhichiscalledrevelation
isnotnisolatedevent.Itpresupposedarevelatoryhistorywhichwasapreparationforitandinwhichit
wasreceived.Itcouldnothaveoccurredwithouthavingbeenexpected....itwouldnothavebeenthe
finalrevelationifithadnotbeenreceivedassuch,anditwouldlostitscharacterasfinalrevelationifit
werenotabletomakeitselfavailabletoeverygroupineveryplace.[98]"Thesymbolicambiguity's
proclamationistwofold:thatitisfinishedhereinthenow,andthatitwillneverbefinished.Whatis
ultimatemustbecompletenow,oritcouldhavenoclaimtoultimacyever.Yet,itisuptomantodecide
theexactnatureofthis,andsuchultimacyhasrestedwithhimtheentiretime.Inordertobecompletely
itselfnow,itmustbecontainedwithinthesymbolsofreligion,nothingmorethanasyntheticproposition.
Yetthisisthefinalityofrevelation,onlyinthisformcouldonehavetruthatall.Finalrevelation
hasgonesofartochange,whatwasviewedintheclassictheologicalsense,thedifferenttypesof
revelation.Naturaltheology,inthatsense,hasbeenabandonedjustasthenaturaloriginforbeingitself
hasbeen.Theterminology,isstillapplicable,forthemostnaturalformthatbeingitselfcan'ttakeisto
acknowledgeitsowninfiniteothernesswithinsocialconstitution.Beingitselfisnotareflectionofthe
worldorwithintheworld,ofthepassioncontainedwithinitbutratheritcanonlybeseeninthepassion
withwhichmandirectsultimacyafterhehasbeguntoascertainit."Naturalknowledgeaboutselfand
worldcannotleadtotherevelationofthegroundofbeing.Itcanleadtothequestionofthegroundof
being,andthatiswhatsocallednaturalcandoandmustdo.Butthisquestionisnotaskedeitherby
naturaltheologyorbynaturalrevelation.ITisthequestionofreasonaboutitsowngroundandabyss.It
isaskedbyreason,butreasoncannotanswerit...Itisbasedonrealrevelation,onecstasyandsign
events.[99]"Whenitisasseenthatitcannotbeanythingotherthanthis,thesubstituteasthejustas
muchasubstituteasthethingitself.Whenbeingitselfisabsoluteambiguity,it'ssignhasbecomeit's
Klein51
signified.Ifthesignchanges,thesignifiedwillalsochange.Thesigneventsarewhatbeingitselfis.The
realityisinthemomenttomanalone,nottotheworldwhich,asnaturalworld,wouldipsofacto
excludehim.Naturaltheology,initsoldform,diedwithNietzsche.Thisbeginsthenewrealmwherein
whichthedistanceofbeingitselfisit'closeness,andtheonlyproximityitwilleverhave.
Awill,adesire,ademandforjusticewhosestructurewouldn'tbeanexperienceofaporia
wouldhavenochancetobewhatitis,namely,acallforjustice.Everytimethatsomethingcomesto
passorturnsoutwell,everytimethatweplacidlyapplyagoodruletoaparticularcase,toacorrectly
subsumedexample,accordingtoadeterminantjudgment,wecanbesurethatlaw(droit)mayfinditself
accountedfor,butcertainlynotjustice....Lawistheelementofcalculation,anditisjustthattherebe
law,butjusticeisincalculable,itrequiresustocalculatewiththeincalculable"
[100]
.Thusthecallfor
justice,notjustforselfarticulationbutthatmanwoulddeclarewhatheoughttodeclare.Formanassert
himselfisbothpossibleandimpossible.forithappenseverymomentbutthereisnojustificationforhim
todoso.Hecanneverrelyonpastexperience,andmustonlyacknowledgehispowertocreate,that
thepresentmomentrestsathisfingertips.Hecanquestion,forthisisdemandedofhimhemayquestion
infinitely,yetmustalwaysresideinananswerofhisselfspeech.Tocreatedefinitionamidstacomplete
lackofit,thisistheexistentialcallofhumanity,andhisgreateststepoffaith.
Man'sfaithinrealitybecomesrealonlywhenhecanascribetoitinasingle,inescapable
moment.Whatconductsthis,andsubmitsmantohimselfsothatepistemologytofollow,isthemoment
ofdecision.Bothauthors'placeanunavoidableimportanceuponsuchaninstant,whenrealityisgiven
thestrengthtobecomeitself.Theemphasismustbeplacesothateveryassessmentfollowing,whetherit
belinguisticprinciplesorreligiousfaith,possessthefinalityandcompletenessofanyotherexistential
question.Theirsystemscouldbecontingentuponnothingelse,asnothingelseforcesmanintoenough
Klein52
selfisolationsoastodemandthecompletenessofwhoheis.Thisistheonlyresponsetothehuman
condition,theonlysacrificethatisworthyofit:theentireself.Thiscompletedselfismoreorless
sacrificedtothesingularandabsoluteother.Thedecidingpowerinmanisbasedonitsambiguity,yetin
themomentofman'sdecisiontheotherbecomesobjectiveandfinal.Thepurityofthepresentmoment
givestowhatevertheotheristhepurityofidentity.Itis,forahoweverbriefinaninstant,onlywhatitis
assessedtobe."Showing,indicating,pointingout[theNow]isthusitselftheveryprocesswhich
expresseswhattheNowintruthreallyis:namelyaresult,orapluralityofNowsalltakentogether."
Hegel'sassessmentofthepresentmomentisaccuratehere,asitmaintainsmasteryoverrealityby
preservinghisultimatedeclarations,thosethatcanonlybemadeinthepresent.Thefollowingsection
willdemonstratebothauthor'susageofsuchaconcept,butalsohowdeconstructionhasmadesucha
singlemindedadherencepossible.
Derridaspendsasignificantamountoftimepinpointingdecision,theinstantofthe
completemovementinto,inhisworkTheGiftofDeath.OnewouldexpectananalysisofKierkegaard
toincludenothinglessthanthis,andDerridaisnoexception.Thepresentationofthisbegins,asthe
bookends(anappropriatemoveforhim),withhiscountertoLevinas'oppositionto
Kierkegaard[101].Suchahierarchy,however,nolongerhasaroleoutsidehisunderstandingofits
presencethatmustbeassumedwithintheclassicreligioussphere.Itpreserveshisrelationto
Kierkegaard,butinordertoreturnitpurelytodeconstruction,suchastatementcouldneverbemade.
Perhapsonecouldsay,theinfinitealteritywouldinadvertentlypromotewhateverobjectmanchoosesto
thestatusofGod,andthusinasensetherelationtoa"God"ismaintainedevenwiththegroundsof
deconstruction.ThusifGodisseenastheoriginofabsoluteandthepurityofduty,onecanputthis
standardbackintoepistemologyasawhole.Theabsolutedutythen,orratherwhatmakestheduty
Klein53
absolute,isthatthedutifulmancanneveractinduty[102].Anysenseofdutythatcontainsthe
obsessionrequiredtomakesuchdecisions,hasalreadynegateddutyasitspremiseforacting.This
wouldbeinauthentictothedecisionprocess,aninterferencewiththepurityoftheclaimbywayofwhat
manplaceshisdutyin.Allthatmanknows(canknow,orshouldknoweven)isthatheisboth
subordinatetotheother,justashetranscendsitandallothersinordertochooseit,toinstigatethe
eternallybindingdecision.Thisisnotjustmeantobeareligiousaffirmation,butonethataffirmsthe
existentialpoweroflanguagethroughreligiousterminology.Hehas,inaway,deconstructedthe
authenticitywithinthetermsfromtheirimpliedend.SuchanextrapolationmakestheGiftofDeathisa
necessaryworktounderstandepistemologyasmuchasanythingelse.Godhasbecomeanything,and
theotherhasbecomeman'sdutyasheinteractsanddecides.ItimpliesthatGod,asthewhollyother,,is
tobefoundeverywherethereissomethingofthewhollyother.Andsinceeachofus,everyoneelse,
eachotherisinfinitelyotherinitsabsolutesingularity,inaccessible,solitary,transcendent,nonmanifest,
originarilynonpresenttomyegq....thenwhatcanbesaidaboutAbraham'srelationtoGodcanbesaid
aboutmyrelationwithoutrelationtoeveryother(one)asevery(bit)other[toutautrecommetout
autre[103]."
Tocontinuethisexpansion,theabsolutehasbeendeconstructedtoresidebeforeus,
andsuchapowerfulresponsibilityexistsintheeveryday.Abraham'splungeintoabsurdityand
devotionwastheonlyinstantwherehecouldgobeyond,andtranscendhimselfinordertoactually
makeadecision.Ultimacyhasbecome,inordertoactuallybeoftheutmostsignificance,somethingthat
canbeinteractedwithbeyondtheselfsacrificeimpliedinthelossofone'sson.Thisanalogyhasbeen
expanded,foritmustincludenotjustourson,butitmakesalloftheotherthesonthatwesacrifice,and
anydecisionthatwechoosenottomakeourIsaac.offeragiftofdeath,Ibetray,Idon'tneedtoraise
Klein54
myknifeovermysononMountMoriahforthat.Dayandnight,ateveryinstant,onalltheMount
Moriahsofthisworld,Iamdoingthat,raisingmyknifeoverwhatIloveandmustlove,overthoseto
whomloweabsolutefidelity,incommensurably."Thisdutyisfinalandunquestionable,bymakinga
decisionthatcouldneverberevoked,Abrahamactuallydecided.Thispowerconfrontsuseveryday,to
abandonourselves,oursenseofwhatwas(theconstanttranslationofdifferance)infavorofwhatis,to
resignourselvesentirelyinwhatisbeforeus.MountMoriahispowerfulbeyondthereligiousdomain,
notbecauseoftheabsolutesacrificethatAbrahamwaswillingtomakeinthatinstant,butthatMount
Moriahhasbeenmovedbeforetheeveryman.Thisisnowamountainhemustclimbeverysecond,the
stepsareonlyhistomakeandhissonawaitshimatopthealtar.Hissoncantakeanyform,willtake
anyformthatmanconcedestoit,evenasitchangeswitheverystepupthemountain.Werehetoglance
around,hewouldseehimselfsurroundedbynothing,hecanonlylookforward.Thedirectionofthis
"forwardness"canchange,butfortheindividualforwardistheonlydirectionhecango,andtheone
decisionbeforehimisthegreatest[104]andonlyonehecanmake.
Itisoftheutmostimportantthatmaybetheonlyonetorespondtothisdutytothe
other.Whenmandecides,onlyhedecides,itissimpleconceptinabstract,yetitisdifficulttospeakon
devotionwithouthavingalreadyabstractedfromit..Thuswhenonespeaksofthis,onespeaksofitby
notactuallyspeakingofit.Thisisman'sdecisiontomake,onethatonlyhecanoffer,onewhereDeath
ispersonified.Suchabinaryoppositionhasbeendeconstructed,anditisrevealedthattheexistential
isolationgivesmanthepowertoofferbothsidesofsuchanequation.Inorderforthistooccur,
however(orrather,asthisisoccurring),hissolitudemustbecomplete.Kierkegaardemphasized
Abraham'sisolationupthelonelymountain,andourmountaincannotbeanylessthensingularand
united.Anyinterferencewiththeotherwouldruintherelationship,itwouldalreadyserveanother.The
Klein55
greatestgiftofthisisthelackoflife,theonethingthatmancouldnevergiveinplaceofsomeoneelse.
Deathisverymuchthatwhichnobodyelsecanundergoorconfrontinmyplace.Myirreplaceabilityis
thereforeconferred,delivered,"given,"onecansay,bydeath.Itisthesamegift,thesamesource,one
couldsaythesamegoodnessandthesamelaw.Itisfromthesiteofdeathastheplaceofmy
irreplaceability,thatis,ofmysingularity,thatIfeelcalledtoresponsibility.[105]"Bymakingthisdecision
onethatonlyhecanmake,responsibilityisconferredtohimandhimalone.Suchresponsibilityisnot
onethatincludesanyother,nointerruptionispossibleeven.Manisalonewithwhohehimselfwillbe,
withwhateverthenatureofhisMoriahisthisisthegreatnessofhisdecision,thecauseofbothhisfear
andhisvictory.
Indecision,differencebetweenthepositivityandnegativityofdecisionhasbeen
absolutelyextirpated.Aninteractionary,selfcontainedpolemicthatincludesbothistheonlywayto
lookatdecisionwithanappropriateamountofpower.Everydecision,everylife,everymountMoriah,
impliesthatthisistheonlyonehecouldeverclimb.Theremustbedeath,thedeathofanypossibility
otherthanwhatfaceshimthisinstant,inorderforhimtobeabletomakethisjourney.Anysenseof
familiarityiscastasidewithbirth.Aninfantenteringtheworldisnotsimplyamomentwhereinwhich
newlifecomesintoexistence.Itisalsothedeathoflifewithoutfrombeforethischild.Thechilditself,
hasnoassociationwiththisworld,yethascometofullyexistinit.Hisbirth,thefullnessofhislife,
secretlydemandsthatheknownothingabouttheworldheentersinto.Howcouldhe,forthisiswhat
thefullnessoflifemeans:thatwhatwasbehindisnolonger,thatonlylifeexists.Inthissense,inaway
thatremovesanyoppositionallanguage,thereisalsoonlydeath."IfIputtodeathorgrantdeathto
whatIhateitisnotasacrifice.ImustsacrificewhatIlove.ImustcometohatewhatIlove,inthesame
moment,attheinstantofgrantingdeath.Imusthateandbetraymyown,thatistosayofferthemthegift
Klein56
ofdeathbymeansofthesacrifice,notinsofarasIhatethem,thatwouldbetooeasy,butinsofarasI
lovethem.ImusthatetheminsofarasIlovethem.Hatewouldn'tbehateifitonlyhatedthehateful,that
wouldbetooeasy.Itmusthateandbetraywhatismostlovable.Hatecannotbehate,itcanonlybethe
sacrificeoflovetolove.Itisnotamatterofhating,betrayingbyone'sbreachoftrust,orofferingthegift
ofdeathtowhatonedoesn'tlove.[106]"Thechildsacrificeswhatwasbefore,putstodeathinorderto
seehisworld,justasfamiliarityintheformofloveissacrificedindecision.Whereonefindsloveis
inevitablywhatoneknows,whatoneknowswithalltheirheartHemustputtodeathalltherest.He
musthatealltheothersinordertolovethisone,isolatedother..Inordertomanifestthat
love(devotion)totheabsoluteotheri.e.whatmanchooses,hemustbewillingtogivethemnotlifebut
death.Hemustsacrificeallofhimself,presentnotlifebutdeath,inordertodecide.Allthatheknew,all
thathecouldloveisgoneintheinstanthedecides,radicallyenoughheonlyhasdeathtogiveinthis
exchangeforlife.
Itmustincludebothwithinitself,allpossibilitiesmustbearelevantpartofwhatman's
realitycouldbe.Paradoxically,byallowingallpossibilities,thetermpossibilityhaspracticallybeen
negated.Therecanonlybewhatliesbeforehim,onlythisoneMountMoriahinthisoneinstance.This
anessentialprospectofdeciding,andwhatallowsittoincorporateallwithinitselfOnlywhenthereis
nothingotherthandecision,whennonexistenceconsumestherestofreality,mustresponsibilityanswer
foritselfandforeverything.Suchanoutcryonlyoccursintheinstantwhereallelsegoesmissing,and
thisonlymattersinthepresentmoment.Tocompletetheisolation,itmustnotjustbewithinspace(i.e.
beforemanalone)butwithintime(tooccuronlyonce,thisonce,thisHegeliannow).Forthisnowtakes
deathonitself,ittranscendsallothermoments,allotherpossiblemomentstodeclareitselfasfinal.It
doesthisbecauseithasto,becauseeverythingithasdestroyedeverythingelse.Onedecidesby
Klein57
assumingconjoiningtheaffectsoftheirdecisionwithdecisionitself.Thereisnotseparation,therecannot
be,orelsehewouldhavenotactuallydecided."theinstantofdecisionismadness,"Kierkegaardsays
elsewhere.Theparadoxcannotbegraspedintimeandthroughmediation,thatistosayinlanguageand
throughreason.Likethegiftand"thegiftofdeath,"itremainirreducibletopresenceortopresentation,
itdemandsatemporalityoftheinstantwithouteverconstitutingapresent.Ifitcanbesaid,itbelongsto
anatemporaltemporality,toadurationthatcannotbegrasped:somethingonecanneitherstabilize,
establish,grasp[render],apprehend,orcomprehend.,"[107].JustasAbrahamhadalreadykilled
Isaac,hadalreadymadethesacrifice,sohavewealreadysacrificed.Decisionisitsownfinalformit's
mostpreliminarystageisthefinalstage,thebeginningofitwasalreadytheend,andinfacttheendisa
newbeginning,fornewpossibilitiesenterthehorizon.Whenmanconclusivelyspeaks,itisasalmostas
ifheneverhadanytimetospeak,hehasalreadyinvestedtheentiretyofhimselfinwhatittookforhim
tospeak.Thedeconstructeddecisionleavesnothingotherthanitself,thereforeinman'sactionheclings
tohisresponsibilityforthisisallhehasleft.
Tillichseesthisincessantconfrontationintheformofultimacy.Hedoesnotaskthe
questionof:willmanchooseultimacyratheritis:whatwillhisultimacybe.Thiswillrevealnotonlythe
natureofbeingitself,butalsowhatwillmakepertinentitstraitsonlytotheonewhodecides.Onlyby
responsibilitythatismatchedbyallotherdecisionswithequalresponsibilitycouldman'sultimate
concernbefound.Thesacrificemustbethere,andonlyinthisdohiswordsthefortitudetoactually
decide.HebeginsthisprocessidenticallytoDerrida,byrevealingman'scenteredness."itistimetoend
thebadtheologicalusageofjumpingwithmoralindignationoneverywordinwhichthesyllableself
appears.Evenmoralindignationwouldnotexistwithoutacenteredselfandontologicalself
affirmation
[108]
"Itisthisselfenclosure,thisdevotiontotheselfthatallowshimtoactuallymake
Klein58
decisions.Onlywhentherearehis,canhemakethem.Centerednessdifferentiateshimfromtheother
inordertoallowdevotiontoit.Itpromotesdistancebetweentheselfandtheother,itisthereflective
propertythatseestheselfasselfandtheotherasother.Thisrelationshipisthemostimportantoneto
him.
Centerednessalsoimpliestheoppositeofitself:inorderformantobecenteredthere
mustalsobetheabsoluteothercenteredinitself.Absolute,initsstatusastheother,initscontentinthe
presentwhereinwhichitexistsastheother,andabsolutelycenteredinitself."Theotherselfisthe
unconditionallimittothedesiretoassimilateone'swholeworld.andtheexperienceofthislimitisthe
experienceoftheoughttobe,themoralimperative.[109]"Demonstratedhere,notonlyistheother
absolute,itmustbeabsoluteinorderformantorelatetoit.Heaffirmsonlythefinalityofcontent,he
affirmsarelationtoanotheronlywhenitispresent.Inorderforthistooccur,therelationshipmustbe
thetotalityofwhatispossible:therecanbenothingbeyondmanandtheother.Theirrelationshipmust
bejustasisolatedasheissothathemayinvesthisentiretyinthedecision.
Deaththen,isanexchange,inthemomentarypresent,theonlyarenawhereinwhich
mancangiveallofhimself,allofhimselfisgiven.Ifmaniscentered,heisonlycenterednow.Tobe
centeredinthepast,meanstoindentifythepastascenteredmeansthatnowheisnolongerinthatstate
ofbeingcentered.Suchselfcontainmentonlyoccurswhenitisbeingdone:creationonlyoccurswhenit
isinthetenseofcreating,decisionimpliesamomentwhereinwhichdecidinganddecidingaloneoccurs.
Thisisthenecessaryinstant:thebeingdecided.asecondintimewhereinwhichnothingelseis
occurringsaveforthebeingdecided.Thisisamomentthatnothingelsecouldoccur,thatdecidingcould
onlyincludeoneobject,couldonlyembracebothmanandtheother."Theycannotbedividedtheycan
onlybecrushedtheircenterednessdisruptsandpartsoftheirintegratedunitytostanddriventowards
Klein59
othercenters.[110]"Suchsacrificesthenarenecessaryfortheselftoretainitsselfhood:manishimself
onlywhentheotherispresentandviceversa.Thusheisalwaysproclaiminghisultimacyandalways
movingtowardsonecenterbydestroyinganother.fortheotherisasomnipresentasmanishimself.
Omnipresentisanappropriatetermhere:omnipresent,beingdefinedaspresenteverywhere.Manis
omnipresentwithinhimself,wherevermanistheentiretyofhimselfis.Hisselfomnipresenceincludesall
ofhimselfineveryinstantandeverysecond,thushecouldnevernotbegivingdeathbeyondthepresent
norbeyondhimself.
Byincorporatingselfintoabsenceandabsenceintoself,itbecomestranscendent.This
incorporationoverwhelmsthepastinthefutureinthepresent,andinthismovementovercomeslifewith
death,anddeathwithlife.This[decision]happensthroughdeliberationanddecision.Indoingso
it[centeredself]actualizesitsownpotentialities,butinactualizingitsownpotentialities,ittranscends
itself.Thisphenomenoncanbeexperiencedineverycognitiveact"Itisuniversalbecauseitisanultimate
decisionwhereinwhichnointernaldivision,andhecanchooseonlythisonethingsoastonegate
another.Thisother,intheinstanceofdecision,isitselfastheother.Itunifiesitselfinordertodecideby
relatingincompleteselfproximityitbothnegatesandcompletestheself.Itremovesbyseeingitselfas
theother,andmakingdecisiondependentupontheabsoluteotherthatmanrelatesto.Thustheselfis
notcenteredandthereforenonexistence.Yetitalsocompletesitselfbyactualizingitself,byrelyingon
anothertocompleteitselfiswherecreationoccurs.Thecanvasoflifeimpliesthatsuchacanvasis
actuallypresent,thatman'sisolationisbothcompletewithinhimselfandcompletelywithanultimately
another.
Thisotherisonethatexcludesall"otherothers",itrelatesitselftotheabsoluteother
onlywhentheotherisitselfabsolute.Thislanguageisnotneedlessdissimilation,butthisconstant
Klein60
repetitionofselfrelationfollowedbyselfrelationisactuallythedeconstructionoflifewithdeathand
deathwithlife."Imustkeeppossibilitiesoutsidemycenteredself,orImustgiveupsomethingofwhatI
nowamforthesakeofsomethingpossiblewhichmayenlargeandstrengthenmycenteredself.Somy
lifeoscillatesbetweenthepossibleandtherealandrequiresthesurrenderofonefortheotherthe
sacrificialcharacterofalllife.[111]"Inorderfortheultimacyoftheother,the"giftofdeath"emerges
onceagain.Theselfdestroyitselfinordertomakeanewone.Itbehavesasthoughnothingexisted
beforethenowinordertospeakoflifewithinthenow.Allpossibilities,arebothconstantlyaffirmed(the
definitionofpossibilities)andnegated(nopossibilityistrulyitself,foritisonlyindeathandthusin
retrospectdoesapossibilitycomeintobeing.).Byspeakingofacenteredselfandalife,allelsemust
beputtodeath,hisselfnegationmustbeofferedinordertomaketheothernessofhisultimacyhisnew
life.Hemustdieinordertodecide,musthatewhohewasinordertolovewhoheis,andmustdisdain
theotherinordertocherishit.
Thepowerofdecision,isonethatcontainswithinitselfthegreatestparadoxofall:that
ofimpossibility.Whenonedecides,hedeclaresthatwhatheoughttobeisalsosomethinghecanbehe
createsfromthenothingnessofhimselfthegreatestdefinitionthatevercouldbe.Forifthemorallaw
commandsthatweoughttobebetterhumanbeingsnow,itinescapablyfollowsthatwemustbe
capableofbeingbetterhumanbeings[112].Kant'spointhisperfecthere,yetdecisionalsohasalready
declaredthatman'sselfdefinitionisimpossible,thatheknowsneitherhimselfnorwhatherelatestohe
decidesbasedonnothingandthuscannotactuallydecideatall.Responsibilitytotheothercanneverbe
evaded,thusmanisrequiredtospeakanyway.Thefactthathecannotansweristhegreatestmotivation
forwhyhemust.Onlyinadecisionthatisimpossiblecouldthegreatestvaluearise.thenwhatIcallGod
exists,(thereis)whatIcallGodinme,(ithappensthat)IcallmyselfGodaphrasethatisdifficultto
Klein61
distinguishfrom"Godcallsme,"foritisonthatconditionthatIcancallmyselforthatIamcalledin
secret.Godisinme,heistheabsolute"me"or"self,"heisthatstructureofinvisibleinterioritythatis
called,inKierkegaard'ssense,subjectivity."Ultimacyisonlyconjuredwhenitistheimpossibleanswer
totheanyquestionmanposestohimselfwhenmanmustcreateultimacyisitactuallythemostultimate.
Mancanonlytakesresponsibilityforthisimportancehowever,forbyspeakingheinvestsallofhimself
inhiswordsandthusintheultimacyoftheother.Theonlywordhehasneverlearnedistheonehemust
alwaysspeaktoallowtheothertoremaininsecrettoknowitperfectly.
Itisimpossibleformantospeakbecauseheisisolated.Thisessaybeganbysayingthat
therewasanecessaryandimpossiblesynthesisbetweenthesocialandtheindividual.Oneallowsthe
presenceoftheotherandviceversa.Yetbydeciding,heisleftalonewithinhimself.Heusesthe
symbolsinwaysthatareknownonlytohimself,onlyhecanknowhisotherforonlyheisrelatingtoit.
Theindividualistheonlyonethatbeginsoverandoveragain,andeventheculturewhereinwhichhe
foundhimselfaslostitselfinthetranslationofhiswords.Hejourneysherebyhimself,justasAbraham
did.Hedoestheimpossible,ineverymovementofcreationhecreatesforhimselfandfortheotherso
thathemightcreatehimselfandtheother.Thetimewhereinwhichoneis"for"andone"is"isalwayslost
becausehewalksalone.Heneverknowswhereheisgoing,onlythatheisgoing.Ashejourneys
towardsnothing,herespondswithnothing.Hissolitudeisbothwithinhisownlackofcontent,aswellas
thecontentoftheabsoluteother.Yetimpossible,hetranscendsthis.Heanswers"Here1am":thefirst
andonlypossibleresponsetothecallbytheother,theoriginarymomentofresponsibilitysuchasit
exposesmetothesingularother,theonewhoappealstome."Here1am"istheonlyselfpresentation
presumedbyeveryformofresponsibility:Iamreadytorespond,1replythat1amreadyto
respond[113].Hisstepintodecision,isparadoxicallyboththestepandthenonstep.Thesephrasesare
Klein62
unavoidable,bystatinghislocationmangiveshimselfupsurrenderswhoheisinfavorwhoisnoti.e.the
other.Heseparateshimselffromtheotherinordertobeseenbyit,allthewhileacknowledgingthat
nothingseeshim.Itisthenothingthatcreatesthesomething(thenonoriginoftheorigin,inanother
Derrideanphrase),andgivesitselfutterlytothiscause.
Thedissectionofthisphrasecontainsmanyelementsofimpossibility.thephrasebegins
with"here".Itmustonlybeginwithhere,withthepresent,withmangivingallofhimselftothisother,
affirmingonlythatheisnotwhatheis.Godasaninfiniteanswercouldonlybeacquiredintheinfinite
ambiguityofthehere.Itleavesopenimpossibilityasaconclusionbybeginningwiththesameanswerit
islookingfor.Thisdeductiveprocessisthebeginningofman.Thebeginningofhisquestionisalsothe
endofit,forsimplybysayinghere,heaffirmshimselfinrelationtotheother.Heishereasopposedto
there,andthustheotherfillsthespace.Hisdecisionisolateshimwithinthehere,itcannotbetherefor
bybeingtherehehascreatedanewhere.Thisisthebeginningofthesecondpart,the"Iam".Any
"there"isanimpossibilityforman,hiscenterednessdictateswhereheremains.TheIamistheherethat
hecouldneverleave.Itisthenoncontentthatmanbeginswiththatisactuallyfulloflife.
Hisdecisionrequireshimtoleavehimselfandaffirmtheother,allthewhilesayinghere
Iam.Heclaimstoknowwhathisdecisioninbymakingit,whichthenrevealsthathecouldknowonly
himself.Decisionistheimpossibleparadoxthatsaysmanknowseverythingandnothing,andthathis
selfomnipresenceisactuallyananswerratherthanaquestion,andthattheotheractuallyrelatestohim
entirely.Theselfknowingthathedoesnothaveistheonethinghemustaffirmabouttheotherwhen
choosingit.Heisconfidentinitbecauseheisnotconfidentinhimself.Abrahamrenouncesallsense
andallpropertythatiswheretheresponsibilityofabsolutedutybegins.Abrahamisinapositionof
nonexchangewithrespecttoGod,heisinsecretsincehedoesn'tspeaktoGodandexpectsneither
Klein63
responsenorrewardfromhim.
Theresponseandhenceresponsibilityalwaysriskwhattheycannotavoidappealingtoinreply
[enretour],namely,recompenseandretribution.Theyrisktheexchangethattheymightexpectbutare
atthesametimeunabletocounton.[114]"Mangiveswhathedoesnothaveinordertogainwhathe
cannothave.Hemakesadecisionasnothimselfsothathemayhaveaself.Yettheconverseistrue:he
decidesashimselfinordertobeunmadeandseparatedeternallyfromthisself.Manaskstheimpossible
ofhimselfbecauseheaskstheimpossibleoftheother.Hecannotevenaskquestionsmuchlessget
answersthereisnoonetoanswerhimandnoselftoreceive.Onlyambiguityawaitshim,yethestrives
onthis,encouragingtheimpossibletoacquiescehisrequestofhisownpossible.Herelieson
unspeakable,andthenonexistentnatureofcreation,sothathemayspeakbothofitandhimself.
Kierkegaard'sdependentontheabsurd,mustalsoberejoinedhere.Reason,asan
entityforandwithinproduction,hasauniquerelationshipwiththeimpossibleAllthattimehe
believedhebelievedthatGodwouldnotrequireIsaacofhim,whereashewaswillingneverthelessto
sacrificehimifitwasrequired.Hebelievedbyvirtueoftheabsurdfortherecouldbenoquestionof
humancalculation,anditwasindeedtheabsurdthatGodwhorequireditofhimshouldthenextinstant
recalltherequirement.Heclimbedthemountain,evenattheinstantwhentheknifeglitteredhebelieved
thatGodwouldnotrequireIsaac.[115]"ToreturntoTheChristianallegoryofdecision,decision
takesbothsidesofsuchaparadoxontoitself.Itsaysthatnothingisknowable,itcouldneverbe
reasonableforyoutomakethedecisionyoudo,butyoustillmostmakeit:Isaacmuststillbelost.
However,inthesamesecond,asitbecomestheonlythingthatmancoulddoi.e.respondtothecall,it
iswithinreason.Itisthemostreasonableformantodisavowreasonofanythingotherthanwhathe
speakstohimself.Manmustbewithinreasoninordertoact,hecannotliveinanabsolutevacuous
Klein64
paradoxdevoidofthis.Theabsurdityishisend,theonehecouldneverreach,couldneverknow,yet
stillmuststrivetowards.Inthishestateswhatisreasonforhim:hecompletesreasonbyendingitwhere
hefindsit,hecarriesitwithhimupthemountaininordertokeepitalive.Thisisyetanotherparadox
andbinaryoppositionthathasbeendeconstructedwithindecision,thatitmustovercomeinorderforit
tobearesponsibledecision.
"ReasonisincapableofthinkingthisdoubleinfringementuponNature:thatthereislack
inNatureandthatbecauseofthatveryfactsomethingisaddedtoit.Yetoneshouldnotsaythat
Reasonispowerlesstothinkthisitisconstitutedbythatlackofpower.Itistheprincipleofidentity.It
isthethoughtoftheselfidentityofthenaturalbeing.Itcannotevendeterminethesupplementasits
other,astheirrationalandthenonnatural,forthesupplementcomesnaturallytoputitselfinNatures
place.[116]"WhenDerridaspeaksofreasonwithindecision,itplaysthesamerole.Itisbuiltbecause
itcouldnotbe,reason'sapplicabilityresidesintheveryfactthatassoonassomethingisreasonabilityit
isnotthenextmoment.Theillusionstructurecomesfromtheillusionofsuchacontinuation(repetition,
Derrideanterm),andthuswhatisreasonabletomanneverhasanythingtodowith"reason".The
conceptmeansnothingwithouttheaforementionedrelationtotime,allofwhichonlycomeaboutin
man'sexistentialunity.Tobepresentwouldbetoremovethefaithandpowerofdecision.Onlywhen
nothingwasreasonabletostart,andnothingwillbereasonableinthefuture(inspiteofclaimstothe
contrary)does"reasonoccur"However,whenmanstepsupinresponsibilityheseesonlybeforehim
whatheoughttodo,whatismostreasonableforhim.Theartificialityofnature,justlikethegiant,is
whatspeaksmostauthentically,forisonlyman'stodecide.Thusitcomesfullcirclewithinreason,what
mancannotgivehemust,foronlyhecouldanswerthecall.
Asrevealedearlier,manspeakstohimselfinaninstant.Heovercomesbothhimself
Klein65
andtheotherbyspeakingtothembothsidesasbothsides,andthustranscendsit.Thereforewhenhe
decideshereliesonwhatisnotknown,infactthisisthebeginningofhisknowing.Inorderformanto
create,tobegin,hemusthavenotbegunyet.Inthishedestroysthepast.However,bycreating,he
stateswhatwillbe,whatheisdoingbycreating,affirmingthatthereisafuturethatisfinalevenwhenhe
doesnotknowit.Yetthisimpossiblecanvasisalsohisonlyone,timeisnegatedaswellasmadewhen
mandecides."Paradoxically,itisbecauseofthisoverflowingoftheperformative,becauseofthis
alwaysexcessivehasteofinterpretationgettingaheadofitself,becauseofthisstructuralurgencyand
precipitationofjusticethatthelatterhasnohorizonofexpectation(regulativeormessianic).Butforthis
veryreason,itmayhaveanavenir,a"tocome,"whichIrigorouslydistinguishfromthefuturethatcan
alwaysreproducethepresent.Justiceremains,isyet,to_come.avenir.ithasan,itisavenir,thevery
dimensionofeventsirreduciblytocome.Itwillalwayshaveit,thisavenir,andalwayshas[117].Itis
notknownbecauseitisbeyondthepresent,itresidessolelywithinthefuture.Creation(thefuture)
onlyconcernscreating(thepresent),byintertwiningandthusnegatingthesetwo.Mandecides
impossiblywitheverydecision,hecouldneverchoosewhatheknowsbecauseheneverknowsthe
other.Everyinstantofhislife,everysecondofthepresent,heisforeverstrayingintotheambiguityof
"whatwillbeknown"Thisishishorizon,onewhichencloseshimfromthefrontanddestroysthe"what
wasknown"tothepointwhereitneverwas.Toaffirmtheother,manmustsaytheotherwillbethere
whenhereachesit.Byspeakingabsolutelytohimself,heiscreatingthefuture.Thisiswhatismostjust
forhim,hisselfjusticeisinaccessible,yetheimpossibletakesupfaithinthis.Thisiswhereisultimacy
comesfrom:thenonexistentfuturefallingbackintothepresent.Intheparadoxoftheinstant:mansays
thattheultimacynowwilllastforever,mustlastforever,andyetwillneverbehereinordertobegin
lasting.Mantranscendsthiswithhisdecision,withhimselfandtheotherinthefullunityofabsence.[118]
Klein66
Onceagain,alackofdefinition,andthusthestepfromimpossibilityintopossibility,or
inexpressibilityintoexpressability,isanecessaryone.Thesignificanceofwhatissaidgainsmore
fortitudewiththisstep,anditrepresentstheentiretyoftheindividualwithinit.Thereisnoexternalbeing,
andnothingtobreakmanfromwhatheistohimself,andimpossibilityisanomnipresentguardagainst
this."Foradeconstructiveoperationpossibilitywouldratherbethedanger,thedangerofbecomingan
availablesetofrule governedprocedures,methods,accessibleapproaches.Theinterestof
deconstruction,ofsuchforceanddesireasitmayhave,isacertainexperienceoftheimpossible."
[119]

Itisanytimemanattributessystematicvaluetowhatisnotbeforehim,toanythingbeyondthefullness
ofthepresentmoment,thatthisdangerarises.Methodsimplyrepetition,andthatsuchcontinuationis
prioritizedoverotherpossibilities.Suchexactsolutionsalsonegatethepossibilityofdifferanceinfavor
ofabsolutespacing,ofthefixedoriginofaproceduretodominantotheroptions.Yetdeconstruction
declaresthatissuch,andequallysothatthismanactsonlywhenthereisnothingtoactupon.
Themostterrifyingpart,thatwhichcauseshimtotremble[120]isthatwhenhedecides,
heonceagainbecomesthissameinfant,thesamechildwhoknowsnothingoftheworldhelivesin.He
isreducedtothisstagebothbydeclaringhisdecisionfinal,andthenwalkingintothisrealityhehas
created.Themomenthewalksintothis,andbydoingsorelatingtotheother,itbecomesambiguous
oncemore.Heknewsomethingofitthen,buthisfaithindecisionhasbeenbornagainitdemandsthat
hereinstituteit.Bytheotherstayingastheother,thereisstillafundamentalgapitandthisself.Yethe
cannotgiveanythinglessthanallofhimself,thusheisgivingintotheunknownabsolutely.Bygiving
absolutelyhowever,ofbothhisdeathandhislife,hebecomesobjectiveandfinal.Ourfaithisnot
assured,becausefaithcanneverbe,itmustneverbeacertainty.WesharewithAbrahamwhatcannot
beshared,asecretweknownothingabout,neitherhimnorus.Toshareasecretisnottoknoworto
Klein67
revealthesecret,itistoshareweknownotwhat:nothingthatcanbedetermined.Whatisasecretthat
isasecretaboutnothingandasharingthatdoesn'tshareanything?Suchisthesecrettruthoffaithas
absoluteresponsibilityandasabsolutepassion,the"highestpassion"asKierkegaardwillsayitisa
passionthat,sworntosecrecy,cannotbetransmittedfromgenerationtogeneration.Inthissenseithas
nohistory.Thisuntransmissibilityofthehighestpassion,thenormalconditionofafaithwhichisthus
boundtosecrecy,neverthelessdictatestousthefollowing:wemustalwaysstartover.[121]"His
decisioncreateshimjustasitcreatestheother.Theybothcreatewithintheunknown,fortocreate
withintheknownwouldsimplybetorecallandnottobeingagainlifewouldbelostbecauseitwas
neverhad.Faiththen,faithinthedecisionreliesuponthesecret,thesecretthatisonlyasecretuntilitis
decidedupon,thaninthenextinstantbecomesasecretonceore.Lifeisdependentthattheother
remainother,andthesecretmakesthisso.Theintensityofdecisionisonlyconcretewhenthatdecision
isfinal,whennothingelsecouldbe.Responsibilityalwaysspeakstheotherknowingitself,afactthatno
oneelsecouldunderstandandthatexcludesevenmanfromitself.Thisiswhybirthasabsolute,asthe
reductiontothechildisanintrinsicpartofdeciding,withoutitmancouldnotdecide.Anabsolute
separationiscompleteintimacy,andproximityisonlyfoundwhenthemanisbothseparatednever
maintained.Tonothaveabsoluteknowledge,toretaintheotheruntiltheinstantwhereinwhichtheyare
unitedandseparated,iswhatitmeanstotakefullresponsibilityforoneselfandnonother.
Awill,adesire,ademandforjusticewhosestructurewouldn'tbeanexperienceofaporia
wouldhavenochancetobewhatitis,namely,acallforjustice.Everytimethatsomethingcomesto
passorturnsoutwell,everytimethatweplacidlyapplyagoodruletoaparticularcase,toacorrectly
subsumedexample,accordingtoadeterminantjudgment,wecanbesurethatlaw(droit)mayfinditself
accountedfor,butcertainlynotjustice....Lawistheelementofcalculation,anditisjustthattherebe
Klein68
law,butjusticeisincalculable,itrequiresustocalculatewiththeincalculable"
[122]
.Thusthecallfor
justice,notjustforselfarticulationbutthatmanwoulddeclarewhatheoughttodeclare.Formanassert
himselfisbothpossibleandimpossible.forithappenseverymomentbutthereisnojustificationforhim
todoso.Hecanneverrelyonpastexperience,andmustonlyacknowledgehispowertocreate,that
thepresentmomentrestsathisfingertips.Hecanquestion,forthisisdemandedofhimhemayquestion
infinitely,yetmustalwaysresideinananswerofhisselfspeech.Tocreatedefinitionamidstacomplete
lackofit,thisistheexistentialcallofhumanity,andhisgreateststepoffaith.

Beingitselfiscompletelyanimpossibility:itisanentitythatisnotanentity,abasisfor
itselfthatisalsoconstructedonthisbasis.Mancompleteshimselfbythisincompletion,byrelatingto
ultimacyhetranscendsnotjusthimselfbutalsotheendofhisdecision.Hemakesitbecausehecannot
makeit,becausethereisnosecret,andthisveryfactbringsaboutthesecret.Itisimpossibleforhimto
knowwhatherelatesto,aandbecauseofthisitiscompletelyhisultimateconcernandconstituteshim
completely.Yetequallyso,bedenyinghisownselfdefinition,hecreatesthisother,hespeaksinto
existencesothathemayspeaktohimselfinthesameway.Itishisobligation,hislawtobehavethis
way,toanswerwhennooneelsecanwithananswernoone(includinghimself)knows.Initscomplete
demand,iswherewhatTillichtitlescourage[123]mustoriginatefrom.Whennothingcanbeknownof
thedecidingother,whentheimpossibleishandinhandwithwhatispossible,manmustbeafraid(once
againistrembling,courageousyettrembling.)"undertheconditionsofhumanfinitudeandestrangement
thatwhichisessentiallyunitedbecomesexistentiallysplit.Thecouragetobeasapartseparatesitself
fromunitywiththecouragetobeasoneself,andconverselyandbothdisintegrateintheirisolation."
Man'sabilitytoend,wherebeginsandwhereheends,placeshimcompletelywithinthoseendsand
Klein69
thereforebyhimself.Becausehiscenterednesscanneverinfringedupon,heisalonewithinhimself.
Conversely,whenhespeaksofultimacy,hespeaksofonlywhatheknows.Byspeakingofwhathe
knows,hereferencesthesameothernessofsocietythatDerridaknew,ofthenecessarysymbols
whereinwhichhisbeingandnonbeingisconstituted.Yethetranscendsthis,transcendsthepresentand
pastandfutureallwithinhimselfashegoesupwards,andnoonemakesthisclimbwithhim.Ultimacy
mustbedeclaredbyhim,yetbydoingthisheseparateshimselffromitbystatinghewillneverreachit.
Hisabilitytoendkeepsitfromhim,makesitimpossibleforhimtosaytheonlywordshecansay.
Hisdynamicsaremadebythisprinciple,andbeginsateverysimilarparadoxical
relationshipwiththepresentandthefuture,onewhichcanbemadeabsoluteindeconstruction.The
individual'sisolationcauseshimtobethebeginningandtheendofhisfaithandultimateconcern.When
heproclaimscourage,hespeaksofbeingitselfasknowable,andthusdestroyshimselfinordertorelate
himselftothisprinciple.Hemustnotremainamidstcreation,creationiscompleteandnonfinal,and
nothingofthepriorremainsintheresult.Yetbydoingso,hebeginshimself,andconsequentlyhe
formulatesbeingitselfbydestroyingwhatheknewofhimself.Thetwocanneverbeseparated,andare
infactcombineinthefactthatneitherofthemiseverknown.Manneverknowshimself,justashenever
knowstheother,andthesecombinetocreateabsoluteproximityforboth."Therearenorevealed
doctrines,buttherearerevelatoreventsandsituationswhichcanbedescribedindoctrinalterms...The
WordofGodcontainsneitherrevealedcommandmentsnorrevealeddoctrinesitaccompaniesand
interpretsrevelatorysituations[124]"yetultimacycanneverbecompleted,mustneverbeseen,anything
morethanaslightglimpsewoulddestroyrevelationentirely.Inorderforbeingitselftoexist,itmust
neverbethefinalanswer,itmustneverexist.Inthiswayitleavesthepresent.Faithsays:"whatI
proclaimwillbeagaininthenextinstant",andwithhisdecisionsheaffirmsthis.theIndividual
Klein70
acknowledgeswhatcannotbeknowninordertosaythat,inthefutureitwillbeknown.Hemakeshis
decisionsandshapestherevelationinanticipation.Hebringsthefutureintotheinstantwhereheis
willingtospeak.Hedestroyshimselfandanydogmathemomenthecreatesanything.Heisalways
deconstructingsothathisdecisioncankeepupwiththenecessarilyfloatingnatureofthehuman
condition.
Byspeakingthefutureinthepresent,manspeaks"asthoughheknows"thisisthe
beginningofdecisionwhichstartsgroundedinimpossibility."Thefinalrevelationmakesactionpossible,
Thereissomethingparadoxicalineveractionitalwayscontainsaconflictofabsolutismandrelativism.
Itisbasedondecisionbuttodecideforsomethingastrueorasgoodmeansexcludingcountlessother
possibilities.Everydecisionis,insomerespect,absolutistic,resistingtheskepticaltemptationof
epoche(notjudgingnotacting).Itisarisk,rootedinthecourageofbeing,threatenedbytheexcluded
possibilities,manyofwhichmighthavebeenbetterandtruerthantheonechosen[125]".Theepochis
whytheimpossibleisnecessaryitdrawsthelinebetweentheexpressibleandtheinexpressible.The
skepticaltemptation,isnotonewhichmancanindulgeinfullness,bydoingsoheistemptedbythe
realityhejustdeniedtoreturntoit.Atemptationispowerfulnotbecausemancouldneverchooseit,or
thatthistemptationislessvalidthanthechoicemaniscurrentlymaking.Itpresentsitselfasthebetterof
thetwo,andbydoingsopresentsdecisionasanentirelypossibleventure.Thisisthegreatest
deception,andwhyman'sdevotionisinthefinalinstanthisandhisalone.Assoonasonemanturns
towardtemptation,heisnolongertemptedbyit.Thustemptationisthenonexistent,aninbetween
stageofbeingandnonbeing.Assoonasmanlooksatitdisappears,andthesecondheturnsback
towardshisreality(andthereforelookingatitforthefirsttime),temptationsaysthatitknowsman.It
claimstobetheotherwhoknows,andurgesmantoact"asheknows"(noticethemissingword).
Klein71
Reasonasseparatedfromman(thereforeasabsolute,asreasonforitself)isperhaps
thegreatestdeception.Systematicreasoncouldonlydeceive,fornothingaboutfaithishistoricaland
thereforenodecisioncouldbemadeassomeoneelsemadeit.[126].Thisishowdeconstructioncan
movebeyondthepreviousexistentialquestions,andwhydecisionisonlypowerfulbecauseofthe
deconstructeddecisionrequiredtoaffirmit."WhatTarquiniusSuperbussaidinthegardenbymeansof
thepoppies,thesonunderstoodbutthemessengerdidnot[127]"Kierkegaardspokeeventhoughhe
didnotknow,heusedwordstosayasthoughheknows.ThesameforAbrahamfollowed,andthisisa
significantcomponenttotheentirework.However,bynegatingreason,heacknowledgedreasonas
presentatallandthusloweredhimselfbackintoarelationtoit.Theparadoxoftheabsurdisnotthat
thisactionisabsurdandtheculturalactionsarenotit's"truth"isrevealedonlywheneverythingis
absurd,andyetsomehowmandiscernsthroughittheabsenceofreasonashisreason.Inhis
anticipationofreason,hehascreatedareasonablefuture,oneisforeverandalwaysdestroyingitself
Withoutthesymbolscreatedbyuniversalrevelation,thefinalrevelationwouldnotbeunderstandable.
"Withoutthereligiousexperiencescreatedbyuniversalrelationnocategoriesorformswouldexistto
receivethefinalrevelation."[128]Revelationwhichisfinalisthatwhichiscomplete,ofthatwhichneeds
nomorebeyonditandisthegreatestformofitselfisalwayshowitoughttobe.Yetparadoxically,
revelationcreatestheboundariesofrealityandthereforepossibilityofrevelation.Itcreatesthegrounds
foritselfsothatitmayarise,yetthemomentitdoessaiditwascompletefromthebeginning.The
momentbeforehespeaksitorevenashespeaksit,therewasnocoherencytoman'sdecision.What
manwilldecide,whathespeakstohimselfonlyoccurswhenitisbeingsaid,andinthatmomentthe
revelationofhisdecisionisfinal.Neverbeforeandneverafter.Reasonisthereforeonlyreasonaslong
asitisnotsystematicatall,aslongasitcannotberepeated,andthusisnotreasonableatall.The
Klein72
individualspeaksincessantlywithinreasononlybecausehehasnothingelsetosay.
Theindividualalsohasnoideawhatherelatesto,noideawhatitmeanstodecide,to
relyonbeingitself,yetitisnecessarythathechooseit.Hisdecisionisalwaysultimate,andthushe
relateshimselftobeingitself.Yetheremainsisolatedfrombothofthese,instancesheisforevercaught
betweensothatlifeanddeathmaybegiven.Hedestroyshimself,inordertodecide,andhasnoplace
toreturntobysteppingoutintowhatitmeanstohavefaithinhisultimateconcern.Yetbysteppingout,
bytakingthefirststephehasforcedhimselftowalkblindlyoncemore.Hecanneverknowwhathe
relates,tofortobedoingsowouldnegatetheneedforfaith..NottotheGodoftheology,andequally
sonevertoanentityatall.Yetitisthroughthisdeclarationthatmanknowshimselfandtheother,he
affirmsnothingnessinordertospeakoflife,tounrelatedistobeabsolutelyrelated.Theyareawareof
theparadoxicalcharacterofeveryprayer,ofspeakingtosomebodytowhomyoucannotspeak
becauseheisnot"somebody,"ofaskingsomebodyofwhomyoucannotaskanythingbecausehegives
orgivesnotbeforeyouask,ofsaying"thou"tosomebodywhoisnearertotheIthantheIistoitself.
EachoftheseparadoxesdrivesthereligiousconsciousnesstowardaGodabovetheGodoftheism."
Faith'stranscendencedoesnotallowforsuchonesidedness:ittakesbothcompleteproximityand
absoluteothernessandtranscendsthem.Faithdeconstructsthesedifferenceswhenmandecides,and
bydoingsoreferstobeingitself.Decisionaffirmsanabsoluteotherinthesameway:athingwhichisso
otherthanmanastobeaneternalsecret(neverknown,neverhere,thereforeneverexistent)soasto
allowforhimtobecompletelyimmanent.Decisionisthisparadox,themostimportantuniteswhatis
expressiblewiththeonlythingthatcouldneverbe.Theseresolutionsmusthavebeencompletely
deconstructedinordertobemade.Beingitselfwouldneverdisappeariftherealitybetweendecision
andindecisionhadnotalreadybeennegatedandmadeapparent.Tillichhadalreadybegun,inmany
Klein73
ways,todeconstructwiththequoteshereyetbyapplyingthe"finishedproduct"byusingDerrida,his
theologycanmovebeyonditsstructureandintomeaning.Itcanbeexpressibleonlywheneverything
elsehasbecomeinexpressible.

Followingthesectionrevealingthatmandecides,aninspectionofwhatmanisdecidingcomes
nextintheformofthetrace.ItsnothingnessandinterrelatednesscomposethesongofbeingitselfThe
relationofwritingtospeech,particularlyofwritingasthelattersimageoritssymbol,misconstrues
theirrelation.Theinterconnectednessrequiredbetweenasymbolandthatwhichitsymbolizes
overwhelmsthepossibilityofitsarbitrariness."Inaninternalandthereforeportionofthesystemofsigns
,itaccompaniesspeechinthesamewaythatspeechisconjoinedtowriting.Itsupposesonthe
contraryacommonrootandthusexcludestheresemblanceoftheimage
[129]
AssoonasSaussure
presumedthatwritingwasexcludedfromspeech,herelatedthetwotogether.Bystatingspeechasthe
other,henecessarilyclaimedarelation.TheunderlyingsignificanceofthisconnectioninSaussure's
contradictoryexpositionindicatestoDerridathetrace.
Rousseauattemptedtogivelanguageanaturalorigin,apremisewhichDerridanecessarilyand
passionatelyrefused
[130]
.Hespokeofpassion,oflinguisticssimplyanecessaryarticulationofwhatis,
andthesignsderivingfromtheintensityofnecessity.Passion,inanewlight,doesnotactasanorigin
butasthemotiveofdistinction,bothasanexpressionofindividualityandoftheuniquenatureofthe
signified.withinitsnonconstitutedguise.Itistheform,andtheinstigatorofform,butisnotrelianton
substance.Itistheoriginofthetraceandtheexistentialmotivationforspeech.Withinthevoice,the
Klein74
presenceoftheobjectalreadydisappears.Theselfpresenceofthevoiceandofthehearingoneself
speakconcealstheverythingthatvisiblespaceallowstobeplacedbeforeus
[131]
Thevery
constituentofitsactualityi.e.thefactthatitiswithintimeinterruptspassionfromitself.Itsabilitytobe
placedbefore,itsspacialexistenceforevercloaksitinthesyntheticsign,andremovesthespeakers
intentionalityfromhimself.Hisvoiceisalwayshinderedbythenonpresenceoflanguage,thusthesign
createsanddeconstructsmeaningingeneral.Itisnottruthhewishestoexpress,butrathermotivation,
astheexpressiblebecomesmuddledineverymomentofspeech.Itshrinkstheseparationbetween
synthesisandantithesisintonothing,therebydestroyingtheabsolutenonbeingthatisimpliedinorderto
beginlifethatincludesbothsides.Theunavoidabilityofthisenterpriseofspeech,placesnothingbeyond
passiongarbedinthebeingofthesignified,thatforabriefmomentitisrevealedintheideaofnegation.
Theseoppositionshavemeaningonlyafterthepossibilityofthisinterrelatedness."The
unmotivatednessofthesignrequiresasynthesisinwhichthecompletelyotherisannouncedas
suchwithoutanysimplicity,anyidentity,anyresemblanceorcontinuitywithinwhatisnotit.Is
announcedassuch:therewehaveallhistory,fromwhatmetaphysicshasdefinedasnonlivingupto
consciousness,
[132]
Mostimportantly,thetraceisthecontextinwhichdifferencebecomes
observable.Tounderstandonethingasitselfandtheotherasnot,astandardofconnectionispresumed
betweenthetwo.WhenSaussuretriedtopresentthesignasarbitrary,heonlyrevealedthat
arbitrarinessderivesfromtherelationofintentionalvoicetowriting.Forajuxtapositionofpresencewith
nonpresencehasalreadyspokenthelanguageofpresenceandbeingheard.Thereisamotivationevery
timethequestionisaskedoforigins,foronlyinthismotivatedtracecananacknowledgementof
differancebemade.Toproclaimanylinearitywithinthesystemi.e.toallowthesigntoderiveoreven
Klein75
representfromthesignifierissimplytoneverpresentinitself.Thedominatingappearanceofspeech
overwriting,isbaseduponanillusorynaturalorigintoreasonandtotheprimordialessenceof
linguistics.Thetraceisinfacttheabsoluteoriginofsenseingeneral.Whichamountstosayingonce
againthatthereisnoabsoluteoriginofsenseingeneral.Thetraceisthedifferancewhichopens
appearanceandsignificance
[133]
.Itisthemeasurebywhichcomprehensionismadepossible,an
artificialstandardwhichallowsfordistinctionandarticulation.Itisthepositiveaffirmationofdifference
betweenobjects,andwhatallowsforoppositiontoactanepistemicmoveforman.Italsoaffirmstheir
difference,andactsasthesocialstandardbywhichdifferentiationoccurs.Itiswhatallowsthe
incessantlymotivatedindividualtocomprehendthesignsheusestoseparateandverifytheuniqueness
ofanyrelationofobjectsconstitutinghisphenomenology.
Yetthisisnotthetrace,thebeingheardasthesignifierremovesthisthedeterminingfactorfrom
timeanddisrelationtologos,andgivesittoarticulation.Despiteallthecomplexityofitsstructures,
temporalityhasanondisplaceablecenter,aneyeorlivingcore,thepunctualityoftherealnow
[134]
The
traceascontextandsenseingeneralisconstantlybeingreinterpretedandreconstituted.Everyactof
retranslationisonlyanelementofpresenttense,forinthatisoccurrenceandactualityandpower.This
newbeginningcontainstheactualizingpowerofhumanityviathetrace,foritisthenecessaryconstituent
ofanyformofexpression.Itsdisavowingofapointintimebeforeitiswhatgivesthephenomenological
itsimportance,andwhatstatesthebeingheardasthesign.Lackingthisbeginning,theproblemofa
presentoriginhasbeenabolished.
Suchanabilitytomakedistinctisnotonewhichdegradesthroughtimeoradisrelationtothe
literal,asSaussurehadproposedviatheimpositionofthewrittenlanguageonspeech.Thisgives
Klein76
speechwhatDerridacallsapassiveair[135]aboutit,onewhichisconstantlybeinginfectedand
imposeduponbywriting,ratherthanbeinggiventhepoweritdeserves.Asthishierarchyputsoneover
theotheronlyinlightofanorigin,anysuchpropositionissynthetic.Thispassivityisalsothe
relationshiptothepast,toanalwaysalreadytherethatnoreactivationoftheorigincouldfullymaster
andawakentopresence.Theimpossibilityofreanimatingtheabsolutemanifestevidenceofanoriginary
presencerefersusthereforetoanabsolutepast[136]Languageisincessantlymisconstruingitselfthe
momentthestatureofnatureconstitutesit,foreverymomentspendsawayfromthishedriftsfartherand
fartherawayfrompresence.Whenmanisunabletoparticipateinthecreationofmeaning,itwillalways
bedistantfromhimhisparticipationisanecessary[137].Theideaofbirthhasdiedatthe"happy
moment"whereinlanguagewasconceivedratherthanaconstantreinvigoration,thedecayofpresence
accompaniesthisanobjectivebeginningtoit.
Thisrelationshipleadstoitsincessant"dilution":becomingsointegratedintothesystemit
generatedtoastobecomeinvisible,itsurreptitiouslyfadesintonothing.Yetnotnothing(equallyso,that
itwaseversomethingbeyondtheoriginarysubstitutetobeginwith),asnonentity,forsuchadistinction
isagainincludedwithinthepresenceofthetrace.Itexistsbetweensuchdistinctions,belowandabove
them."lessthannothing,yettojudgebyitseffectsmorethannothing.Thesupplementisneither
presencenorabsence.Noontologycanthinkitsoperation[138]"Thesyntheticstateoflanguagedoes
disregardsuchontotheologicalquestionsaspresenceandabsence,yetremainsanobservable
phenomenonnonetheless.Anywillingnesstodisregardbasedonquestionsofbeingandnonbeing
fundamentallyimplyalogos,anideathatthetracehasalreadyisplace.Itactsasitsownaffirmation,
constantlyrevitalizingitselfineamomentofindividualempowermentandtranslationthisdifferance
keepsitfromtheconfinesofbothitstelosandexistence.
Klein77
Derridasconsummationofthistopiciswhatopensthisworkyetanotherlinkbetween
himselfandTillich.Aquestionofnaturalorunnaturalspeechisnolongerthequestionwhenthe
synthetictraceisitsownmotivationanddemotivation.Itisnotnonexistent,forithasphenomenological
repercussions.Norisitexistent,forthestatementacknowledgingitequallyerasesitforitis
comprehensibleasnosubstanceorform."Wecannomoreavoidghostandruinthanwecaneludethe
questionoftherhetoricalstatusofthistextualevent.Towhatfiguresdoesitturnforitsexposition,forits
internalexplosionoritsimplosion?Alltheexemplaryfiguresoftheviolenceoflawaresingular
metonymies,namely,figureswithoutlimit,unfetteredpossibilitiesoftranspositionandfigureswithout
figures.[139]"Theabsolute,thelawexistsonlyintheformofpossibility,andthuswhenonehasmoved
beyondthequestionsofpresence.Thetraceintrudesregardless,itsghastlyformempoweringand
creatingwhetheronewishestoacknowledgeitornot.Itcannomorebeavoided,foranymovement
awayistheSaussuriandichotomythatpullsitbackintorelation.Yetanyfundamentalopposition
createdwithinthisterminologyof"pullingaway",the"inbetween"natureofthetrace,allderivesfrom
thisbasisofnothingandsomethingtherevolutionarynonoriginincludesallwithinitselfbecauseitisthe
embodimentofnoncontentascontent.Manisboththemotivationforanyattemptsatdeviation,which
thusreconstituteasthenewpremise,thenewsynthesis,thatisnothingotherthananoriginalidea.
Thetracehasdoneawaywithoppositioninfavorofaninterdependent,selfbirthing
phenomenology.thevalueofthetranscendentalarche[archie]mustmakeitsnecessityfeltbefore
lettingitselfbeerased.Theconceptofarchetracemustcomplywithboththatnecessityandthat
erasure.Itisinfactcontradictoryandnotacceptablewithinthelogicofidentity.Thetraceisnotonlythe
disappearanceoforiginwithinthediscoursethatwesustainandaccordingtothepaththatwefollowit
meansthattheorigindidnotevendisappear,thatitwasneverconstitutedexceptreciprocallybya
Klein78
nonorigin,thetrace,whichthusbecomestheoriginoftheorigin
[140]
Thisnonbeginningiswhatallows
languagetocontinueasitself,andwhatgivestracetheappearanceofpresenceofitsannulmentof
presenceasprincipal.Itisthenonexistencebeginningofanonexistentstandard,thatwhichvalidates
writingwithoutthelogos.Thequestionofvalidationisnolongerpreytoempiricalassumptionsor
existence,andtheproclamationsofthearchetracearejustasabsentastheyareapresentationofitself.
Anonoriginarybeginningfundamentallyseparatesthearchetracefromontologywithitsincorporation
ofnonbeingasthenascentofbeing.Suchapremisegivesthepowerbacktotheindividual,ascribing
nottothedivinehandbuttohisownmeaningwithinlanguage.
Thechronologicalotherisdoneawaywith,thisstandardofarticulationwhichisnotopposedto
knowledgeasbothaprioriandposterioriiswhatisrevealedasthedifferencebetweenphenomenology
anditself.Asenseofothernessisconstantlyevokedbythetraceinrelationtotheindividual.Thereis
nothingotherthanthepresenttense,forevenasthetraceerasesitselfitinteractsonlyinthemoment.It
hasnovaluebeyondthepresent,yetisequallydisregardedinthepresent.Itthusdescribesthe
nonhistoryofabsolutebeginningswhicharerepeated,andtheveryhistoricitythatpresupposea
traditiontobereinventedeachstepoftheway,inthisincessantrepetitionoftheabsolute
beginning[141]."Despitetheoriginalcontext,offaithinGodastheother,manlivesthisrelationshipwith
hisselfothereverynew,andomnipresentinstant.Creationcanonlybedoneasitisbeing(keywordin,
being)done.It'soccurrenceisthebeginningandtheendofit,andeveryinstantisanewoneofbeing,
doing,creating.Notoneoftheseinstancehasbeenencounteredbefore,andneverwillbseenagain,
andthisiswhymantrembles.Hecreatesinisolation,betweenlifeanddeath,controllingbothand
presumingalsothatheisenslavedtoboth.Itsenmediasraydefinitioniswhatgivesitasolely
experientialandexistentialcharacter,fornoquestionofmetaphysicsofbeinginquiresuponit.Thetrace
Klein79
isbetweenbeingandnonbeing,anapparitiontearingapartinordertobringtogether.Itsvalidityexists
purelyconceptually,andamidstDerridasepistemologicalstandardthatissufficienttoproclaimand
effaceit.Hisdependenceonotherness,thatcouldonlybepresentwithinarealmwhichhasbeen
deconstructed,isavaluablerevelationhere.
Therearemorenegativeelementswithinthetracetomakenoteofhereaswell.Wereitpurely
apositiveentity,wouldonlybeareformulationofdivinedependencewithinhumannessaveryKantian
andHeideggerianattemptthatcouldneverescapewhatitdesires.Thisnegatingelementdoesnotdefy
theimportanceofwhatisdoneherehowever.Infactitisrequired,thatasenseofnothingnessaspurely
otherbespokenofineverymomentofthetrace.Itsequalusageofsignsandhumanvolitionarewhere
itderivesitspoweranegationofthesubjectobjectrelationshipbetweenthesocialandthespeaker.
Asalways,death,whichisneitherapresenttocomemoreapresentpast,shapestheinteriorof
speech,asitstrace,itsreserve,itsandinteriorandexteriordifferance:anditssupplement
[142]
.
Death,ornegation,iswhatallowsforpossibility,forlifeisequallycreatedineverydeclarationofdeath.
Thetraceasorigin,withinitsownselfconstitution,islifeanddeath,beingandnonbeing,butdoesnot
placetheseinoppositiontoeachotherOnerealityismade,alloftherestaredoneawaydoneaway
with,andthisinfinitecycleispossibilitybeyondthedivine.isthenonpresenceofthetrace,forit
containsandbothcreationanddeconstructionineverymomentoflife.[143]
Itsabilitytogobeyondpresence,inaphenomenologicalsense,vacillatingbetweennothingand
something,establishesthesignificanceoftheomnipresentnow.Itsinconsistencyisadisplayofits
finitude,andthereforeitsexpressionasthenowingeneral.It'sambiguityalsoventureintoinfinitude,the
nowhasbothallpossibilityandabsolutelinearitywithinitsborders.Thereisnonecessaryrelationship
betweenanyplaceandthebeingwhichhasprovidedthisspaceforitself.Finitudemeanshavingno
Klein80
definiteplaceitmeanshavingtoloseeveryplacefinallyand,withit,toloseBeingItself.
[144]
Thelack
ofaplacehasbecomeit'sabsoluteandinfiniteplacementalackofontologicalnecessityhasgiventhe
traceutmostnecessity.Thisiswhythetraceisalwayserasing,foritsintrinsiclackofdefinitionputsit
beyondthequestion.Yetthisnegativequalityisequallyindicativeofaninfiniteone:thatmomentthatis
alwayscontinuingi.e.thepresent.thereisnothingotherthanthismoment,thereforeitisinfinitudewithin
life,beyondsubstanceyetwithcompleteform.Itsunwillingnesstotakedefinitiononitselfcontinuesand
empowersthemoment,foritisothernessfromitself.
Thepresentisforeverdispiritedfromthepresent,foritisalwayschanging,andimplyingnothing
otherthanitself.Yetthisisolation,thissingularitykeepsitfromanytypeofrelation,eventoitsownself
definition,forthenowisequallynothing.Assoonasweadmitthiscontinuityofthenowandthenot
now,perceptionandnonperception,inthezoneofprimordialitycommontoprimordialimpressionand
primordialimpression,weadmittheotherintotheselfidentityoftheAugenblicknonevidenceand
nonpresenceareadmittedintotheblinkofaninstant.Thereisadurationtotheblink,anditclosesthe
eye
[145]
Thisisofutmostimportancetothetraceanddeconstructioningeneralitdefiesthepositivism
ofbeingandisdependentuponnegationasmuchasactualization.Itsconstraintwithintime,fortimeis
itsrequirement,constitutesitpurelytothephenomenological.Yetisitisconstantlyreferencingother
thanwhatitisbycausinganinterplaybetweenwhatisandwhatisnot.Itacknowledgesthemand
negatesthem,justasthetracenegatesitselfinitsusage.Thissmallinstant,whereinwhichthesignis
negatedandaffirmed,iswhatallowsforthetracetocomeabout,andremovesitfromexistence.Itis
thismomentofseparation,thatanideaofdistancearises.ThisisdistinctfromRousseausideaof
absolutedistance,ofadistinctionbetweentruthandarticulation[146].Ratheritisthesamedistance
Klein81
createdbythetrace,notofoppositionbutofinteractionamidstdistinction.Theconstantinterplay
betweenwhatappearinoppositioniswhatmakessensepossible,butalsorevealsthislackofintrinsic
difference.
Thisistheinteriority,yetasthisfundamentalinteriorityhasbeendeconstructed,italsoplaysa
roleinexteriority.Ithasnorole,noexistence,andwouldbeinexpressiblewereitnotentirelyexterior
i.e.assemblingitself.Itsisconstantlyassumedeverymomentthatinteriorityisalsotheexterior
possibilityofunderstandingit.Therewouldbenopossibilityifitdidnotrelyonexistentialverificationof
externalnonsubstance.Theenergyisonlyexpressedwhenitissaidasotherthantheindividual,forthe
passionmusthaveawayofbeingspokenwithallofman'spower."Wetremble[atthispower,forit
consumesallofus]inthatstrangerepetitionthattiesanirrefutablepasttoafuturethatcannotbe
anticipatedanticipatedbutunpredictableapprehended,but,andthisiswhythereisafuture,
apprehendedpreciselyasunforeseeable,unpredictableapproachedasunapproachable.[147]"
Whetheritisonlyhearingoneselfspeak,therelianceofthesymbolsofthesigncannotallowittoexistin
vacuousisolation,astheindividualisincessantlyrelatingtohimself.Heconsumesalltheseoppositions,
hisdevotiontothisselforigin,thatcontainsnothingandeverything,isthelinethathecrossesinevery
momentwithinhistraceashisreality.Itisthestandard(exterior)buthasnothingcontainedwithinit
beyondwhatmangivestoit(interior)mancannotgivewithouttheextendedarm,theSaussurianrelation
thatispresumedandnegated.
Awarenessofthearchetraceasbothknowledgeandnonknowledge,apredicatewith
nosenseoftimeorbeginningthatisconstantlyrecreated,islessvaluablebeingunderstoodasanideaof
originandmoreofanideaofwhatisexpressible.Ifthesystematicverificationofontologyassensehas
beendisbanded,thisisaimportantquestionthetracecanbothanswerandpresume.Existenceisnow
Klein82
leftuptoarticulation,thereforewhatisspokenandwrittenconstitutesthefullnessofthesignified,andis
thereforeexpressible.Itisinfinitepossibility,asitdefinessenseanderasesit,yetbothmotionsoccurfor
thisdeclarationisconstantlymadebylanguageitself.Languageasthealphabeticsigncanaffirmonly
itself,onlywhatisspoken,fornothingliesbeyondindividualinterpretationanditsconscriptionto
cultureitself.Howeveroriginalitmightbe,theformofexpressionislinkedbycorrelationtothegraphic
substanceofexpressionremainsverydetermined
[148]
.Theinexpressibleisafactorofthearchetrace
whichcanbepresumedfromDerridasinsistenceonitsnonexistence.Yetheinexpressiblefactor,the
nonorigincontinueswithintheorigin.Yet,inordertokeepwithinsuchdetermination,thereisa
revolution,withintheinstantofthebeingheard.Itisthatwhichisnotsaidandwhatwasnotheard,that
whichisbirthedbynonarticulationanddestroyedwithinthephenomenological,whichactthedifferance
ofpossibility.Fromallpointsofview,hesays,itisits
opposite.Insteadoffoundingdroit,itdestroysitinsteadofsettinglimitsandboundaries,it
annihilatestheminsteadofleadingtoerrorandexpiation,itcausestoexpiateinsteadofthreatening,it
strikesandaboveall,thisistheessentialpoint,insteadofkillingwithblood,itkillsandannihilates
withoutbloodshed."Thelawasspeech,asfinalityofbeingthesignified,istheconstantdestroyerand
giveroflife.Yetitdoesnotcreatetheontologicalhierarchy,foritdoesnotrelyonblood,thetakingof
lifeinordertodoit.Ratheritcanonlyaffirmlifewithindeath,inordertocreatetheisolatedtrace.It
mustdestroywhatisnotsaidinordertospeak.Manmustchooseforhimselfhisownwords,andby
doinganysenseoutsideofhisdecisionisdiscarded.Thelimitsarethosewhichmoldlifefromthe
absencethatisambiguity.Onlybythiscanspeechcompletelylinearanddirect,fullofvolitionand
powerbecauseitisspoken.Whatisexpressiblebothcreateswhatis,anddiscardsallelseas
inexpressibleinthemomentbeingheardoccurs.
Klein83
Aninfiniteothernesscouldneverdiscardanylessthannonarticulation,forabsoluteoriginis
onlyinthedecisionhasbecomearticulation.Thatiswhyathoughtofthetracecannomorebreakwith
atranscendentalphenomenologythenbereducedtoit
[149]
.Ithasnovaluebeyonditsverifiability,an
elementwhichisconstantlycreatedthroughourparticipationinit.Anactiverelationtoitisbothpossible
andimpossible,constantlyaffirmedthroughexperienceyeterasedwheninquiredupon.Thetraceis
alwaysseparatedfromexistence,wereitcontainedwithinitsvaluewouldnolongerbeapplicable.It
wouldsimplyreplacetheparticularityofthedivinebeingwithitself,andtherewouldbeno
accomplishmentinthemovement.Yetapurephenomenologymustcontainallconceptswithinitself,not
distinctpossibilitiesbutrathertheunadulteratednatureofpossibilityitself.Thisrelationofcontrastinthe
formofpossibleandimpossiblerevealitastheultimateexpressionofinfinitudewithintheindividual.
Thisisnotonlyanexistentialverificationhowever.Derridasdirectyetinoffensivecritiqueof
theSaussurianpolarity,asheproposeditwasanexternalizationofaninnerconcept,yetthatnosuch
fundamentaldistinctionsareallowedbetweenthetwothatistheveryideaofthetrace.Whenthe
perfectimageceasestobeotherthanthething,itrespectsthethingandrestoresoriginarypresence.
Indefinitecycle:representedsourceofrepresentation,theoriginoftheimagecaninturnrepresentits
representers,replaceitssubstitutes,supplyitssupplements.Folded,returningtoitself,representing
itself,sovereign,presenceisthenandbarelyonlythesupplementofasupplement
[150]
This
processisestablishedbydifferanceandaffirmedineverymomentofspeechandwriting.Perfectionisa
standardonlyhewhoarticulatescouldpresume,yetiserasedandrebuiltconstantlyastheindividual
whoaffirmsitmustalsoconstantlybetranslatingastraceallows.Theverificationisaprocessthat
occursoverandoveragain,inastyleverysimilartowhattakesplaceonaculturallevel.That
Klein84
developmentalstageoflanguage,thebeingcreated,isthesamestatewhereinwhichmanencountersit
,anditissolelyinthisformthe"beingheard"occurs.Infact,theseseparatedstatesarefusedtogetherin
thepresentinstance,whereinwhichtheonlytheindividualcananswertoittowhatonlyhehasheard.
Likewise,thebeingsaidfoldsinonitself,itgoesoutwardsuntilitencounterstheabsoluteotherofbeing
heardbytheother,sothatitmayretainitsfortitudeandspeakonlyofitself.Anyabsoluteseparation
betweenthismomentdestroysthesovereignty,theabsolutepresencetheindividualattributestothehis
fleetingbutfinalorigin.
Thisthenatureofthetracerevealedinsignsasthetelosoftheimageisitsown
imperceptibility.Whentheperfectimageceasestobeotherthanthething,itrespectsthethingand
restoresitoriginarypresence.
[151]
Thisreconstructionofthesignifiedanticipatesthisexistentialand
politicalverification,asamalgamatedwithinthepowerofthepresent.Deviationfromthesigncanonly
occurinthenaturalandnonmotivated,andthetracehasgonebeyondthis.Suchinfinitudeinthe
signifieristheoriginaryambiguity,yetfinitudeasapointoforiginisnotspeecheither.Whatthe
individualspeakstohimselfisalsorepresentedpurelybeyondhimselfinrelationtotheother,hehasno
basisbeyondhisparticipationinsystematiccoherency.Thetracealsoisnotapplicablebeyondits
dependenceonapresentationofsensetotheindividual.Thesecategories,whichbothdeconstructand
makedistincttheindividualandothernessmustbeunderstoodsimplyinlightofthepossibility
constitutingtheirabsolutepresenceastheirownorigin.Theirexpressabilityistheirconstitution.Any
morethanthiswouldinfringesuponthemetaphysical,andfearstoopposedeconstructionthemoment
purephenomenologyisabandoned.
Thedialecticcreatedpriortothiscontinues,asTillichalsoreliesheavilyonhisowntrace:the
applicabilityofexperientiallyformeddemarcationsoflanguageandreason.Itwouldbeintrusivetouse
Klein85
DerrideanterminologyflippantlythroughoutananalysisofTillich,inspiteoftheDerridasfascination
withevershiftingdefinitionsandtheimpliedinconsistency.YetthereismuchtolearnfromTillichsbasis
ofpossibilityanddefiniteitaspointofidentitywhichmakestheideaoftruthpossible....yetexistenceis
notimpliedintheideaoftruth
[152]
.Thisreflectsanideathatthesetracelikestructuralboundaries,
firstlyderivefromnoobjectivepoint,andsecondlyareofphenomenologicalvalueonly.Such
importancecouldthenderivenotfromthenatureoftheobjectitself,butinthefactthatmaniswillingto
expressit.Asontologyisnowdirectedatrevealingthispotency,itisimportanttograspwhatpremises
uponwhichBeingItselfrelies.Thiscanbeshownbyhoninginonthesameelementsthatwereof
importancetothetrace:thedifferanceandinteractionbetweenindividualandreality,expressabilityand
inexpressibilityandadeclarationofwhatispossible[153].
Thiscourageousstructureofbeing,isreliantuponcompleteparticipationoftheindividualin
itself.Theentirefullnessoftheindividualisspokeninthemomentheacknowledgeshimselfwithin
potentiality.Thisdependenceiswhatconstitutesthepositivestructureofthisbasisbeyondman.The
symbolsoffaithdonotappearinisolation...theyparticipateinhumangreatnessandmisery,increative
anddestructiveworks"Gods"areincompleteisolation,fortheirstatusasdivineseparatesthem
intrinsicallyfromhumanity,andiswhatmakeproclamationsofinfinitudeapplytothem.Equallyso,
thought,theyareentirelyimmanent,asonlybyparticipatinginhumanities'creationofthemdothey
becomecomprehensibleandelevatedtoalevelofultimateconcern.Itdoessoviolentlyand
passionately,bothproclaimingitsexistencethenfleeingbeyondinquiry.Itbreaksintoordinaryreality,
shakesanddrivesitbeyonditselfinanecstaticway.Itestablishesrulesaccordingtowhichitcanbe
approached.Theholymustbepresentandfeltaspresentinordertobeexperiencedatall
[154]
.Thus
Klein86
theawarenessofdivinityisnotbaseduponacomprehensionoftheoriginofit,butthatreligious
dialect(andthereforespeechingeneral)indicatesitsendeoipsointhelanguageused.Alanguageof
ontologicalrelationtowhateverobjectofultimateconcernisnecessarytodescribetheobjectsfinitude
andinfinitude.
Religiousobjectsarethephenomenologicalbridgebetweenthepossibleandimpossible,as
theyareomnipresent,eveninthatrealmfromwhichtheyareexcludedbydefinition,thatis,intherealm
oftheunconditional[155]Byarticulatingthemtheyarebothseizedinfullnessandincapableofbeing
grasped,yettheymakethesedistinctionsmeaningless.Suchsymbolsareraisedtoirreplacebilitysimply
bybeingspoken,thedevotiontowhatissaidmovesbeyondinordertomovewithintheultimacyofthe
religioussign."Thedifferencebetweensubstanceandcausalitydisappears,forifGodisthecauseofthe
entireseries...heisthesubstanceunderlyingtheprocessofbecoming.Butthis"underlyingdoesnothave
anysubstance...itissubstancenotasacategorybutasasymbol...thereisnodifferencebetweenprima
causaandultimasubstantia.Bothmean,whatcanbeacalledinamoredirectlysymbolicterm,the
creativeandabysmalgroundofbeing.[156]"Inrealitythereisnobridgebecausethereneverwassuch
adichotomyassoonasthefinitereferstotheunconditional,whatcanneverbesubstituted(andbythe
individualdeclaringit,makeshimselfincapableofsubstitutinghimselftothethingandcompletingthe
circle),theybecometheirownconclusorybeginning.Omnipresenceistheirambiguity,waitingforthe
individualtoaffirmwhateverishewill,andtomakeexpressiblethesecretthatisspokenalwaysandas
suchneverspoken.
Theoriginofreligiousobjectsisonlyimportantwhentheindividualdesirestoapproachits
realityisstructuredbyhisascertainingofthesymbols.Agroupnecessarilyproclaimsthem,andthen
theindividualcreatestheircompletenessforhimself.Byproclaimingwhatisholyandofreligious
Klein87
importance,italsomakesdistinctthatwhichisordinarycontent.Yetnoobjectisexemptfromastateof
holiness,astheyarenotchosenarbitrarily,butthroughvisionaryexperiencesofindividuals
[157]

Thereareafewunderlyingfactorstopointoutwhenrelatingtothesyntheticyetfullreligiousencounter.
Firstly,thefullnessofthereligioussymbolisonlyaccessedupondeclaringthatitisreligious.Itisonlyan
accurateexpressionofsuchanexperiencewhenitislabeledandproclaimedassuch,bothwithinthe
contextcreatedwiththesymbolsandtheindividualverifyingitspowerandauthenticitytohimself.Any
revelationisnottheobjectsofthesereligioussymbols,butratherthatthethereisanymisrelatedobject
thatsocietyconsecutivelydeclaresreligious."theselfintegrationofthepersonasapersonoccursina
community,withinwhichthecontinuousmutualencounterofhtcenteredselfwiththecenteredselfis
possibleandactual[158]"Thepowerinthedeclamatory,ofwhatretainsconstantpresenttense,must
haveasocial,andthereforeuncensorednascent.Theremustbeanartificiallyconstructedbasisforself
inordertohaveanorganicandcompletelycenteredbeginningtoit,andthereforeit'srelationtothe
religiousother.Thepresentexistsonlywhereitcanbespoken,andwhereonlytheselfspeakswithas
muchpowerasreligiousquestionsrequire.Thus:Ineverymomentthatitisjustifiedasholy,has
deconstructedordinarylanguagesothatitmightbespiritual.
Theobjectivityofspiritualityderivesnotfromanystatusofthesymbolsthemselvesasculture
says,butinsteadfromthefervencybehindthedeclaration.Participationisimpliedhere,foreveninthe
alwaysmotivatedtraceofbeingitselftherearelimitstopossibilityandexpressionmadeinevery
momentofreligiouscreation.Thuseverymomenthasthepositivequalityofrelatinginfullnessyetina
waythatwascompletelyunrecognizablebeforethepresentmomenttoboththeindividualandsociety.
Italsohasthenegativequalityofbeingselferasing,forifitsapplicabilityisonlywithinthesocialsphere,
towhichthereisnointrinsiccontent.Itspowerexistsintheoppositeofontologicaltheology:thatit
Klein88
continuestoberevelatoryinspiteofparticularmaterial.
Thisisveryimportantstep,thatmustbeseenindeconstructioninordernotcontradictanyideas
ofbeingitself.Thesereligioussymbolsonlyexistwithinareligiouscontext,theremustbeabodyto
declarethisasreligiousandthisasother.Societyisthisvoice,creatingdemarcativesymbolsand
signifiersfollowedbymeaningssothattheindividualcanknowhowhespeakswhenhedoesso.Based
onallofourpreviousknowledgeofbeingitselfhowever,thisisaveryimportantbeginning.Iftheself
cannotbeginwithoutculture(thedistantother)thenneithercanhisultimateconcern.Ultimacyisalwaysa
termofcontrast,a"nonultimate"thingmustexistinorderfortheretobeanultimateconcern.That
whichconcernsmancompletely,evenashimself,becomestheotherandisexternalizedandrelatedto
inordertobeultimate.Thuswhatisultimate,alsorequiresabackgroundofotherthanitselfsothatit
maybeknown.However,asallofthisbringsitselfbacktoman.Man'sstateofnature,hisculture,is
justassyntheticasthesignsheuses,andthereforesoisultimacy.
Thereisanegativebeginningtothetraceofbeingitself:thefactthatmanandhissocietybegan
first.Hisreason,hissymbolsofrepetitionalwayscomebeforeanideaofultimatecanoccur."IfGod
issaidtobeinrelation,thisstatementisassymbolsasthestatementthatGodisalivingGod.Every
relationinwhichGodbecomesanobjecttoasubject,inknowledge,orinaction,mustbeaffirmedat
thesametime.[159]"Manrelatestoitbecausehecan'tnotrelate(can'tnotspeakofanobjectof
ultimacy)butalso"God"asbeingitselfdoesnotevenexist,itistheprodcutofman'sfaithsothatitmay
beginit.Therelation,theotherness,isonlynecessarysomancanlookandseewhathehasmade,not
thatitisintrinsicallyseparatedfromhim.Yetwerehetolooktooclosely,hewouldseekaconclusionto
asymbolandthusredefinefaithentirely.Hisultimacyisonlylostifitispresumeditcanbefound..It
expressesitsdenialofspecialcontent,yetinthesemomentsisgivenitbyrelatingtotheindividual.
Klein89
Theincompletenessofsymbolsisalsowhatgivesthemstrength,andequallysowhatgivesfaith
suchpersonalvalue.Theirsymboliccharacteristheirtruthandpower,nothinglessthansymbolsand
mythscanexpressourultimateconcern.
[160]
Theirreliancenotonanabsoluterelationtoreligious
character,butinsteadtothevitalityoftherelationbetweenmanandhisultimateconcernthegapis
bridged.Itsrelationalcontentiswhatmakesittranslatableintoacontextmancanascertain.Anyidea
ofthepast,beyondthefullnessofthesymbolsinthemoment,wouldkeephimseparatedwithsynthetic
writing,butalsowithinhisbeing.Devotionandobsessionwouldneverbepossible,forhewouldnever
beabletotakethembothuponhimselfcompletely.Volitionmustnevercompletelyachievethese
religiousgoals,yettheyareequallyrequiredtobecompletedinorderforfaithtocontinue.Theywould
alwaysbeabstractedfromhim,andthereforeneverbehis.beinggraspedimplieshewhoisgrasped
andthatbywhichheisgraspedare,sotospeak,inthesameplace.
[161]
Thesymbolsforgod
thereforebecomethesignifiersforhim.Theyareassyntheticandcompleteasanymethodbywhich
manspeakstohimselfinfullness,asDerridaobserved.Yetthisisreciprocated,asthisideaofholding
goesbothways.Justasmancentershimselfbyrelatingtobeingitselfintheideaofactualization,sohe
alsoholdshisideaofultimateconcern,creatingandconstructingitandholdingitascloseasheneeds
to.
Suchultimacycanneverexpresstheultimate,yetalsoaretheperfectembodimentofmans
relationtohisultimateconcern."[162]Itneedstobeexceptionalorextraordinary,anditneedstobe
thatabsolutelyandparexcellence:itisasifabsoluteresponsibilitycouldnotbederivedfromaconcept
ofresponsibilityandtherefore,inorderforittobewhatitmustbeitmustremaininconceivable,indeed
unthinkable:itmustthereforebeirresponsibleinordertobeabsolutelyresponsible[163]"Itishis
Klein90
ultimateconcern,anobsessionthatconcernshimbothcompletelyandsubjectively,andcontainsaGod
whoisnonexistentanddemandsdevotion.Derrida'sdescriptionoftheAbrahamiccall,isonethatis
madeineverysecondofaffirmingultimateconcern,evenineverydecision.Inordertobegreat,itmust
beimpossiblyso,theultimatemustnotevenbeultimate.Thistension,betweenthefiniteandtheinfinite,
theexpressibleandtheinexpressible,makesanappearancehereinthiscomparison.
ThesesymbolsalsoexposetheneedforGod,theconstantinquiryonhim,andthereligious(or
atleastexistential)natureofthesetypesofquestions.Allofthesecanonlyhavesignificancewithina
phenomenologicalspectrum.AbsolutefaithcannotbeanexpressionofvictoryachievedinGodby
virtueofwhoheisorhispresentationtoman.Rather,itisalackofcompletenessthatexpressesfaith.
Mansfaithisinadequateifhiswholeexistenceisdeterminedbysomethingislessthanultimate.
Thereforehemustalwaystrytobreakthroughthelimitsofhisfinitudeandreachwhatcanneverbe
reached,,theultimateitself.
[164]
Itmustnotonlyprovideananswertotheexistentialquestions,but
alsoprovideapremiseuponwhichthequestioncanbeasked.Thisincessanttension,isthe
incompletenessandfulfillmentoffaithineveryrevitalizedbirthofdifferance.Foronetosucceed,one
musthavealreadystruggled,theabsolutelinebetweenthetwoismadeindistinct.Deathisforcibly
precludedbylife,andfaithbydoubt.hisistheflipsideandnecessitatingfactoroffaithingeneral.A
purephenomenologicalontologymustbewillingtoaffirmthelackofspacingwithinitself.Thisfinality,
ironically,isexactlywhatambiguityisnecessary,andwhyitsabilitytoconquerspacingissoforceful.
AnydepictionofBeingItselfactsasrevelation,declaringitself,yetalsomakingpossible
relationtoitself.Itcandisregardthistensioncreatedbetweentheindividualandtheinfinite,toexistin
bothandneitherasanexpressionofparticipatingwithinit.Yetthisisonlypossiblebasedits
phenomenologicalnonsubstance,anditsunwillingnesstoacknowledgebeyondthefullnessofthe
Klein91
religiousgiant[165]perceivedbytheindividual.Infinityisadirectingconcept,notaconstitutingconcept
Itdirectsthemindtoexperienceunlimitedpotentialities,butitdoesnotestablishtheexistenceofan
infinitebeing.
[166]
Onlybecauseitdoesnotspeakonspecificityasthecenterultimateconcern,and
becausethosequestionsdonotconcernit,isitcapableofremainingwithinphenomenologyand
attributingpowertoreligiousexperience.Thelackofdirectnessallowsfortheexpressionof
completeness,foritspresenceaseithernonexistentorexistentwouldhinderacompleterelationtoit,
andinhibitthesubjectiveyetobjectivereasonofthereligiousexperience.Itexpressesbothofthesein
perfection,inthesubjectiveelementoftheestablishmentofcontactbytheindividual,andtheobjective
formasitrelatesbeyondtheindividualandprovidesforhimthepossibilitytostatetohimselfwhatisof
utmostconcerntohim.
Thiscouldonlybepossiblewhenpotencyisattributedentirelytothepresentorratherthatthe
ultimateconcernstatesitspastandfutureasthepresent.Itcouldonlybecompleteinthepresent,for
theirtranscendenceignorestimeasanelementonlyoffinitude.Thetermsaction,actual,denotea
centrallyintendedmovementahead,agoingoutfromacenterofaction.Butthisgoingouttakesplace
insuchawaythatthecenterisnotlostintheoutgoingmovement.Theselfidentityremainsintheself
alteration.[167]Thesyntheticontologicalterminologyofselfandoriginisessentialwhendescribing
ultimateconcern.Theideaofultimacyisonlysignificantwhenitisproclaimedasultimate,andtherefore
whenthedeclarationofultimacyiscontainedintheselfindentifieddeclarationandnottheobject.The
powertoexpresshishighestconcernandconsumptionofhisentirebeingisonlyavailablewhenisentire
beingisinvolvedintheaction:thepresentinstant.Reflectinguponwhatis(notwas,fordivinitymust
remainconstant.Iftheobjectchangesdivinitywasneverthere.)consideredadivineencounter
acknowledgesthepastpresentpowerofinfinitude.Thereisnodegradationoftheseobjects,astheir
Klein92
infinitudeacknowledgesthatthephenomenologicalfullnessofmanwillstatetheobjectsinthesameway
intheirfuturerelationship.
Theincessantstateofthenow,ofgrouprevelationoccurringnotjustataspecificpoint,but
everyinstanceofmanaffirminganysortofreligiouscontent.Itisimpossibletocallthepresentillusory,
foritisonlyinthepowerofanexperiencepresentthatthepastandthefutureandthemovementfrom
theonetotheothercanbemeasured.Ontheotherhand,itisimpossibletooverlookthefactthattime
swallowswhatithascreated,thatthenewbecomeoldandvanishes,andthatcreativeevolutionis
accompaniedineverymomentbydestructivedisintegration.
[168]
Tillichconstantrelianceonerasure
andrebirthtoreinstigatethecompletelypresentissoimportantbecauseofthis.Herequiresa
completelydeconstructedinstanttospeakanythingondestiny.Thedestinyiswithoutcontent,yetis
foreverdiscontentandthereforeformulatingcontent,pushingtowardtheindividualwithinlife.
Retranslatingitwithinnewsocialcontexts,acknowledgingdifferanceandnegatingthefutureandthe
pastbyalsoactingasthestandardbywhichtheyarejudged.Thedecisivepoweriscreation,andthis
expressionoftheinfinitudeofdeathandlifespeaksofBeingItself.
Theseobjects'expressionwithintimenegatestheirinfinitudesothattheyarenowpresentable
tomanwithincomprehensibilityasastillinfinitereligioussymbol.Thelackofananswer,isrevealedas
thefinalansweronlywhentheinquiryisshowntobeinfiniteanswerofexistentialandreligious
questions.Suchproposalsmakesthisphenomenologicalselftranscendencethatmanbringsonhimself
andappliestoreligiousobjectspossible.Aseventhisspatialterminologyonlyhasreferenceandvalue
withintherealmofexperience
[169]
,itisarepresentationofdependenceandheteronomy[170].These
relyonaquestionthatcanalwaysreceiveafullanswerinthepresentalone,andnotwhatthenatureof
Klein93
thisultimatesolutionis.Suchqualitiesareperhapstheleastrelevantpart,orattheveryleasttheportion
thattakestheleastintentionalityanddevotion.Assuchthequalitiesofultimacyarefarsurpassedbythe
titleofultimacyitselfanotherexampleofthedeconstructedvoicethatspeakstomanmuchlouderthan
anyexternalitycouldhopetomatch."Theologyassuchhasneitherthepowernorthedutytoconfirmor
negatereligioussymbols.Ittakesistointerpretthemaccordingtotheologicalprinciplesand
methods[171]"Theanswerwillbesubjectiveassoonasthequestionisasked,yetthequestionitselfwill
befinal.Thefearthatmanfeltwhenencounteringthegiantisthesameultimacy,thatissodestructiveas
tobeabletonegatethestatusoftheobjectwiththeintensityofman'svolition.Willcompletes,and
thereforedefinesultimacy,andnottheotherwayaround.
Anxietyamidstthiswillistheselfeffacingpowercontainingthatultimacy.Itisthiswhichmoves
itbeyondpreviouslytheologicalsteps,anddefinesitselffundamentallybynegatingdefinitionitself.The
fearthatisultimacyisnotwhatitclaimstobe,thatthesymbolsareinadequatearewhatsimultaneously
makethemso.Faithisincessantlysurroundedbyanxiety,fortheunwillingnesstoexpressanother
spiritualrealityputsbeingamidstnonbeing.Itistranscendentinthisstatus,forexistentialquestionsare
inflictedonallofhumanity.."Noempiricalobservationofthisrelationispossible,becauseallempirical
knowledgereferstofiniteinterdependences,nottotherelationofthefinitetotheinfinite.[172]"This
alsomakesreligiousquestionscapableofspeakingonvalue,foronlyanarbitrarysignaffirmsthe
passionoftheindividualtomoveintothenothingnessthatisthepowerofbeingitself.Thelackof
contentisthesameasthearbitrariness,itispotentialwaitingformantodeclareit.Faithdoesnotexistin
isolationandsuchanevocationcannevermovebeyondaconstantdestructionofotherrealities.Faithis
notabsolutelinearityofthoughtupwardsbeyonddoubtandtheworld,buttheimpossiblerevelationof
beingitselfiswhattheindividualcreatesinhimselfwitheveryarticulationoffaith.Thepresentis
Klein94
originary,thatistosaythedeterminationoforiginalwayshastheformofpresence.
[173]
Faithis
alwaysthisnew,presencefortheindividualrelatestoiteverymoment.Heisalwaysonguard,obsessed
andconsumedbybothhisbeingandhisnonbeing.Abastionagainstnonbeingisnotreliantonwhat
was,butrathertheconstantreformulationofwhatis.
Yetthisisonlypossibleonlybecausethenegativeelementswillalwaysbe,althoughthe
completenessofthepresentmomentbringsfaithintheabyssofintotheendlessabyssofpotentialthatit
couldneverconquer.Thatmancannevermoveentirelybeyond,i.e.isnotreliantonobjectivityofpast
andthesufficiencyofrevelationatthatpoint,istheonlybufferagainstthecompleteinvasionofnon
being.Withoutthiscourage,manwouldsurrendertotheannihilatingcharacteroftimehewouldresign
fromhavingapresent.Yetmanaffirmsthepresentmoment,thoughanalyticallyitseemsunreal,andhe
defendsitagainsttheanxietyofitstransitorinesscreatesinhim
[174]
.Theexpressabilityoffaithinspite
ofitsfundamentallyinexpressiblenature,proclaimsthepresentandthereforeweaponriesarticulation
andcourageagainstnonbeinganddeath.Yethemustspeakitso,mustdeclareittohimselfwithaction
ofdecision,foronlybytheaffirmingtheongoingnatureofthepresentisanxietyisforcedintodialectical
submission.Inonesense,ithasbeenextirpatedwithhisfaith,yettheoriginofhisfaithaffirmsthatthe
onlythingitcouldneverdoisdestroyanxiety."Theformulationcreatioexnihiloisnotthetitleofa
story.ItistheclassicalformulabetweenGodandtheworld.[175]"Inthisveryabsence,iswhenthe
arbitrarysignandman'swillgainthepowertoconquer,andinthismomentofdesperationheaffirmsthe
genuinebeingitself:thatwhichhaseveryanswerandnoquestion,isallquestionsyetmustremain
unanswered.Ithaslongsincevanishedintotheendlessnessofman'sdespair.
Thisabilitytonegate,alsoindicatesasimilarideatowhatDerridacallspassion.Inevery
Klein95
ideaofreligiousexpression,thereisequallyadeclarationofwhatisnotreligious.Manschoice,as
presentedonlyinthisselfarticulation,isthepotentialofmankindandhispassion.Passionconsistentlyis
creatinganddestroying,anditisthethisexistentialdevotionwhichmakesitpossibleamidstthe
completelymythological,i.e.negatingandaffirming,contextofreligioussymbols."Forthereisno
substitutefortheuseofsymbolsandmyths:theyarethelanguageoffaith.[176]"Itisthissameelement
thatseparatesthisfromontotheologyRatherthananaffirmationofthepositivestateoftheGodbeing,it
isaconstantcalltotheveryimpossibilityofthis.Mansaspirationforactualizationonlyarisesnotinthe
factthathisexpressionofitwillalwaysbefalse,Othernessandultimacywillalwaysbeerased,forthe
inadequacyofexpressionresignsontologicalphenomenologicalquestionsonlytometaphors.
Metaphor,asrevealedpreviouslytobeinternal,isnotaseparationoftruthfromitself,butinsteada
standardofinexpressibilityamidstallthatisspoken.Theirinterrelatednessmakesbeingasdistinctfrom
becomingimpossible,andtheseeverevolvingcomprehensionsconstantlyeffaceandthereforecreate
anewtheultimacy."Theinwardrisingintobeing,theprocessofsubstance,isanunbrokentransition
intooutwardness,intoexistenceorbeingforanotherandconversely,thecomingofexistenceintobeing
iswithdrawalintotheinneressence.[177]"Theonlyconstantinthisbeinghowever,isnotthecontent
butthecreationofcontentasitsessence,itslackofobjectivityisitsobjectivity.
Thisseparationistheaffirmationofnonbeingwithinbeing,oftheselfnegationasafundamental
partofactualization.finitudeunitesbeingdialecticalnonbeing.Mansfinitude,orcreatureliness,is
unintelligiblewithouttheconceptofdialecticalnonbeing.
[178]
Thisontologicalresignationwithinnon
being,isequallyimportanttobothauthors.Thereisnofundamentaldistinctionbetweenoneandthe
other,theinteractionbetweenthetwocreatesthem..Locationisnotimpliedwithinbeing,therefore
neitherisastandardbywhichtoproclaimonesubstanceandonenonpresence.Manincorporates
Klein96
theseintohimselfasfaithandanxietyrespectively,theseactasontologicalexpressionsandaffirmations
ingivingthemexistenceand,yetthisisonlydoneamidsttheotherness.Faithalwayspresumesanxiety
i.e.separation,froitiswhatovercomes.Anxietyassumesthatmanoughtnotsimplyremainasheis,that
heactuallyisseparatedentirelyfromteleology,evenashecreateshimself.
Thereisneveramomentwherethesearbitraryreligioussymbolscannotrelyonanindividual's
relationtoittoproclaimultimacy.Theexistentialandtheothercannotdistinguishbetweenthe
individualandthesocializationofitself,botharenecessaryintotalityofeachtoexpressanyideaof
ultimateconcern.Ultimateconcerndiscernsnotbetweenwhatisreligiousandwhatisnot,forevenas
thesocialelementprovidestheappropriatesymbols,anydemandoftheindividualistospeakinfullness
tohimself.Thereisademandofthecompletepersoninthesedeclarationsofinfinitude,forsuchaclaim
tocontainallofitself,thereisarequirementofresponsibility.Thewordspointstotheobligationofthe
personwhohasfreedomtorespondifheisquestionedabouthisdecisions....Healonemustrespond,
forhisactsaredeterminedneitherbysomethingoutsideofhimnorbyanypartofhim,butbythe
centeredtotalityofhisbeing.
[179]
Manisalwayscreatinganddirecting,yetallowinghimselftobe
moldedbytheveryideathatrequireshisaffirmationofitself.Thiscouldneverbedonebyanyoneother
thantheindividual,whotakesonhimselftheimpossiblestatushisreligioussymbolwithinthesynthetic
languageofsociety.
Thisisthepowerthatrestswithinmantheabsoluteinstanthereliesonhimselfbyrelyingonthat
whichconstituteshisgroundofbeing.Theimpossibilityofthisconstantlyarticulatedinhisverydecision,
yetthisiswherecreationconcernshim.Onlythatwhatconcernshimisinfinitepossibilitycanthesubject
andobjectrelationshiptobeaffirmedandannulledinthepowerofinfinitude.Itissimultaneously
completelybeyondhim,forheisfinite,yetaccesseshimateverymomentheacknowledgesfaithinthe
Klein97
nothingnessofultimateconcern.Itisinexpressibletohim,andthereforebeyondevenphenomenological
expressionifmanisunwillingtoassimilateitwithinhimself.Itisnevermanstoclaimhaveself
transcendencewithoutthecompletelydeconstructedother,foritisreliantonparticipationinanalways
motivatedsystem.Thisbinaryoppositionofdynamictensionisincessantlyimpliedwiththefiniteand
participationinthisfundamentalotherbeyonditself.Heoscillatesanxiouslybetweenindividualization
andparticipation,awareofthefactthatheceasestobeifoneofthepolesislost,forthelossofeither
polemeansthelossofboth
[180]
Hisexistentialdedicationtothecreatedconcernisadevotionthatis
constantlyincorporatingintoitselfanxietyandfaith.Thisisthesameproblemwhichplaguesthetrace,a
tendencytodevotetheselfcompletelywouldderiveofthesymbolsrequiredforselfexpression.Yet,
relyingontheformsofexpression,anythingbeyondthebeingheardofthesign,isonlycripplingthe
fullnessofthebeingheardtoman.whenthereisnothingtoaffirm,acreatedrealitywillrequirenothing
lessthantheentiretyofmantoverify.
Afterthisdeeperobservationofbothofthesesystems,analogicallinescanbedrawn
betweenthetraceandBeingItself.Theirpresenceisalwaysaffirmedanddenied,andanyanswertothe
questionoftheirexistenceisnegatedbytheinquiry.Thephenomenologicalvalueisunquestionable,yet
itslackofdirectcontentcastsitbeyondanyideaofbeing.Itisnotaconcept,ratheritisdrivenbythe
creativevalueinmankind,yetallofthisincessantlyderivingfromanexternalpowertoformulateand
thereforetocreate.GodisthenameofthepossibilityIhaveofkeepingasecretthatisvisiblefromthe
interiorbutnotfromtheexterior.Oncesuchastructureofconscienceexists,ofbeingwithoneself,of
speaking,thatis,ofproducinginvisiblesense,onceIhavewithinme,thankstotheinvisiblewordas
such,awitnessthatotherscannotsee,andwhoisthereforeatthesametimeotherthanmeand
moreintimatewithmethanmyself"[181]Thepresuppositionhereisnotofteleologicalstatus,but
Klein98
ratherthenegationofanobjectivetelosandbeing.Itisadeclarationthatalackofcontentisthefinal
content,andwhatmakesanxietynegatedbytranscendence.Theformlessnessiswhatconquers,and
whatmakesmandrawingonGodsformlessnesscapableofaffirmingman'sdevotion.Thisisactually
freedom:freefromcontent,anddefinition,fromarequirementofinteraction,ortosaythathedoesnot
act.Itispurepossibility,thesecretrevealedthatstillremainsassuch,obscuredfromevenexistence
andnonexistence.Neitherbelongingtoinfinitudeorfinitude,itisonlysignificantwhenappliedtoand
revealedasboth.Thesescenariosseeadevotionformulatedinadifferentform,ofanabsolutesecret
thatneveractuallywas.Thisdoesnotderivefromanattitudeprioritizingeitherphenomenological
expressionorindividualdevotion,butinanawarenessthatbetweenthemthereisnodifference.Sothis
othermustbeaffirmed,theremustbesomethingexogenousepistemicrevelationalwaysimpliesthis
typeofrelationship.Anideaofothernesssalwaysimpliedincreation,forthisconstructofreality,of
speakingthenatureofthegianttohimself,arealwaysaninteractionwithsomethingnew.Beingitselfhas
alreadyreliedonthetraceinordertobecalledGod.Thereisnorelianceonwhatwasbefore,forthe
incessanttranslationinterruptsapureglimpseatthepast.Thereforethefullnessofcreationmustbein
everymoment,andisalwaysjuxtaposingitselfwiththefullnessofthehumanitythatbroughtitabout.As
soonasitisspoken,itiserasedandmovedbeyondperception,yetthisdialecticisanessential
movementofdeconstruction.
Thequestionsofexistenceornonexistence,ofaseparationbetweenwhatisauthenticandwhat
isspokeninthemomentarequestionsappliedonlytoanontotheologicalperspectiveontruth.The
questionofothernessisincessantlyaffirmed,notasanobjectorsubject,butsimplyasother.Thereisa
completerelianceuponthis,"thateventhemeretransitiontoapropositionisaformofmediation,
containsaprocesstowardsanotherstatefromwhichwemustreturnoncemore.[182]"Yetthis
Klein99
absoluteselfknowledgeisforevererasingitselfandtheother.Itremovesthepossibilityofreturningby
pronouncingknowledgeofeithertobeimpossible.Suchphenomenologicalothernessofthetraceand
BeingItselfistheselfeffacing,directiveofarealityresidinginfaith.Itdestroystheboundarybetween
expressabilityandinexpressibility,foritisequallybothandneither..BeingItselfisnotinfiniteitisthat
whichliesbeyondthepolarityoffinitudeandinfinityselftranscendence.Beingitselfmanifestsitselfto
finitebeingintheinfinitedriveofthefinitebeyonditself.
[183]
Itiscompletelyinexpressible,yetthe
usageoflanguageimpliesthatthequestionincessantlybeaskedbytheusageoflanguageitself.Inthe
inquirythegapbetweendifferance,andtension,thetraceandbeingarecreatedsothattheymightbe
undone.Itistheawarenessthatanybinaryoppositioniscompletelynegatedinadherencetothisother
thatkeepstheprevioushierarchyofontotheologyfromsurreptitiouslyreforming.Theelementbrought
tolight[inthepurephoneticalphabet]isapuresignifier(purearbitrary,itselfnonsignifying.Thisnon
significanceisthenegative,abstract,andformalaspectofuniversalityandrationality
[184]
.Theyare
definedbypolarityandcreatethejuxtapositionofpolarity,yetareseparatefromanyattemptsto
presentitasother.Thisishowtheuniversalityofbothismaintained:bytyingthemtothesynthetic
nothingnessoftheculturalsign,theycanaccomplishanythingmanputsbeforethem.Assuch,trace
remainsinthisabstractform,untiltheindividualempowersbothitandhimselfwithvolitionand
expression.Byrelyingonhispossibilityofexpression,heaffirmsthisabsoluteother,butalsogives
himselfthecapabilitythevoicetoexpressit.Forneitherareconcernedwithoriginorhistory,infactitis
thenonoriginofthetracewhichhasallowedforbeingitselftomakephenomenologicalfortitude
possibleasthemostpossible.
Theyalsonegatearelationtotimeandorigin,relyinginsteadonpurephenomenologicalformfor
Klein100
validation.AsTillichobserved,thebreakofontologicaltensionsisnotamatterofaccidentYetthis
veryideaofbreakingimpliesvolition.Whetheritbethecollectiveortheindividualaffirmingthevalueof
thecollective,directiontoendthesetensionsisalwaysadecisionamidstambiguity.Thiscouldnever
beobservedhowever,withoutthepotencyofdeconstructionappliedfirsttoTillichianthought.Apurely
phenomenological,purelypresentusageoflanguageistheonlypossiblecreationforBeingItself.
Tillich'sattemptstodothisareinadequatewithoutDerridassupplantationofeverythingotherthanthe
fullnessofthepresent.Thisallowsforthecompletenessoffaith,andthenecessarysubjectivitywhen
speakingonreligioussymbols.Onceagain,thisrelationtononpresenceneitherbefalls,surrounds,nor
concealsthepresenceofprimordialimpressionratheritmakespossibleitseverrenewedupsurgeand
virginity
[185]
.Onlybyrelatingtoaformlessphenomenologicalotherwhichtakeseverythingelseinto
itself(asmadeapparentindeconstruction),cancompleteselfactualizationarise.Itistheultimatestatus
ofmanascompleteyetincomplete,thatprovidesthespecialcontentforBeingItself,andgivesthe
properlifeanddeathtothereligiousandexistentialquestions.Historycreatesuniqueevents,notones
thatcanbetestedagainandagain
[186]
.ThustheyareofnovaluetorealizingBeingItselfifthehistory
offormiswhatisimportant.Forasenseofpastremovesfaithfromthenowtoplaceitanideafromthe
past,andtherebyvoidsfaithcompletely.Theuniquenessisonlyvaluabletodescribeultimateconcern
thatisalwaysunique,andineverymomentisuniquelypresent.Familiarityasrepetitioniswhatdistills
faithintheotherfromthevigorrequiredtoconqueranxiety.Thenegationofintrinsicmeaningiswhat
makesthesignsoftheraceuseableandindicativeoftheexistentialinvestmentbehindwhatisstated.
Themajorityoftheideasofdeconstructionhavebeenfocusedmoreonspeechuptothis
point.Itisworthhowever,articulatingconceptsmoreapplicabletowritinginadditiontospeech.Where
Klein101
speechwaspowerfulbecausemanspoketoanother,writingwasthedeclarationofdecayfromspeech
bykeepingspeechalive,writingwasforcedtolingeronwithoutanobject,preservedbythe
metaphysicalother.Thehistoryofmetaphysicsthereforecanbeexpressedastheunfoldingof
thestructureorschemaofanabsolutewilltohearoneselfspeak.Thishistoryisclosedwhen
thisinfiniteabsoluteappearstoitselfasitsowndeath.Avoicewithoutdifferance
y
avoice
withoutwriting,isatonceabsolutelyaliveandabsolutelydead.[187]",Differanceleadsthe
wayintheseregard,asitscontentisparticularlyapplicableinbothspeechandwriting.Thelattertwo,
spacingandrepetition,arethosewhichonlyapplytothelatter.Notonlythat,buttheyareconcepts
applicableintheiroriginalformstotheplagueofontotheology.Onlybythepretensesofbirth,of
absolutelifetakenbyDerrida,cantheythenbereappliedinordertodeconstructanysuchimpediments
encounteredagainbyTillich.
TheweightofrealityandincessantoriginrestinguponhisshouldersDerridasmancomesto
findcoherencyindifferance.Thearchetrace,andthenonoriginarealwaysbeingresurrectedand
birthedwithintheprocessofspeech.Yetthereisnoform,nothingtomakesenseofthearchetrace
itself.Thissystemofcoherencyiswhatallowsthepowerofmansverificationtobemademanifest,for
the"deconstructionofthearche,onedoesnotmakeachoice.[188]Thereisnothingbeyond,andthe
entiretyofmaniscontainedwithinhisexperienceofthetraceandhimself.Hecannotevadethetrace,
foranyevasionsubsumeshimselfintoitspower.Thevalue,the,iswhatremainswithinitevenaswe
acknowledgethat,puretraceisdifferanceitdoesnotdependonanysensibleplentitude
[189]
Itsnot
content,andnonexistencearenowdisplayedasinexpressibility,andthereforeremainpertinentto
sociologyinitseffectsalone.Thusreasonandcoherencyarenotaprioriassumptionsoftheindividual,
butarearticulatedonlywithintheboundsofwhathehasdeclaredcoherentwithinhissociological
Klein102
sphere.Thisdifference...permitsthearticulationofsignsamongthemselveswithinthesameabstract
order...itpermitsthearticulationofspeechandwritinginthecolloquialsense,asitfundsthe
metaphysicaloppositionbetweenthesensibleandtheintelligible,thanbetweensignifierandsignified,
expressionandcontentetc
[190]
.Thisistheaffirmationofthesyntheticsign,evenasitismade
coherentsystematically,itisonlytheindividualwhichcreatesthis.Hedeclaresitsuniversalizability,for
withouthimsensewouldbelost.Nothingguidesmeaningtoorderwithouttheexistentialhandtoguide
it,toarticulatewithpurposeandintentionality.
Yet,ipsofactobyarticulation,heacknowledgesdifferanceHespeaksconstantlyofit,and
saysisnothingwithoutitThiscreationistheformationofform,butit'sontheotherhandthebeing
imprintedoftheimprint
[191]
.Themomentthatspeakingoccurs,thisimprintisgrasped.Itsgrasping
subjectsittodifferanceortranslationbytheselfvoice.Itistheactionofdeconstructingandrebuilding,
livinganddyingwhichdominatelinguistics,aconstantexchangefollowingthedeathofGod.Thisiswhy
manmustaffirm,withintheentiretyofhimselfateverymoment,thatwhatisbeforehimisthecase.The
contentspeaksmuchmoresoftlythanhewhorelatestotheobject,thisisevenwhatbringstheobject
intoexistencebyallowingitsimprint.
Thisisthecreationofcoherence:requiringthebeingheard,asthegrindinginterpretationofman
lustsformoreselfaffirmationbyrewriting,evensomethingassyntheticasthesign.Thisisthecurseof
creation,everymomentofitcontainsdeath,evenifitisnotinrelationtoanontotheologicalseparation
fromlife."Suchadeathisnotgiveninthefirstinstanceasannihilation.Itinstitutesresponsibilityasa
puttingoneselftodeathorofferingone'sdeath,thatis,one'slife,intheethicaldimensionof
sacrifice.[192].Thisisthedeaththatmustcomebeforedifferance,asevenitsstructureinthebookhas
Klein103
beendeconstructed.Itnolongerreferstoantheinnateabyssimpliedbyontology,butinsteadisonlya
referencetowhatisimpliedineverymomentofcreation.Manmustbewillingtoviewtheothernessof
hisdecisioninabsolutedevotion.Itisneverfinal,yethesacrificesanyofhisselfconsistencyinorderto
affirmthesimplestrealitiesdeclaredinspeech.Formantochooseone,allothersmustbesacrificed.for
Differancetoremainerect,decisionbecomestheunknownother,thesecretthatcanneverbedivulged
untilhehastakenthestepofspeaking.Thelifeofoneimageisthedeathofanother,whichisanarena
enteredonlywhenmanspeakstohimself.[193]
Beforehisdecision,theimagesofmanyrealitiesflashbeforehim,beyondarticulationyetmore
thannothingbasedupontheireffects.Thebeingheardofthemanpresentsinfinitereality,aconstant
stringofinterpretationofwhatliesbeforehim..Yetuponhisdeclarationofwhatis,upontherevelation
ofwhatthefullnessofthesignifiedistohimself,heaffirmsthedeathofalltheseimages."Thismoment,
however,istheunitywhichexcludesdistinctionfromitself.ITisconsequentlythisunitywhich
consciousnesshastotakeuponitselfforthethisassuchisthesubsistenceofmanydifferentand
independentproperties[194]"Hegelianepistemologyisnotsolelyapplicableinthatarena,butappliesto
decisionasawhole.Theimageseffectevenhim,astheyinfluencethemselvesastheyareunifiedinhis
consciousness.Anyrelationtowhatisheardisreconstructedcompletely,andallthatremainsisthe
translationofbeingheardtohimself.ThisishowheescapestheKantiancategories,byrevealingthat
theyareevershiftingandvacillatingeveninthemomentsof"repetition".
Thusitisnotalogos,anentitywhichpresidesoverwhatisrepresented,butisinfactthe
decisionaryconstructofsociologyanddifferance.Whatappearstofunctionasmetaphysicsremains
entirelyphenomenologicalasproposedanderasedbytheindividualateverymoment.Hespeaksof
differenceanddeath,ofconstantcomprehensionbyallowingonlyonetocontinue.Hespeaksof
Klein104
infinitudeineveryquestion,foreveryanswerthusbecomesthenextquestion,andisalwaysbeing
rebornandcombatingthestatusofanemptyresponsewithalivingstatementofdifferancemadebythe
individual.Toneandforcesignifythepresentvoice:theyareanteriortotheconcept,theyaresingular,
theyare,moreover,attachedtovowels,thevocalicandnottheconsonantalelementoflanguage.The
forceofexpressionamountsonlytovocalicsounds,whenthesubjectisthereinpersontoutterhis
passion
[195]
.Thepowerandvitalityofwhatissaid,isonlybroughtforthuponthedeathofan
ontologicalGod,abeingasafixedpointwhereinlanguagedecaysthroughouttimedeviatingfromits
origin.Differanceisnowrevealedasthelifeofwhatappearsfortheindividual.Itishisconstructofvigor
andpassion.Itisthisabsolutecreationthatrepresentsmanhimself,thatnoonecouldevercontradict
andspeakovertheexistentialqualityoflinguisticsthatarethephenomenologicaldeclarationofwhat
liesbeforehim.

RelyingonceagainonhisanalysisofSaussurianthought,thedichotomybetweenspeechand
languageremainspertinent.Initsoriginalpresentation,Saussurehadproposedthatwritingconvoluted
andmisconstruedthepuritythatwastheintentofspeech.,Duetowriting"beingwritten",ithadbecome
anillusoryfinalitythatsoughttocontainspeechwithinitself."writingisunrelatedtotheinnersystemof
languages
[196]
Thusitsimpositionisaggressiveandpurelyselfaggrandizing,wrestlingtheintentfrom
speechand,solidifyingitwithinwriting.However,asDerridacontinuouslyandrigorouslydestroysthis
typeofoppositionbetweentheexternalandtheinternal,itisquicklyrevealedthattheoutsideisthe
inside.Spacing(noticethatthiswordspeaksthearticulationofspaceandtime,thebecomingspaceof
timeandthebecomingtimeofspace)isalwaystheunperceived,thenonpresent,andthenonconscious.
Klein105
Assuch,ifonecanstillusethatexpressioninanonphenomenologicalwayforherewepassthevery
limitsofphenomenology
[197]
.Spacinghereistherevelatorymeaningasrepresentedasthepause
betweenwords.Ontotheologically,itexhibitstheabsoluteseparationbetweenmanandGod,thatthe
lifeofeachwordhasbetweenanabsolutesilenceofdeath.Itistheinexpressibleseparationbetween
thedivinelifeandphenomenologicallife,theessenceisseparatedfromexpressionoverandoveragain,
justaswordsonapage.Itisthisbywhichdifferencebetweenthem,andthereforemeaningconveyed
tothehearerorthereader.Theseparationbetweenthesignsiswhatdistinguishesonefromtheother,
andthereforeofrationalityingeneral
Thisideaofdistinctionbetween,continuesbeyondsimplespeech.Originaryspacingisacall
backwardstothehistoricalnascentoflanguage.Amomentwhereinwhichitwasformulated,aninstant
wheremanwasconjuringpassioninordertospeakisimpliedinspacing.However,byspeechipso
factoresidingwithinthespatiotemporalsphere,suchterminologydealswiththeproblemsofthistype
oforigin."Languageisastructureasystemofoppositionsofplacesandvaluesandanoriented
structure.[198]ThisisthegenerationoflanguageasstatednotonlybyRousseau,butbythetradition
ofthetheologicaledificeingeneral.Thisideaofafixedpoint,ofanoriginalpuritythatwouldnecessarily
becomeunpreserved,createsanobjectivepointwhenlanguagewasformulated.Thespecificqualitiesof
thispointisnotimportant,onlyitsfinality.Thisirrevocabilityisnotjustapointunderstoodpositively
withinthelanguageitbegan,butcontainsthenegative"before"whichlanguagewasandthenitwasnot.
Itgrantsobjectivevaluetothispointasaarticulatedevent,andsolidifiesperhapsthegreatest
oppositionwithinlogocentrism:oneofnonbeingandbeing.Inexpressibilityhasyettocomeintoplay,
foritthedivineoriginofspeechstillindicatesthemostinexpressibleabsenceofpresencewhichexisted
beforelanguage.Notapointintimewhereinwhichmancouldnotspeak,butapointofcontactwhich
Klein106
manreliedoninordertospeak:theideaofGod.Thepurityhassincealwaysbeensuffocating,or
dispersedasDerridatermsit.Itcontainslifeanddeathwithinitselfalso,butonesthatspeakincessantly
oflifeasunderstoodwithoutdeath.ItsspeechonanancientGodisthentheDispersion,asthelawof
spacing,isthereforeatoncepurenature,theprincipleofsocietyslifeandtheprincipleofsocietys
death.Thus,althoughthemetaphoricoriginoflanguagecanbeanalyzedasthetranscendenceofneed
bypassion,theprincipleofdispersionisnotalientoit..[199]"Themeaningisalwaysconvoluted,
dissipatedbythechronologicalseparationimpliedbyintrinsicmeaning.Lifehaslongbeenseparated
fromspeechandtheindividualinthemomentanoriginisdeclared.Thisunavoidabledistanceplaced
nonbeingoutsideoflanguageitwasspeechnotofinclusionbutofexclusion,ofabsolutelife.This
finalityhasplaguedlanguage,andanabsolutegapbetweenlifeanddeathisaverytangibleexampleof
whatDerridaabscondedfrom.
Inontotheologicalterms,Deathisarepresentationofincompletenonbeingwithintheprimal
structureofbeing.Rather,asthisisapurelyphenomenologicallinguisticexpression,anabsolute,
completeandtotalgapcanneverbegenuine.Theabsenceofpresenceisinadifferentrepresented
here,foritisthedeathimpliedineverymomentoflifeinspeechandwriting,ofanecessarystiflingof
articulationinordertoattributetoitactualvivacity.whatwritingitself,initsnonphoneticmoment,
betraysislife....itistheprincipleofdeathanddifferenceinthebecomingofbeing
[200]
Hisutilizationof
thisterminologyisnecessarytoshowtheactualizationofaphenomenologicalapproachtolife.
Existentialdeaththen,isthenewpointoforiginandtheincipienceofpurecreation.The
superficialityofspacingisovercomewhentheindividualtakesdifferanceintoaccount.Conversationis,
then,acommunicationbetweentwoabsoluteoriginsthat,ifonemayventuretheformula,autoaffect
Klein107
reciprocally,repeatingasimmediateechotheautoaffectionproducedbytheother
[201]
Thisabsolute
originisthefullnessbywhichhereferenceshimselfanddefiesthetelos.Byconductingspeech,he
deconstructsanythingbeyondwhatappearstohim,andthemeaninghechoosestoassigntoit.Itisthis
nonoriginthatgiveshiswordscoherency,andtheirstrengthtohimself.Whenencounteringwriting,this
ideaofconversationoccursoncemore.asHeallowsthefullnessofhisselfpresentationtoactas
anotherabsoluteorigin,onethatisalwaysbeingrecreatedandreestablished.Theseelementsof
expressionanddecision,arephenomenologicallyindecipherablefromeachothertheseparationhereis
onlytoallowforanauthenticanalysisofbothandtomovebeyondanyexternalteleologicalmotivations
intothefullnessoftheplay.Thefacadeisindistinguishablefromtheentirety,andthusisrevealedtobe
thecompletionoflanguageandexpression.
Theconstantinteractionbetweensubstanceandnonsubstanceasorigin,theideaofabsolute
negationbeginstofadeaway.Ascreativepowerclimaxesinarticulation[202]andsuchmeaningis
renderedtohimviaconversation,theideaofthetheatercomesentersthegame.Whatterminatesand
revivestheideaoftheateristheperspectivethatitisnonpresenceposingaspresence.Itisthemost
savageandperpetuatedfacadewhenmansimulatesasimulation,playingasnothingatall.Yethestill
speaks,stillreliesonhisincessanthearingandcomprehensionofhimselftobreedtheworldfromwhich
heisseparated..Nowthateventhisgapinpresentationandintentisdoneaway,with,theplayhas
beenrevitalizedtonolongerbetheplay.Presencewillbefull,notasanobjectwhichispresenttobe
seen,togiveitselftointuitionasanempiricalunitorasaneidosholdingitselfinfrontoforupagainstit
willbefullastheintimacyofaselfpresence,astheconsciousnessorthesentimentofselfproximity,of
selfsameness[proprit].
[203]
Asthesignifierhasbecomethesignified,thedeathoftheillusionisthe
Klein108
veryideaofauthenticity.Nowgenuineengagementcanoccur,andneveragaincanspacingdeterthe
beingheardfromtheindividual.."Thesignifieristhedeathofthefestival.Theinnocenceofthepublic
spectacle,thegoodfestival,thedancearoundthewaterhole,wouldopenatheaterwithout
representation.Orratherastagewithoutashow:withouttheater,withnothingtosee.Visibilitya
momentagothetheorem,herethetheatreisalwaysthatwhich,separatingitfromitself,breaches
[entame]thelivingvoice.WhereasRousseauwasdeterminedtodesignateapassionateandnatural
beginning,Deconstructionhasalreadyremovedthedifferencebetweenthebeginningandtheend.Even
asRousseauacknowledgedtheabsolutefalsehoodoftheactorandthepreacher,[204]Theabsolute
presenceofthesignifierandtheselfspeech,elevatestheactortolifeandthepreachertoGod.Itpushes
theiraspirationsdowntowardsthemaswell,untilultimatelytheymeetamidsteachother,their
masqueradeofpresencecompletelyindistinguishablefromthefinalityofanyothersignifier.Hegelwas
oneofthefirsttobegintotakeproximityseriously,withasmuchfervorofspeakingastheclassic
traditionshadtakenitsopposite:death(theunknown,thesecret,theincomplete)"Theynolonger
involvetheoppositionbetweenbeingandknowingtheyremainwithintheundividedsimplicityofthe
knowingfunctiontheyaretruthisformoftruthanddiversityismerelydiversityintheformof
truth.[205]"Theplayhascompleteditselfanyseparationofitfromitsgoalofexpressionhasbeen
destroyedknowingaplayhasbecomeasreflectiveofpresenceasknowing"therest"ofreality.
Theambiguityofthenonphoneticmomentsupplementedbythisdualityoforigin,
allowsthecompletenessoflanguagetoarise.Thelackofobjectivecontent,ofrelianceonformalized
concatenationfurthereffacesSaussurescase.Equallyso,theoriginisnotoneofpositiveandobjective
content.Rather,nonoriginisequallyincorporatedandneededtounderstandorigin.Expressabilityis
thenanessentialpartoftheinexpressible.Thegapremains,yetneitheriscoherentwithouttheother
Klein109
portionofthestructure."themostwidelysharedbeliefisthatresponsibilityistiedtothepublicandto
thenonsecret,tothepossibilityandeventhenecessityofaccountingforone'swordsandactionsinfront
ofothers,ofjustifyingandowninguptothem.Hereonthecontraryitappears,justasnecessarily,that
theabsoluteresponsibilityofmyactions,totheextentthatsucharesponsibilityremainsmine,singularly
so,somethingnooneelsecanperforminmyplace,insteadimpliessecrecy[206]"Manscreativepower
isnothingwithouttheabilitytodestroyaswellasconjurehecannotmakepublicwithoutalsomaking
hisownprivacytheultimatesecret.Thesecret,inthiscase,isthefactthattheplayisthesameasthe
rest,thattheonlyonethatseparatesitfromanythingelseisman'sowninsistence.Hecannotseparate
lifefromdeathwithoutdraggingthedeathalong,theirrolesareonlycomprehensiblewithintherestored
absolutepresencewhenisexclusiveandinclusive.Hisontologymustallowfordeathineverymoment
thatlifeisspoken,andinthisthepowerofdecisionismadeasclearasitisunavoidable.Thatabsolute
distinctionbetweentheseisnegated,forthetotalityistheabsoluteotherandwhatiscontainedin
spokenandunspoken,bothareequallypositiveandnecessaryselfexpressions.
Theplaycontinuestodeconstructsthisideaoforiginatall,apermanentatpointwhereinwhich
speechisasimpledeviation,asubstitutioninplaceofthepurityofpresence.Theplaypresentsa
facadeofreality,yetnowthisisrevealedtobeitinfullness.Itisthisaccentuation,an
acknowledgementofitssyntheticpresence,thatgivesandnegatesitspower.Yetthefinalized
beginning,thenaturaloriginisdiscarded,fortherecouldeverbeapointwheremancannotspeakin
fullness.Nobeingpresidesoverhisspeech,andinthisisitsfreedom.Evenahistoricalanalysis,an
immersionintothespiritwouldsimplyfindwhatwastheplay,whatwasasubstitute.yetthesupplement
isalwaysthesupplement.Onewishestogobackfromthesupplementtothesource:onemust
recognizethereisasupplementatthesource.[207]Theperformancecanbecomeaninvigorated
Klein110
reality,fornothingelseliesbeyondthisincessantchainoffalsehood.Thesignssyntheticnatureisnot
oneofpassionbutofthetotalityoftheculturaltracethisalonecanrevitalizetherepresenterasthe
represented.Representationbecomestheverythingitachievesforinlightoftheincessantaccusations
ofpresence,thatitisindistinctandwithoutcontent.Inthisambiguityformerasasimplenounit
becomesthepropernounitsexpressionasindistinctcreatesitdistinctly.
Itisatthisabsoluteoriginofarticulation,thattheobjectcannotinterferewithman'sselfspeech,
hisownbeingheardwhereinspacingandrepletionareconquered..Ifthefundamentalpresenceofthe
thingispurelyinthesignifiedasthespoken,andtheconstanterasureofthetraceviadifferance
removesman'srelianceonreason,repetitionhasdiedwithGod.Inadefianceoforiginarisingfroman
expressionofpassion,Derridadefeatsthepurityofexpressiblepassion.Itisnotinthiswhichallows
passiontobeimportant,butthefactthatitmustalwaysberemadeandreconstitutedinitsfullness.
languagedoesnotbeinginpureanguishorratheranguishsignifieditselfonlythroughrepetition.
[208]
.
Itwas,indaysofclassictheologythatthefortitudeofanthatideaderivedfromthefactthatitcouldbe
referenceitselfviarepetition.Anguishwouldbewithoutcontentifanguishobjectivelycontained
anguish,andwassimplyreferencedviathesignofanguishtowardstheabsoluteideaofanguish.Yetthe
factthatitisreliantmeanstheobjectofrelianceisthatwhichisalwaysspoken.
[209]
Thusthecommon
nounofanguishreferencesthefinal,precise,properideaofanguishitself.
Theoriginaryanguishthatpresentsitselfasproperhasbeendispelledwiththefinalityof
expressionintheselfeffacingnatureofthetrace."thepossibilityofrepetitioninitsmostgeneralform,
thatis,theconstitutionofatraceinthemostuniversalsenseisnowapossibilitywhichmustinhabitthe
pureactualityofthenow,butitmustconstituteitthoughttheverymovementofdifferanceit
Klein111
introduces
[210]
.Theobjectivityorabsolutismofwhatrepeatedissupplantedbytheideathat
repetitionispossibleAfundamentalcoherency,orthatofarticulationingeneralispossible,istrue
repetition.Itistheexpressionofpurepossibilityandambiguity,ofabsoluteexpressabilitywhichbrings
theideaofrepetitiontolife,thanequallydestroysit.Whatisrepeatedisnotabsolutecontentderiving
fromanguish,butratherthatwecontinuetoreferenceanguishregardlessofthecontentitwillnow
contain.Foritmustcontainassurelyasmanmustspeak,andthereinisitsstrength.Thelackofabsolute
"lyingbeyond",oranythingtodeviatefromthephenomenologicalpresencebringslifebothtononbeing
andbeingasconcepts.Completeproximitydoesnotweakenasentimentlikeanguishbecauseitdidnot
absolutelybegininfactbecausethebeginningofitwasintheinstantitwasarticulatedisabsolutelyalive
andbeyondthedeathofthepast."Indeedwesayofaninscriptioningeneral,inordertomakeitquite
clearthatitisnotsimplythenotationofpreparedspeechrepresentingitself,butinscriptionwithinspeech
andinscriptionashabitationalwaysalreadysituated.
[211]
.Thepossibilityisconstant,andcannever
beseparatedfromselfspeech,savefortheinstantofdeconstruction.
Thestrengthremainswiththesignasthesignifier,andthereforeoftheindividualinrelationto
himself.Theexistentialelementsculminateinthisfinalmomentofacknowledgementofspacingand
repetition.Asalways,death,whichisneitherpresenttocomenorapresentpast,shapestheinteriorof
speech,asitstrace,itsreserve,itsinteriorandexteriordifferanceasitssupplement
[212]
.The
phenomenologicalportionincessantlyimpliesthetelosofspeech[213],it'sthedirectiveline,thatrelies
ontheindividualtoacknowledgehisrolebeyondtheinstant.Hiscreativepowerasabsolutelifeand
deathcanexistonlyamidstthepureambiguityofthetrace..Thispushinghimbeyondaweakening
Klein112
demarcationofessentialexpression,hecanbirthtohimselfanewlinguistictelosthatwilldiehassoonas
itisenterswhatisheard.Thusspacingdoesnotrepresentacompletedichotomy,butratherthedeath
bywhichspeechgainsdirectioninbeingheardandwhatwasnotspoken.Hecreatesthepossibilitiesof
lifeviahisarticulation,andthereforedoesnotallowspacingtorepresentabsolutedeath.Itinactsthe
nascentforlifebetweenwhatisheardandwhatisnotspoken.Thespacingisthenonbeingofsilence,
ofkeepingnoteventooneself,ofnotsaying.Itisrequiredsupplementtothepurityofselfexpression,
whichcannotpermittheinterferenceofapointoforigin.Inhiswriting,heacknowledgestheabsolute
creativepowerofthewrittenotherandnothisspacingfromitwhichinstigatestheabsoluteoriginofhis
textineverymomentofanalysis.Thusthedeathofrepeatedspacingisfullnessoflifewhichvoidsthe
inexpressibilityofphenomenologicalspacingandthestagnancyimpliedinrepetition.
TohaveafullergraspoftheexistentialandphenomenologicalconceptsTillichutilizes,these
principlesofdeconstructionmustbeappliedwithidenticalvivacity.Itisonlythroughthesemaximsthat
Tillichstheologicalideasbegintobecomepossibilitytheymovehimbeyondthetrapsoftheologyinto
therevelationthatphenomenologyistheonlyplacecapableofhousingmansultimateconcern.As
mentionedpreviously,ontologypresentsitselfasfinalizedonlywiththeincompletenessimpliedbyfaith.
Thereisnoseparationhere,forthetwoarenecessarilyselfcompleting.Byallowingthissynthesistoact
intotality,onlythendowereceivethefullestrevelationofBeingItself."Thetermselfdetermination
pointstotheambiguityofidentityandnonidentity.Thedeterminingsubjectcanonlydetermineinthe
powerofwhatheessentialis.Butundertheconditionsofexistentialestrangement,itisseparatedfrom
whatheessentiallyis.Selfdeterminationintofulfilledhumanityisimpossibleyetitisnecessary....Thisis
theambiguityinselfdetermination,thedignityandthedespairofeveryresponsiblepersonality.[214]"
Foritrestsnotupontheobjectivecontentthatwasmadediscernibleviathedisjunctionofspacing,nor
Klein113
wasittheincessantawarenessorrepetitionofhisanxietythat"throwsthisbeing[215]".Ratheritisthe
deathimpliedinlife,thesynthesisofhisincompletenessasanecessaryconstituentofactualizationthat
allowsmanselfreferentialtranscendence.Hespeaksofitexistentially,movingphenomenologyinto
thefullnessofthepresent,beyondseparationsandintodifferance.Theseparationiswhatmakesit
deconstructedandcomplete,andwillbeshowntobewhatclosessuchagapasmanrelatesto
beingitself.thisalldonewhilstcreatingamidstanonorigin:hisultimateconcern
BeingItself,ascreativepower,escapestheabsoluteassumptionsofpositiveontologyand
origin.Ittranscendsthesedownwardsandinwardsinamovementwhichiswhatallowstoexistpurely
phenomenological.Theindividual'srelianceonthecompletenessofBeingItselfandfaith,without
contentandnegatingabsolutedistinction,thatcreatesforauthenticfaith.Itisselfdeath,thegiftof
deathfromtheinside,thatgivestruepowerofcreationtomanfromtheother.Theunconditional
appearselementappearsinthepracticalshapingfunctionsofreasonbonumipsu.thegooditselfasthe
normofallapproximationstogoodness.Botharemanifestationsofesseipsum,BeingItselfasthe
groundandabyssofeverythingthatis.
[216]

ThispointstoGodassubstanceforwhatis,andoriginallymightappearanexpressionof
absoluteessence.However,thereisamovebeyondandwithinthistermviaadeconstructedideaofthe
terms.Anabsolutereference,apointofautonomousoriginfrequentlyhasclassifiedthebeingofGod.
However,Tillichdoesnotallowthisargumenttoenactasolutiontotheinfinitequestions.It's
manifestationasboth,thegroundandtheabyss,assolidificationandabsence,takesspacingupon
BeingItself.Bothareexpressionsofreality,beyondobjectivecontentyetcompletelycontainingit,for
thefoundationofsensespokenofinthefundamentalotherisstillassignedtoit.Itisthissame
Klein114
unconditionality
[217]
,andit'smovementbetweencontentthattakesallbetweenthegroundandthe
abyss,whereinwhichcreationbegins.
Thisunquenchableandincessantbirththatopposesanyrelianceonevolutionarygrowth,
proclaimsthevitalitynotonlyoffaith,butalsoofmanspowertoverifyit.Itisthefortitudeamidsta
universal,plaguedandfortifiedbythatideawhereinwhichtheexistentialideaofdifferancecomesto
light.ForTillich,itisnotknownasdifferance,butratherafacetofthecouragetobe.Withthis
courage,hecreateshisrealitybythelawsoffaithuponwhichhisultimateconcerncanbeactualizedand
hecanresidewithinit.Formanmustimposehimselfinthismanner,eveninregardtothelawsbywhich
heconductshimself,inordertocreatehisfaith.Therearenothingsinnature,thatis,noobjectswhich
arenothingbutobjects,whichhavenoelementofsubjectivity.Mansepistemologyisasmuchengaged
infaithandinterpretationasanyotherfacetofhim,thusevenhisultimateconcernisabsorbedintoyet
defiesthissubjectandobjectinteraction.Uponthiscanvasofunderstandingwithoutdefiniteformhe
writesofhisknowledgeofbecomingandbeing.Itishisconstantinteraction,hisrelationpresentingthe
fullnessoftheobjectonlytohimself,thatthisfaithismadepowerfulenoughtoinquireintobeingitself.
Thisproclamationoffaith,thatthemomentiscompleteandyetwilldieinthenext,asa
syntheticsenseofcompletionisanecessaryelementoffinitude.itisthisconstantpolarity,that
illuminatesman'sexistentialquestion,theconstantandfullpresenceofnonbeingtobeing.Yethis
declarationsofontologicalfinality,astheabilitytoneverrepeathimselfindicatesman'sability
continuallytranscendhimself.Theremustbenocompletecontent,yetequallysoarbitrarinessisnotan
objectthatmanascertains.It'srelevanceisonlywhatpresentsitselftohim,inhisacknowledgementof
himselfasadynamicself.The"self"isonlyadeclarationthatfaithispresent,thatitcompleteshimand
constituteseverythingbeyondhim."Theeternalpresentismovingfromthepasttofuturebutwithout
Klein115
ceasingtobethepresent.Thefutureisgenuineonlyifitisopen,ifthenewcanhappenandifitcanbe
anticipated[218]"
Inthisaffirmsanddeniestherealityaroundhim,deconstructingandbuildinginlightofhis
faithintheultimateconcernheseeswithblindeyes.Thisobsessionconsumeshim,asmanparticipates
initbeingitselfbyactualizingthequalitiescontainedinultimacy.Thejuxtapositionofexistentialismand
ontologyremainhereinordertobothaffirmthenecessaryconstituentsofeachother,butalsodenyany
distancebetweenthetwo.Ineveryinstance,manproclaimshimselfashespeaksepistemically,relating
notinpuritytotheworldaroundhimbutrathertohimself.Heisalwaystranslatingandsubsuming
knowledge,ratherthansimplyinteractingwithanyimpositionofanontologicalpresence..Anycognitive
actisbornoutofthedesiretobridgethegapbetweensubjectandobject.Theequivocaltermforthe
resultofsuchareunionistruth.
[1]
Thisideaofareunionisnotonewhichhindersthetranslation,but
simplythetimeofreflectivedifferanceuponwhichcreativityisallowedThereisalwaysadistinction
betweenmanandhisspeech,andassuchcanneveranalyzeauthenticallyinanyform.Hegraspsat
completionbutcanneverreach,evenamidsttheoccurrenceofknowledgeandunderstanding.Thus
manmuststepinfaith,withoutknowingthenatureoftheobjectbutonlywhatheknowstohimself.This
ishisreunion,onethatheinstigatesandends,thathemustbeincontrolover.Manspeakstohimself
beforedoingsowiththeobject,andinthishenegatesanyobjectivityintheprocess.
Dynamicsismostaptlydemonstratedinanabilitytoparticipateinthecontentofreligion
thatmancreatesforhimself,Itisthecreativepoweroffaithinmanandthefortitudeoftranslationto
givetoitselfobjectivecontent.Dynamicsdrivetowardform,inwhichbeingisactualandhasthepower
ofresistingnonbeing.Butatthesametimedynamicsisthreatenedbecauseitmayloseitselfinrigid
forms,andittriestobreakthroughthem...theresultisthelossofbothcontentandform.[219]This
Klein116
presseshisbeingagainstnonbeing,butspeaksofbothandneitherconstantly,forineverymoment
whichvitalitymustinvolveboth.Itisobjectiveinthesameinstantthatthecompletenessofits
subjectivityanddeathisacknowledged..finiteindividualismproducesatensionwithfinite
participation[220]Inthis,theindividualmustconstantlyaffirmanabsolute,yetindefinableotheramidst
thetotalityoffaithinhisexistence.Heinquiresbeyond,anauniquewaythatwouldinfact
acknowledgeonlyhimself,yethispowertocreatepusheshimbeyondthis.Thisistheveryreasonwhy
BeingItselfcanneverbethesameentityontotheologyrationalized.Itaffirmedsolelyareligiousform,
andeveninterpretationalmethodssimplyreferencetheconstantbasisforthelogicbywhichtheirclaims
aremade.ThisisthesamefinitudeofGodhimself,theabilitytomanipulatefromwithinbutnever
transcend,heremainsconfinedtobinaryoppositionofthelogosjustastheStoicswere.Ittranscends
thepurityofhopeandloveinfavorofamoreradicalformyettranscendsanydistinctionbetweenthem.
Thisabsoluteambiguityandcompletephenomenologicalstatus,thisflatandcomplete
expressability,isofutmostimportance.Similartothecharacterimpliedinthetrace,onceagainisthe
negativepowerofBeingItself.Methodsusedtosolidifyhispresencewithin,orasdistinguishableasany
specificity,workagainstcreativevitalityratherthaninitsfavor.Godisessentiallycreative,and
thereforeheiscreativeineverymomentoftemporalexistence,givingthepowerofbeingtoeverything
thathasbeingoutofthecreativepowerofdivinelife."
[221]
.Thiscouldbeabasicpremisefornegative
theologyingeneral,yetBeingItselfmovesbeyondandwithinsuchasystemsothatitdoesnot.As
revealedhere,theendlesssubjectivityofcreationhereisnotalimitationbutastrength,asourceof
power.Thereisadeconstructedabsenceofwhatitmeanstobecreative:thatonecannotbecreative
withoutcreatingandthereforecreationiscreating.Theinfinitecapacitytocreateonlymattersinsofaras
Godiscreating.Initsessentialcreation,heincludesbothbeingandnonbeing,anditisthislogosof
Klein117
everythingandnothing.DeconstructedParticularitymakesfullyaccessiblebecauseitiscompletely
inaccessible.
Itisknowledgeonlyvisibleinabriefinstantofthefaithinthepresent.Itconsistsofnothing
otherthanwhatmanismakingbeingitselfinto,andwhatsocietysdeterminingasthenaturethedivine
life.Itcanincorporateallthesepossibilitiesintoitselfbecausecreativityexcludesessentialdistinctions
fromabsoluteseparativepower.Amidstthecompletenessofthatsubjectivity,ipsofacto,existsthe
possibilityforsuchambiguitytobepresentinthefirstplaceBecausecreationasabsolutelife"isonly
onesideofthepicture.Intheactuallifeofreasonitsbasicstructureisnevercompletelylost.Inthe
actuallifeofreasonessentialandexistentialforces,forcesofcreationandforcesofdestructionare
unitedanddisunitedatthesametime.[222]"Thisisthecompletedontologicalexpressionofcreative
essence,onethatcompletesitjustastheabsolutecreativepowerofthesignifierspeaksofan
incessantlyneworigin.Thisneworigin,asaspontaneousbeginning,istheonlyabsolutesideof
creation.ToacknowledgeBeingItselfasanactingself,oronewhichactsandthendoesnot,istofall
backintooldtraps.Beingitselfcan'tnotbeacting,orinotherwordsconcerncan'tnotbeultimateat
anygiveninstant.Destructionistheessentialpartofcreation,theirforcetogetheriswhatitmeansto
transcendbothinordertouseboth.Thereisnoabsolutespacinghere,foroneistheotherthe
deceptioninbeinglanguageisthatanabsolutewouldcontainthiscontentinsteadofthatcontent.The
completenessofitsincompletenessiswhatdefinesBeingItself,andgiveitabsoluteexpressabilitywithin
thesymboliccontextoffaith.
Theinquiryofithasalreadybothansweredandnegatedthequestion.Beingitselfisalways
beinginterpretedinanewlighteverytimeitisnecessaryformantotranscend,butitneverfadesfrom
thepresentthequestionsthemselvesrevivehim.Thusfaithmust,inatemporalsensemaintainthepace
Klein118
ofBeingItself,isalwaysbeingbirthedinfullnewness.Therevelationofabsolutecontentisalways
shiftingduetoitsrelationtosubjectivity.Yetitsfullnessisspokeninanymomentitisreferenced,for
newarticulationrevivesitinfullnessadinfinitum.Suchchangeisinevitable,forthenatureofthe
questionsconcerningmanultimatelyaresubjecttochange.Thereligioussymbolsinabilityto
authenticallyrelatetotheobjectoftheirconcernmeanstheevolutionofwhattheycontainisalso
implied.Revelationoranawarenessofwhatconcernsmanultimately,occursonlyataspecificmoment
Justasthefullnesspaintingisitsownoriginanduniqueexpression,faithisalsocompletedand
reformulatedineverymomentbaseduponthelanguageusedtodescribeit.Thesubjectivestateofthe
faithfulchangesincorrelationtothechangeofthesymbolsoffaith.
[223]
Theontologicalunitygivenby
faith,andthecompletenessofitasanepistemologicalpossibility,makethisadaptabilityanessentialpart
offaith.Aslanguagereceivesfullnesseverytimeitisspoken,sofaithmustalsobereinvigoratedwith
everybreath,forthisisthewhatallowstocontinuallytranscendandspeakonultimateconcern..
[revelation]couldnothaveoccurredwithouthavingbeenexpected,...itwouldnothavebeenthefinal
revelationifithadnotbeenreceivedassuch.[224]"Thebecomingstatusofontologicalrevelation
transcendstheconstancyofontotheology.Itopposedtothestaticconsistencyimpliedbythelatter,is
andwhatkeepsthesymbolspowerful.Thereligiousexperienceisalwaysthefirstandthelastofits
kind,nothingcaneverreplaceit,andnothingevershould.Yet,itisalwaysbeingreplace,forthe
subjectiveindividualiscomingtounderstanditinnewways.Thisdifferanceismakingitnewad
infinitium,andretainingtherevelationashappeningnow.Ifitisallowedtoresideonlyinthepast,it
willneverbetrulyassimilatedintohisperception,andremainsbeyondhisusage.
Thereisanelementofcertaintyineveryfaith,whichisnotsubjecttodoubt,courage,andrisk
theunconditionalconcernitself.Thushemovesbeyondhimselfbyalsowithdeath,byrealizingthat
Klein119
whichconcernshim,andspeakinglifeonlytothecontentwhichrepresentwhoheoughttobe.
[3]
The
constantsubjectivityoffaithclaimsthatfromhimonlyifhisresolutioniscompleteandhetakescreation
onhimselfthisfrequentsbeyondreasonabilitybutnotbeyondreason.Itisbycouragereliesnotonthe
absolutenessoflogicallyconstructedparadigms,butrathercomingintotheabsurdcompletenessoffaith.
Itassemblesthesetogetherasidentification,asreasonable.Itcombineswithintheindividualwho
instigatesthebeingheard.Thepowerofspeech,therepresentationofmaninsideandoutsidethe
synthetic,ishisabilitytoaffirmhimselfinspiteofthenonpresenceofthetraceandthedeathof
presence.
Ifbeingitselfiscapableofbeingtheanswerorthequestion,howdoesitnegateany
opposition?Thequestionisneveroneofnegation,butoftranscendencewithin,onethattakesboth
answersratherthanexcludingoneinfavorofanother.Whereexactlycanoneobservethisnegationof
polarity?Firstlyitovercomesthedifferencebetweentheuniversalandtheparticular.Itisnotconquered
byuniversalastheexpressionofperfectedtruth[225]absolutepossibilityisit'stranscendence.Thisis
notapossibilitywaitingtoexpressafinalcharacteristicofthedivine,butexistsinlimitlessnessas
ultimateconcern.Itcanmanifestabsolutelyinbothcontextsasnecessaryandmovestheindividual
beyondhimselfbykeepinghimwithinhimself."Godiscalleddynamic,butheisdynamicnotintension
withformbutinabsoluteandunconditionalunitywithform,sothathisselftranscendenceneveris
tensionwithhisselfpreservation.heisfreenotinarbitrarinessbutinabsoluteandunconditionalidentity
tohisdestiny....Inthisway,althoughthesymbolsusedfordivinelifearetakenfromtheconcrete
situationofman'srelationshiptoGod,theyimplyGod'sultimacy,theultimacyinwhichpolaritiesof
beingdisappearinthegroundofbeing,inbeingitself[226]."Theuniversal,isabsolutelyuniversalit's
statusisthatoftheabsoluteother.Itcanneverpermeateexistenceornonexistencecompletely,and
Klein120
suchmakesbothmovementsinitstranscendence.It'slimitationsbythesymbolsisactuallythe
concretenessofitsdirectionit'sstatuswithiniswhatmovesitbeyond,andviceversa.The
requirementsofultimacylimitbeingitselfitinordertoshowitspower.It'suniversalityisnecessaryin
ordertoshowthefortitudeofitsparticularity.
Beingitself,isboththefinalexpressionandthepotentialforwhatisexpressible.It's
derivesfromitsnatureasspirit.Thisspiritiswhereitrestsinbetweenexistenceandnonexistence,
incorporatingandtranscendingallintoitself."Spiritistheunityoftheontologicalelementsandthetelos
oflife.Actualizedaslife,beingitselfisfulfilledinspirit.Thewordtelos...expressestheinnerdirectedness
oflifetowardspirit,theurgeoflifetobecomespirit,tofulfillitselfassprit.[227]"Theindividual'stelosis
unitedinitsspirit,becomespossibleasheaffirmsthepresenceofspirit.Hedoessobymakinga
decision,bymovingintotheinexpressibleinordertospeakofhisownlife.Itcombineswhothe
individualwithwhatis,withwhatbeingitselfhasbecome.Byconfirmingwhatisultimate,manhas
movedintothelifeofthespirit,andbeingitselfhasincludedmanwithinitself.Itthennegatesthe
separation,itisfullyexpressedinman'suniqueexpressionofitself,andmusthavetheseuniquequalities
inordertobeexpressedatall.Bybeingthefinalanswertoanyultimatequestion,thelifeofthespirit
canbecompletelyproximalasanyanswer.
Allofthesetermswould,asmanyhave,aredeceptivelyindicativeofGodtheentity.
SpiritwouldbethepositiveaffirmationofGodthebeing,andnothingmore.However,thereismoreto
theseterms,apremisethatactuallyestablishesthemwithinphenomenologyratherthanwithout."Spirit
doesnotstandincontrasttothebody.Lifeasspirittranscendsthedualityofbody.Italsotranscends
thetriplictyofbodysoulandmind,inwhichsoulisactuallifepowerandmindandbodyareits
functions.Lifeasspiritisthelifeofthesoul,whichincludesthemindandbody,butnotasrealities
Klein121
alongsidethesoul.[228]"Itisnotanotherworldlyrealmorasalvificheaven,forifitderivesfrombeing
itself,anyquestionofpresencehasnomeaning.Spiritisthepermissionofunity,theunitingofmankind
withtheothernonexistentotherthataffirmsdecision.Therealityofthesoulisnotoneworth
consideration,itistheunitythatisbothwithinandwithoutman,andparticipateswithhimthathemydo
thesamewithit.Spiritisasmuchmanastherealitythatliesbeforehim,therewasnevermeanttobe
anydistinctionforonecreatestheother.
Itisanaffirmationnotjustsolelyoflife,butalsoofdeath.Lifeofthespiritincludes
withinitselfnonbeingasmuchasitdoesanyassertionofbeing."Nothingisoutsidethecenteredunityof
hislifenothingisstrange,dark,hidden,isolated,unapproachable.[229]"Itbringsintothepossible,the
onlyplacewhereithassignificance:thelifeoftheindividual.Heisnotabsolutecreation,butrather
includesboththenegativityandpositivitywithinexistence.Nothingasnothingisjustasapproachableas
thediscerniblestructuresofbeing.Inorderformantobecenteredandawareofhisactualization,Being
itselfisthatwhichcentershim,theabsolutesecretthatbyallowsmantorevealanysecretaslongasitis
soughtwithallofhimself.Thiswillnotallowformantoaffirmsomethingotherthanbeingitself,but
ratherthananyexpressionofultimacywilldosoregardless.Hecanneverknowtheanswerevenwhen
itisanswered,forbeingitselfisalwaysasecret.Yetit'srevelationisalsofinal,itcanbecompletely
revealedbeforemaninhisfaith.Beingitselfcompletestheseparationbetweenwhoitisandwhoman
claimsittobe.Theisolationthatbeingitselfvoidsallowsforultimateconcern,butneverdemandingthe
formitwilltake.Thisishisspirituallife,thequestionoffaithansweredwitheverystepandevery
declarationofwhotheindividualis.
Itmustnotrelyonhispowerofreason,atleastifnaturalisticreasonistheoriginalpoint
ofwhereinwhichauthenticdiscoveriescanbemade.Aspecificpoint,thatcontainsandbeginsalogical
Klein122
structure,hasalreadyevadedwhatfaithismeanttodemonstrate.Suchselfconstitutiondepends
completelyonreason,butnoanythingthatcannotadapt.Suchadaptability,isnotadistortionoffinality
thatappearsassomedivinemisinterpretationintoculturalrelativism.Instead,thisrelativismisthebasis
forreasonitself.Itrequirespowertoexpress,butthisexpressabilityissimplyacanvas:nothing
intrinsicallycanorcannotreflecttheholy.Thusreasonisassubjective"itcouldbecalledthesubstance
whichappearsintherationalstructure,orbeingitselfwhichismanifestinthelogosofbeing,orthe
groundwhichiscreativeineveryrationalcreation,ortheabysswhichcannotbeexhaustedbyany
creationorbyanytotalityofthem,ortheinfinitepotentialofbeingandmeaning...allthesetermswhich
pointtothatwhichprecedeshaveametaphoricalcharacter[230]"
Thisisoneofthefirsttimeswherethelogosisnolongerrequiredtotakefinalformor
anypositiveformatall.Theformisimpliedinthefactthatstatementsaremade,andtheobjectivityis
denotedaspossibility.Thisisimportant:forthestructuralgroundofbeingcanfinalizeitselfbecauseitis
absoluteambiguity.Thisrevelationisfoundnotintheformofultimacy,butinthefactthatitcan.When
manaffirmssense,andspeakstohimselfanddeniesnootherrealitythanwhatisbeforehim,hetakes
thisobjectivityintohimself.Itisneverthatitisdeclaredbeyondhimbutmanmustassumethatthisisthe
case.Itdefiesanideaoforigin,ofanabsolutelogosthatisinsteaddepictedsimplybyexistenceitself.
Man'sparticipationinthegroundofbeingmakeshima"ground"ontohimself.Itisphenomenological
reality,alldeterminedbytheculturaldepictionsoffaithtosaywhatare"true"andwhatare"false".The
conceptualdecisionresideswithinthispremise.
Themetaphorintheseideasisthechronology:thewithintimeofGodwhichpositshim
asabeing.Reasondidnotderiveabsolutely,infactdidnot"derive"fromafixedpointinthatsenseat
all.Thisisthemistakeofreason,intosaythatinitsabsolutionitprecedesanything.Deconstructionhad
Klein123
alreadybeentakenplace,andTillichopposedthelogoshere.IT'stimelessnessisit'spower,anability
tobebothwithouttimeandwithinit.Itisonlyinthepresent,forfaithisalwaysbeingrebuilt,isalways
derivingfromman'sgroundofbeingashimself.Hecreativelymustdenythattherewasanyperfection
beforehim,andthatanymoreistocomebutthatinfacthedecidescompletelynow.Realityishisnow,
tobehadandtobebothcreatedanddestroyed.Hetakesthesubjectivityofthelogosandisalways
revaluatingit."Thereisacontinuousprocessofinterpretationofphilosophicalelementsandelectsof
faith,notonephilosophicalfaith[231]."Thereisnothingotherthanwhatmanproclaimsinthefaithofhis
everydecision.andnoabsolutesolutiontohisquestionsofbeing.Thisishishistorythatisretoldand
untoldinhislifeandintheconceptualizedhistoryofbeingitselfthroughoutsocietyandtime.
ThisparticularityiswhatmovesbeingitselfawayfromaninfiniteGodasabeing,whetherita
beingatranscendentbeingwhoisinfiniteorinfiniteobjectspossessingtheinfinitudeofGod(pantheism).
It'sirreducibilityiswhatmakesitcompletelydefinable,andthusexistsonlywithinyetotherthanwhat
canbecategorized."Logically,beingitselfisbefore,priorto,thesplitwhichcharacterizesfinitebeing.
ForthisreasonitiswrongtospeakofGodastheuniversalessenceasitistospeakofhimexisting.If
Godisunderstoodasuniversalessence,astheformofalltheforms,heisidentifiedwiththeunityand
totalityoffinitepotentialitiesbuthehasceasedtobethepowerofthegroundinallofthem,and
thereforehasceasedtotranscendthem"Thiswordbefore,isnotedbyTillichsoasnottoimplyorigin.
Thetracewhichactsasboththepositiveandnegativeelementsofascertainingreality,canonlyconsist
ofbothbybeingabsolutelyneither.Itisnotthesumtotalofwhatisandalsowhatisnot,butisinfact
thelackofdefinition,orthenonbeingrequiredtobegin"being"Itisimportanttoobservebeingitselfas
containingmanyofthesesamecharacteristics.Itdoesnotcompletethephenomenologicalsystemby
actingsbookends,asSpinozanorpantheisticsystemwhereinwhichGodiseverythingandeverything
Klein124
isGod.Itisalsonotthenascentofbeing,asifpossibilitywereapoolofpositivismwhereonecould
drawfrominordertobringoutthisorthatbeingfromtheessenceofGod.Lastly,thisconceptofthe
poolisalsonotjustalltheideasthatrealitycouldcontainthrownintoone,whichareactualizedin
linearitythroughouttimeasGodordains.Rather,heexistsbeyondallthesedistinctions,beforerealityis
categorizedbythefinitudeofwhatiswithinit.Beyonddoesnotimplyinfinite,forultimacycanonlye
demonstratedwithinitsaccessibility,andthepositiveinfinitewouldhavetomovehimselfbeyondreality.
Creationcouldneverbeconstant,foritwouldalreadybedoneman'sactualizationswouldjustbeone
ideaofbeingitselfoveranotherthatwouldbeaderivationofabsolutecontent.Thebinaryopposition
betweenbeingandnonbeingisremovedinthemomentthatcreationisdoneinthepresentandonly
there.Godisnotintrinsicallyherenorisheessentiallythere,beingisnotarevelatoryinteractionofman
withaportionofGod.Suchareactionhasalreadydependedonthecreationthatwasdonemoments
before:anexpressionofultimacythathasalreadypresumedtherealityinwhichitexists.Thereisno
portionandassuchGodisnomorefoundinbeingthannonbeing,infacttheabsenceofnonbeingis
impliedinthecreativepowerofbeingitself.Destructionhasnoindependentstandinginthewholeof
realitybutthatitisdependentonthestructureofthatinanduponwhichitactsdestructively.Here,as
everywhereinthewholeofbeing,nonbeingisdependonbeing,thenegativeonthepositive,deathon
life[232]."Itcanonlybeseenwhenmanspeaks,andisbothsubjectoverandwithinthewordsof
ultimacyheutters.Thispolarityismeaninglesswhentheonlyarenawhereitispresentisthearenaof
constantcreationwhichremovesthedistinctionsofpolarity.
Thisinternalizedcompletionistheideaofanorigin,orfinalitythatislostwithintranscendence
thatincorporatesallThenonbeingofnegativetheologymeansnotbeinganythingspecial,being
beyondeveryconcretepredicate.Thisnonbeingembraceseverythingitmeansbeingeverythingitis
Klein125
BeingItself.
[233]
Thisphenomenologyisnotbaseduponanontology,butratherthedevotionoffaith
andinabsoluteother,aparticipationintheimpossibletraceineverymomentwhichmovesitinto
expressability.Spacingbecomeevenmorepowerfulwithinthis,asdeathandlifehavebecomethe
absolutenonoriginalsoofBeingItself.Godasacreativeentity,asaresponsetometaphysical
questions,misrelatesitfromitstranscendencetofrailhistoricalterminologyItthrustshimbackwithin
being,ratherallowingcreativitytoincludebothlifeanddeath.Forthereisnodistinction,thereareboth
impliedinanymanifestationofBeingItself.Theabsolutecontainmentoflackofobjectivitypushes
BeingItselfhimbeyondandthusintoparticularitysoasrelatehimtothequestionsofmansfinitude.
Thisiswhyitcouldneverabeing,andneverpossessthecontentspurelyofteleology,formeaningless
asmeaningisthequestionofGod.Byincludingallandnothing,ultimacycanactualizeabsolutely
subjectively.
Whatelucidatestheexistentialqualitiesoffaith,particularlyintheseinstances,isthenecessityof
whatTillichtermsparticipation.Itisthecompleteobsession,atakinguponthepowerofBeingItselfin
orderforittoenterinman'sselfspeech.Hemustacknowledgeitasthefoundationforpossibilityinits
nothingnessforexpressabilitytoarise."Heknowsthataneffectcanbeconqueredonlybyanother
effect,andthattheonlyeffectwhichcanovercometheaffectsofpassionistheeffectofthemind,the
spiritualorintellectualloveofthesoulforitsowneternalground.Thiseffectisanexpressionofthe
participationofthesoulinthedivineselflove.Thecouragetobeispossiblebecauseitisparticipation
intheselfaffirmationofbeingitself
[234]
.MansrelianceonBeingItselfasanacknowledgementof
thefullnessofthepresentisincessantreconstitutionofBeingItselfwithinthemoment.Inthiscompleted
instant,heparticipateswithapassionthatcompleteshisfaith.HIscouragetomovebeyondnonbeing,
Klein126
toacknowledgeexistenceonlyasitappearstohimisthesalvificpowerofbeing.Itisthisontological
equality,ofapurephenomenologicalexpressionthatunitesmanwithBeingItselftheirdeconstructed
subjectivityhasbecometheirstrength.
Man'sparticipationintheabsolutenothingnesshasgeneratedanontologicalstructure
ambiguousnothingness.Theambiguityattainedfromthisisactiveevenintoitsfinalexpressionin
mankind:theindividual's"newbeing".Asbeingitselfcancreatefromnonbeing,socanmanactualizein
nocontent.Theseparationbetweenthetwoisabolishedintheblinkofaneye,andbeingitselfinthis
sensebecomesman,andviceversa."Weencountertheirrationalityofthistransitionfromessenceto
existenceineverything,anditspresenceisirrational,notparadoxical.Heisnothisownultimacy,butis
capableofaspiringtoultimacyonlywhenrealizinghenevercouldbutthathemustanyways.Assoonas
theyareconsideredabsurdandbeyondmeaning,doesbeingitselfmoveintoapropositionofultimacy.
manaffirmationofbeingitselfandhisownnewbeingisanactionofdeconstructionbetweenwhoman
isandwhoheshouldbe,betweenwhoGodisandman'sperceptionofhim.GodasGodmustbeasit
isnow,asitoughttobe.Inanyinstantofparticipationmanexpressesthiscompletely.Derrida'sgiants
aregiantsforaslongastheyshouldbe,andthenmovedtointohumanitywhenthey"absoluteliteral"or
theiractualformwasunderstood.The"process",orcreationofultimacyhasthesameamorphous
finality,conductingitselfbyacknowledgingthatwhomaniscanonlybespokenbyhimself."Manis
awareofhisfinitudebecausehehasthepoweroftranscendingandlookingatit.Withoutthis
awareness,hewouldnotcallhimselfmortal.Ontheotherhand,thatwhichisinfinitewouldnotbe
infiniteifitwerelimitedbythefiniteGodisinfinite(andwiththatelementbelongstofinitude)[235]."The
selfactualizationofcreation,ofwhoheoughttobe,isdependentuponthisother,theone"entity"he
couldneveraccess.Thegreatestrealizationofallofthis,isthatwhathecouldneveraccess,thesecret
Klein127
divinedoesnotexistwithouthimthathiscreationoflawanddeterminationareabsolutelyforhimselfso
thatbeingitselfcanbe.Iftheotherwereathinginindependentexistence,theexistentialcallcould
neverbecompletedThustheGodNietzschekilleddiedamidsthisisolatedtranscendentpresence,a
placewherenoonecouldeverreach.Actualnonexistence,theabsoluteambiguityoftheotherisa
reflectionofhowmanparticipatesintheentiretyofrealitytheformeristhetotalityandtraceofthe
latter.Thehighestcallingofmanistodeconstruct,toparticipateintheGodaboveGod'slackof
definitiontofindultimateconcerninspiteoftheabsenceofmeaningatall.
"Theelementsofindividualization,dynamics,andfreedomrepresenttheselforsubject
sideofthebasicontologicalstructurewithinthepolaritytowhichtheybelong.Theelementsof
participationformanddestinyrepresenttheworldorobjectedofthebasicontologicalstructure...both
sidesarerootedinthedivinelife.[236]"Theobjective,universalendofdestinyonlymakessensewhen
itisattachedtotheparticularityoflife.Theselfisonlyrepresentedbycreativity,auniversalpowerthat
isabsoluteinnoncontent.Thepolaritydoesnotcreateahierarchicalrelationbetweenthetwothe
realmoftheuniversalspiritcannotgobeyondphenomenology,andneithercantheindividual
acknowledgethespiritwithoutitdoingsoforhim.Thenatureoftheparticulariswherethesymbolsare
made.Hisuniquesociologicalcontexts,andchronologicalstatusarenecessaryconstituentsinthe
manifestationoftheuniversal.ByrelatingtoGod,heacknowledgesit'ssubjectivity,andhisabilityto
createhisownultimacy.
Manovercomesthegapbetweenmeaninglessandpurposebyspeakingtohimselfthat
meaningisconveyed.Intheinstantwheremanventuresintothegapofwhatisnotknown,theabsence
ofmeaningconstructsatelosforhim.whilstacknowledgingtheother,hisreligioussymbolsdeconstruct
thegapbetweentheirgoalandman'saspiration.Incompletehasbecomecomplete,andthereligious
Klein128
experienceisbothashadowandfullexpressionoftheultimate.Ultimacymustbeseenassuch,andthis
existentialdemandisthebeginningoflinguisticunityandtheovercomingofspacing.Languageis
presentinallofthem[culturalfunctions,previousparagraph]whethertechnicalorpolitical,cognitiveor
aesthetic,ethicalorreligious.Inordertoactualizethisomnipresencelanguageisendlessly
variable[237]."The"essence"oflanguageisnoessenceatall,theformlessnessofspeechconductsit
endlesslytowardsanought.thispolarityinstigatescreationbyassumingthembothomnipresent.
Religioussymbolsarenodifferent.Theyareuniversalnotjustbecausetheultimatealsois,butbecause
thesymbolshavealreadyparticipatedintheambiguityoflife."Aslanguageliberatesfrombondageto
thehereandnowthroughuniversals,sothetechnicalhandlingofencounteredrealityliberatesfrom
bondagetothenaturalgivenconditionsofexistencebytheproductionoftools[238]"Toolscanonly
demonstrateamovementuponaplanewhereactionisdiscerniblestagnation.Thephenomenologicalis
onesucharena,onethatintegratesmovementwithresting,anddecisionwithitslackofdecisiveness.A
symbolforGodpossessesallofthesequalities,acknowledgingboththeotherandnotitself,and
becauseofthishasmovedintotherealmoftheplayithasbecomeindiscerniblefromtherealityistrying
todepict.Thetoolsoflanguagearetheslatebywhichrealityisdrawn,butalsodemonstratethenature
ofsuchacanvas.Thesymbolissimilar:itmustpresentbeingitself,foranyideatheverydefinitionof
symbolhasalreadypresumedsuch.Thenegationbetweenthedifference,isonlydonewhenonecan
seemanspeakscreatively.
Mannowmovescompletelyamongandcompletelywithouttheminhisaffirmationofhis
couragetobe.Whereasbeforereasonhadcastfaithintodoubt,BeingItselfnowacknowledgesboth
doubtandfaithasnecessarilyinterrelated.reasonisthepresuppositionoffaith,andfaithisthe
fulfillmentofreason.Faithasthestateofultimateconcernisreasoninecstasy.Thereisnoconflict
Klein129
betweenthenatureoffaithandthenatureofreasontheyarewithineachother.
[239]
,Theveryfact
thattheyarebothutilized,affirmsandnegatesthemboth.Itissimplycategorizationsofexistence,an
expressionofallthereisthatisneedlesslyseparatedbywhatiscoherentfromwhatisdesperately
affirmed.Yettheseelementsareconstantlyinteractingandevolvingtoshapetheempiricalrealitybefore
theindividualhecan'thaveonewithouttheotherandsubmitstothembothbytryingtoaffirmordeny
oneortheother.
Reasoncompletesfaithbymakingit'sobjectcoherentplacingwithinknowledgeandactingas
intelligibilityinspiteoftheconstantdeclarationsofitscompleteunintelligibility.Itisabsolutelyproximal
tohim,andheknowsallitssecretsonlybecausehedoesnotknowanyofthem.Thereisnolanguage,
noreason,nogeneralityormediationtojustifythisultimateresponsibilitywhichleadsmetoabsolute
sacrificeabsolutesacrificethatisnotthesacrificeofirresponsibilityonthealtarofresponsibility,butthe
sacrificeofthemostimperativeduty(thatwhichbindsmetotheotherasasingularityingeneral)infavor
ofanotherabsolutelyimperativedutybindingmetoeveryother"[240].Faithcompletesreasonby
attributingtoitconclusively,bothexternallyasverificationandinternallyasselfspeech.Yetwhatis
madeanobjectofreasonbecomesanobjectoffaith,fortheindividualmustaffirmitsfullnessbefore
him.Therevelationmustbefinal,eventhoughmanwillhavenowayofknowingthatitis.Hisfaithtohis
duty,tohisexpressionofultimacybecomesthemostcompleteanswerhecanhavetheoneanswerthat
isjustaquestion.Reasoniscompletedinfaithbecauseitisman'sreasonandman'sfaiththereisno
contradictionforbothofthemmovebeyondpresenceintotherealmofdecisionanddevotion.Faithis
completelyreasonableanymomentmanreliesonitbecauseinthisinstanthecompletesitwithinhimself
intheinfinitenowoffaith.
Mancanevenovercomedeathandlifeinthisparticipation,creationrequiresthis
Klein130
perhapsmostofall.Mostimportantly,thismustnotbedone,byanextensionoflifeasdepictedin
classictheology.Nothingcanbeconqueredifbothsidesareinunity,oriftherewasneveradivisioninto
sidesinthefirstplace.Itisnottheextensionoflifebyanother(eternallife),buttheincorporationoflife
intoallaspectsofwhotheindividualis.Thisincludesnegativityandpositivity,nonbeingandbeing,and
evenwhatwasoncefinalandnolongeris.Theybecomecompletelypositiveandnegativeexpressions
intheirownright,andbeingitselfispowerfulbecauseitallowsmantoparticipateinboth."Individuallife
movesinthecontextofalllifeineachmomentofalifeprocess,strangelifeisencountered,withboth
creativeanddestructivereactionsonbothsides.Lifegrowsbysuppressionorremovingorconsuming
otherlife.Lifelivesonlife.[241]"Thisistheabsolutedeconstructionwithinphenomenology:the
declarationoflifetoincludebeingandnonbeing.Strange,theunfamiliar,isstillidentifiedaslife.It'sfinal
definitionisstrange,anditrelatestomanpurelybyacknowledgingthecompleteness,however
temporary,ofthetermencounter.Yetlife'sambiguitywouldneverhavecompletion,therewouldnever
bejustathing,bethateitherGodorman.Thisnecessitatesdestruction,todestroytheillusionof
essentialismineveryactionofchoice.Onechoicepresumesonlyitself,andiswillingtosacrificeallother
definitioninfavoroftheonedecision.However,theyarebothlife:deathisthelifeofonedecision,and
lifeindecisionislifeinexpression.Man'sexistentialquestforultimacycoulddrawnothinglessthan
inexpressibilityandexpressabilityintohimself,heovercomesthemwithhisspeechinthenaming.The
namingimplieseventhedeathofitselfthough,forthegreatestactualizationofbeingisnoncontent,even
aswhatisnamecompletewilleventuallynolongerbe.Yetwhenoneacknowledgestheincompleteness,
heincludesitwithinlife,andindoingsosaysitwillcontinuethatbirthwillfollowdeathipsofacto.
Deathiseverymomentoflife,andlifeiseverymomentofdeath.
Theconstitutionoftheself,andofitssenseofotherisjustasessentialasthe
Klein131
developmentofultimacy.Inorderformantobegroundedbehindandwithinhischoicesofactualization,
theremustbeabasisuponwhichtomakethem.Thesocialelementisanotherseparationofexistential
andphenomenological,ofthesubjectandobjectgapinherentintheselfaswell.Thepowerofcreation
isnotonlytomergetheseoppositions,buttodosoinstantaneouslywithwhatmandecides.Itcomes
frombeyondtocreatewhathemustpickup.Itistheotherthatclarifieshisselfconsistency[242]by
allowinghimtomakeit.Acenterdoesnotprecedegrowthinthelifeofsocialgroups,butself
integrationandselfcreationareidenticalateverymoment....Theprocessesoflifecoincideundertheall
embracingdimensionofhistory[243]"Manisthesocialproductasthesocialishisproduct.Ultimate
concernisbothphenomenologicalbirthashisbrainchildandallthatrealitycanhold.Itisthelackof
directionofthesocialphenomenonthatcreatesdirection:becausemancanshapeitultimacyisasmuch
hisasitisthesociety's.Noonecananswersaveforthesmallisolatedvoice,yetthisexternalitymust
giveitthewordstospeak.
Polaritycan,finallybeovercomebecauseofthephenomenologicalpresenceof
existentialmovements.Beingisbecoming,thismaximhasbeeninplaceforalongtime,andcreativityin
Tillichiantermsisnoexception.Essentialismhasalreadybeendefeatedthemomentthatthiswhoman
oughttobeissimplywhoheis."Thestateofessentialbeingisnotanactualstageofhuman
developmentwhichcanbeknowndirectlyorindirectly.Theessentialnatureofmanispresentinall
stagesofhisdevelopment,althoughinexistentialdistortion,[244]"This"distortion"canbepointedtoas
anecessityratherthanahindrance.Thefactthatmancouldneverknow,assoonastherevelationthat
therewasneveranythingtoknowtobeginwithismadeapparent,becomestheanswer.Thedistortion
iscreationamidstnothing,indistortsthenothing,interruptswhatisseenasabsolutenonbeing,inorder
toexpressbeing.Itintegratesinordertoremovethebinaryoppositionbetweennonbeingandbeing,
Klein132
between"iscurrentlynot"and"isnow"Itreferstotheabyssofmeaning,anddemandsallofwhomanis
inordertoovercomethis.Creationmusttakedeathintoitself,justasdeathtakeslifeintoitself.Inthis
spatialillustration,actualizationtakesplaceonlybenegatingthegapbetweenaboveandwithin(man,
centeredwithinhimasopposedtotheother),betweentranscendent(affirmingtheotherastheconstant
ofreality)andimmanent(thereisnootherwithouttheself,)Creativitycanbeabsolutewhentherewas
nothingitshouldcreatefromthebeginning.
Thesephenomenologicalexpressionsofcreationandnonbeingarenotanexpressionofone
sideovertheother,ofanabsolutevictoryandobjectivematerialwhichisthecompletionofman'sbeing.
AsmanisincessantlyparticipatingwithaconstantlynewideaofBeingItselfinordertocomprehend
andexpresshimself,finalityofeithersidewoulddestroythepossibilityofvictory.Ananswerdoesnot
takeman'sspontaneouscreatedsolutionintoitself,onlytheendlessquestionthatspeaks"asthoughit
knows"isthesolution.
[245]
Itisthisnonorigin,areligious,social,artificialsolutionthatisabsolute.This
dependenceonnonbeingthatremovetheabsolutedominionofhisinfinitelyrepeatednonbeing.Man
strivesaboveanxiety,andincorporatesitintohimself,justasthepowerofBeingItselfgrantedtohim
NonbeingmakesGodalivinggod,withoutthenohehastoovercomeinhimselfandinhiscreature,
thedivineyestohimselfwouldbelifeless,therewouldbenorevelationofthegroundofbeing,there
wouldbenolife."
[246]
Tillichalsomustnecessarilycounterrepetition,forlifeinfaithcontinueswhenrepeatabilityis
dead.Anguishwasonlycoherentwhenitwasnotafleetingfancybutanexpressionofwhomanis,a
referencetoabsolutecontent.Thisisthearchaicperspective,beingreplacednowwithitsnonoriginas
origin,orthenewnessthatanguishpresentsineverymomenttocontinuallyfortifyanddestroythe
Klein133
fleetingpowerimpliedbytime.Iffaithconstitutesthelivingpresent,anytypeofanxietywouldpresent
itselfinthepresentyetassumerepetition.Itisasincessantlyimpliedashumanity'sfinitude,forinthat
veryconcept"isthepossibilityoflosingone'sontologicalstructureandwithit,one'sself"The
declarationofanytypeofanxietyconstantlyconsumesman,forhisend(andthustheendofhisabilityto
decideandcreate)isalwaysapossibility.Hisfinitudeisconstantlyreferencedinhisdecisions,his
impossibilitytocreateobjectivelydemonstratestheunavoidabilityofbothsides.Thiscanbeevidenced
inalltypesofTillichiananxiety,bothofwhichhavecompletephenomenologicalandexistentialvalidity.
Astheyareexpressedinanymomentmanarticulateswiththefinalityofhiswordsandtheirfullness,
evenaquestionspeaksofanxiety,asseparation.Existentially,hemustcombatthesefearswiththe
fullnessofhisexistence,forheretainshisconsistencyandthereforehiscreativityonlyindoingso.Tillich
himselfacknowledgesinexpressibilityalso,foranxietyisanontologicalquality.itcannotbederivedit
canonlybeseenanddescribed"It'spoweristhusonlyimportantasaphenomenologicalqualitative,not
asthepresenceoftheanxiety.Itnegatesthequestionofpresentbybeingconstantlyimplied,thusitis
alwaysaskedregardlessofintent.Manincessantlyconfrontsandtranscendsmeaningless,death,and
guiltineverysecondofexistence,buttopresumesasrepetitionwoulddefeatofbothspeechandfaithat
thehandsofGodthustheresolutiontoextirpatesuchconceptsfallsuponanacknowledgementof
BeingItself.
MeaninglessiswhatTillichidentifiesasthemotivationofthemodernexistentialquestions.
Theanxietyofmeaninglessnessisanxietyaboutthelossofanultimateconcern,ofameaningwhich
givesmeaningtomeaningitself.Thisanxietyisarousedbythelossofaspiritualcenter,ofananswer,
howeversymbolicandindirect,tothequestionofthemeaningofexistence
[247]
"Spiritualityisonce
againaphenomenologicalpresence,anaffirmationofcreativepowerasanexpressionofthe
Klein134
completenessofreality.Itconfrontsmanwhenhefearshislackofobjectivecontent,whenhislustfor
purposeisoverwhelmedbytheabsoluteambiguityofmeaninglessness.Hecannottakehisown
nothingness,hisideaofparticipationinfinitudeandBeingItselfuponhimself,andthuslongsfor
definitionandgeneratesanxiety.Theexactnatureofthisphenomenonislessimportantthanman'sfear
asbeingpresentedtohimselffully.Itistheinternalizedmetaphorofhisexpressionwhichgrantsit
absolutefinality.Hispostulationspushhimbeyondhimselfintoquestionsofotherness,whichcanbe
establishedinvarietyofforms.Itisthisambiguitythatismoreauthenticallytoabsolutefaith.Whetherit
isinaffirmationofhimselfasanindividualwhichconquersthis
[248]
orasacollective
[249]
,manrises
abovemeaningbyusingartificialityofcollectivesignsandgoalsinreferencetohimselftoexpressthe
fullnessofmeaning.
Secondlyman,encountersguiltandanxietyofcondemnation.Thisrepetitionisparticularly
strongwithinreligioussects,andTillichdescribesitsmostpotentformasarisingduringtheMiddle
Ages.Thiswashistoricalheightofcollectivism,bothasanexpressionofauniversalsolutionand
thereforeuniversalguilt,butalsoasagrouppresentedthesolution.the"discoveryofpersonalguilt
calledbytheprophetsguiltbeforeGod:thedecisivesteptothepersonalizationofreligionand
culture
[250]
".Thisiswhattheinstitutionalizedchurchgavetothepeople,foreverindebtingthemtothe
natureoftheirimposedstandardsandenslavingthempersonallytotheinescapablethreatofinfiniteguilt
.Ananxietythatcouldcarryoneintoadeathbeyonddeathwouldbethemostcompleteformofself
effacement.SuchademandwoulddestroypotentialityinitsunconditionalformasaseparationofGod
fromman.Thechurchproposeditsownabsolutionbyseparatingmanfromtheotherthanrequiring
devotiontoitselfastheonlypossibilityforimmediacy.Itistherepetitionofcollectiveguilt,thatcreates
Klein135
itselfandthenrequiresmantosubmittoitsoastohispersonalguilt."thechurchgaveanantidote
againstthethreatofanxietyanddespair,namelyitself,itstraditions,itssacraments,itseducationandits
authority
[251]
"Thelogospassedintosociety,absolutedefinitionfelltothecollectiveandawayfrom
anycreativedestiny.Thesignifierbecameisolatedatadistance,usedonlyabyafewratherthanthe
total.Inthisdespair,mancouldneverhaveconquered,forthefullnessoflifewithinlanguagewas
deniedhimfromthestart.Itwasanegationoflifewithindeath.
Lastly,thefearofdeathistheultimatefear.andthatonewhichisconfessedsurreptitiouslyin
theprevioustwo.Manisconsumedbyananxietyofdeath,foritistheabsoluteendtohimself
(Heideggerbeingtowardsdeath)astheguidingfactorofman'sfinitude."Theanxietyofdeathisthe
permanenthorizonwithinwhichtheanxietyoffateisatwork.Forthethreatagainstman'sontic
selfaffirmationisnotonlytheabsolutethreatofdeathbutalsotherelativethreatoffate
[252]
."One
coulduseaTillich,oramyriadofotherphilosopherstoarticulatethepowerofnegationindeath,butall
tolditspowerhasalwaysbeenandremainshereinsurmountable.Mancannotescapeit,and
acknowledgesit'sunavoidablebyspeaking.Hiswordsarehisappropriationofpresence,thetakingof
creationuponhimselfsoastocoveruptheabyssofdeath..Thefinalityofhiswordsisalsotheir
presence,theirfinitudeisareflectionofhisown.Thepaintingasfullyrepresentativeisalsothedeathof
absolutecontinuationofthenonsubstituteorigin.Thisisyetanotherofnonbeingwithinbeing,andits
ontologicalorphenomenologicalsubstance.
Aslongasmanpersistsinproclaiminganxiety,hewillneveractualize,andanysortofself
resolutionwillbekeptfromhim.Alltypesareaviolentintrusionuponman'sself,hinderingboththe
groupasselfandtheindividualforanytypeofameliorativeadvancementofheisconqueredbythem.If
Klein136
manistoacknowledgetheirabsolutecharacter,theirpresenceisbarbaricandseparatedintrinsically
fromhimandthereforethatwhichoneshoulddeny.TheyaresimilartoRousseau'sideaofviolence:one
whichencompassesallfinitetypesofanxietyuponman"Toname,togivenamesthatitwillonoccasion
beforbiddentopronounce,suchistheoriginaryviolenceoflanguagewhichconsistsininscribingwithin
adifference,inclassifying,insuspendingthevocativeabsolute.[253]"Thisisman'soppositionto
meaningless,forifmancannotcounteranxiety,it'svictoryisimpliedfromthemomentnonbeingis
mentioned.Ifnonbeingliesbeyondphenomenologyandhisownuniqueandthereforesubstantive
solutiontothesequestions,man'sarticulationsofdivinityandcouragewillalwaysbedistantfromhim.
Hissolution,thesecretthathecouldnevermention,andneverevenrelateto,wouldbehiscomplete
andfinaldeathfromwhichtherewasnoreturn.Ifanxietyispermanent,final,andcannotbeincluded
withinbeing,itwillinevitablydestroyanymanandanysociety,itwillrepeatitselfuntilnothingcanbe
heardoverit.
"Theworldisthestructureofthewhole,whichincludesandtranscendsallenvironments....man
isneverboundtoanenvironment.Heisalwaystranscendsitbygraspingitandshapingittouniversal
normsandideas....languageasthepowerofuniversals,ishebasicexpressionofmantranscendinghis
environment,ofhavingaworld.[254]"Tocounterthisdescription,wecometoadescriptionofman's
world.Thiscouldalsobeseenasanelementofspacing,buthiddenbetweenisanotherimportantpoint:
theuniversalandtheworldaretherepeateduniversalandworld.Inclassicontology,man'sacquisition
ofanindividualideaalwayscorrelatedwiththeabsoluteotherofitsuniversalform.Manhadformeda
unionbetweentranscendentobject,afinalizednonsubjectiveperceptionsothattruthmightbehis.
However,archaicterminologyisonceagainusedfornewmeanings(deconstructedeven,intonewlife):
Thisuniverseimpliestheconstantfluxuationofsubjectivity.Theuniverseisneverdone,neverentirely
Klein137
itselfanddeterminedastowhatitwillbe[255].Thisderivesfromthefactthatmanhimselfisnever
completed,thathisbeingisneverseparatedfromhisbecoming,andinthisthefinalityoftherevelationto
him.Astherevelationclaimsitiscomplete,itspeaksonthenatureoftheworldbytranscendingit.By
unrelatingtoman,itactuallyiscompletelyhisandhisalonebecausenooneelsecouldhaveit.Bothof
theserequirethesetypeofreciprocation,ofcompletedproximitywhenneitherisimplied,tobe
themselves.Thistakestheincompleteness.this"nonbeing"(Astheterminationoflife,asthecuttingshort
ofbeing)intoitselfsothattmightbedeclaredfinished.Itishiscouragetofacehisownfinitudeandbe
incapableofnegatingit,tohaveabsolutemeaningbeforeverinexpressibilityandvirtueofwhoheis
pullsintoexistencethecouragetobe.Yettheyarenotinexpressiblesimplybecausetheyquestionin
infinitude,butratherbecausefundamentallytheyaresyntheticThesymbolsofreligionnevercontainany
substance,yetarecontinuouslyfiledwithsubstancethesamemannertocountertheincessantlyfilled
andnegatedsymbolicpresenceofnonbeing.Deathisneverfinalbecauseitcanneverhappenagain,
canneverbepermanentbecausethathasstrayednotonlyintothepast,butawayfromttheoriginary
pointofman'stranscendentrevelation.HisworldmustincludeofalloftheseinordertoretainTillich's
definitionofthetermhemustdeconstructsothattheanew,nonrepeatedpresentwillbehis.The
questionoscillatesinrelationtowhatmanspeakstohimself,andneverfullycontainsapossibilityof
eitherapurequestionorapureanswer.ByrelatingtotheimpossibleambiguityofBeingItself,these
fearsbegintolosetheirvitality.Man'sfinitudebecomes,ratherthanwhatdefeats,whatcreateshim.
Thisisexpressibleaffirmationofwhatliesbetweenspacingandrepetition:thatanabsolutely
absentbeingitselfcreatesthepossibilityforthedestructionofnonbeing.Ineverymomentoflivinglife
isnewandunchallenged,takingthedifferancebetweenlifeanddeath,beingandnonbeingintohisNew
Being.Manmusttakehisfinitudeontohimselftoseethatwhatplagueshisfinitudeisultimatelysynthetic,
Klein138
thattheconstantlifeneedsconstantdeathtobevisible.Theyareexpressiblefortheymotivateman,yet
inexpressibleforultimatelyman'sfinitudemakesitimpossibleforhimtoexpressinfinitefears."Thetime
ofthedivinelifeisdeterminednotbythenegativeelementofourcreaturelytimebutbythepresent,not
bythenolongerandthenotyetofourtime[256]."Thisisthefusionthatoccurseverysecondbetween
BeingItselfandman.Itistheabsolutepossibilityofwhatiscontainedinthepresentthataffirmsnotone
overtheother,andinvitesmantodothesame.thisinvigorateshimtospeakanddecidebeyondhimself
andwithintheabyssofmeaninglessnessHistranscendenceofpresentmomentonlyoccursbystatingthe
presentmomentcanneverbesaidagain:theremustbenomoremeaningbeyondwhathesaysinorder
forhimtobemeaning.
Asthispaper'sconclusionbegins,itisimportantthatwenotethecontextsthatbothauthors
havebeenpulledintobytheirusagehere.Theyarenotunadulterated,fortherewritingofthemisa
reestablishmentofthesymbolsbothoffaithanddeconstruction.Thesequestionsarefrequentlyasked
bybothauthors,andarefrequentlyusedtomakesimilardistinctions,butexplicitlystatedinfrequently.It
wasnecessarytogobeyondontotheologicalintophenomenologyinorderforthesecategoriestobe
grasped.evenasthedistinctionvanishesthemomentitisarticulated,inthisconstantdeathoneseethe
vitalityoftheassertionshere.Tillichhasbeenincessantlyconfrontedwiththeproblemsofretaining
ontologicalperception,andthusdecayingbackwardsintopreHeideggerianideologies.Yetthisdoes
notoccur,forthesedistinctionsthatwouldhavebeenabsolutearedeconstructedintoa
phenomenologicalsurface.Yetthissurfaceistheentirety,itistheinclusionofBeingItselfwithinthe
artificialityofthesignsusedtoquestionhim,thatreferencealsoman'srelationtohimselfbutnothing
beyondthis.Hisontologyandhisfaitharehisphenomenology,onecompletestheotheryetonedoes
notexistwithouttheother.Theynevergobeyondman,anddonottrulyexist,butratheraresimplyan
Klein139
assertionofthequestionofbeingitselfmadeinitscreativepower.
Theanswerstothesequestions,tothefullnessofthequestionsofwhomanisaremadeeven
morepotent,areperhapsonlyviableevenoncedeconstructionisappliedtoTillichiantheologyhere.
Thereisnoseparationbetweenwhatiswilledandwhatisspoken,thepurityabouttheabsolutesignifier
isthatwhichfaithalsoaffirms.Faithanddeconstructionaffirmthelackofbinaryopposition,andthe
purephenomenologyofbothgivethefullnessofthepresentmomenttotheindividualinordertodoso.
Heisconstrainedinbothsensetothelanguageofhissociety,evenassuchpolemicallanguageisseenas
diminutive,thesignsbywhichheutilizesareasenslavedtoman'ssocietyasthesymbolsoffaithare.His
anxietyabouthisfinitudeisassyntheticasthesignsheusestoexpressit,andtheirobjectivecontent
thereforeiswhatherealizesinhimself,andismuchlessimportantthananysociologicalinstance.Inthis
mantranscends,ornegateswithpassion,thesedistinctionsinordertospeaktohimselfinspiteofthe
factthatheisneverspeakingfully.Equallysotheunitedpowerbetweenanabsoluteotherandit's
constantaffirmationiswhatmakestheseprinciplespowerful.Theyrequirenoconstantcontent,yetare
alwaysreceivingitandalsomakingitpossible.Thetraceprovidesacontextbywhichtounderstand
itself,andaffirmsinexpressibilityasdistinctionthisisoneideathatspacingandrepetitioncannever
touch.Thenewnessoffaithisthenewnessoftheaffirmationofthetrace,allofwhichdependon
creationtoreconstituteandthereforepervadethegapbetweenlifeanddeath.Thetraceiscompletely
subjectiveandyetuniversal,theambiguitysurroundingitandsymbolsingeneralallowforman'sultimate
concerntotrulybeultimateandproceedunhinderedbeyondabsolutecontentofdeathandwhatis
repeated.
Thesealsomakeclearanewcategory,onethatisnotsubjecttorulesofexistenceorpresence,
butratherofexpressabilityandinexpressibility.Thefundamentalotherthatisalwaysimplied,andthe
Klein140
objectivecontentbaseduponracialcategoriesusedtocomprehendit,areessentiallysynthetic.Any
separationsmadeareformakinginterrelateddistinctions,relyingonthenewnessofspacingratherthan
indicativeofalapsewithintimeandperception,theexistentialandthephenomenologicalIneithercase,
BeingItselfandthetraceareimpossibletoreferencewithinexpressionIpsofacto,theyare
referencedineverymomentofexpression.Itneverdepartsfromphenomenology,yetequallyso
acknowledgestheimpossibilityandnonbeingcontainedwithinthesamesphere.Itisarticulatedby
Derridaaspossibilityorimpossibility,yetforTillichjustifiesabsolutefaithinspiteofdoubt.Itisthese
distinctionswhichgivepowertothesenewcategoriesof"Existence",onejuxtaposesitselfwiththe
otherandbythistheyarebroughtintopresence.
Deconstructioniswhathasmadethispossible,andequallysotheapplicationofsimilar
categorizationsmakesthisprocessasimplerone.BeingItselfwasalwayshiddenbehindsymbolic
language,Tillichcouldnevermoveitoutwardsbeyondthemforinthishemovedbackintotheology.yet
whenthesymbolwasrevealedasthesignifier,whenthefullnesswascomplete,BeingItselfwasmade
possible.Whentheabsoluteambiguityofthetracepresenteditself,BeingItselfarosetoutilizeit,and
proclaimitselfasthepowertoascertainthenonexistentfundamentalother.Tillichhadbegun
deconstructinginhisownwaybeforeitsformalpresentationinDerrida,thelatterjustcompletedthe
process.itisthenonoriginofBeingItselfastheobjectofman'sultimateconcernwhichrootrealityin
thefullnessofthehereandnow.
Ifbinaryoppositionshavebeennullified,thantheabsolutequestionofend,ordeath,has
becometheexhibitivefactorforlife.Thereisnolongeraseparationbetweenthem,butsimply
reciprocatingcompletionThisdependenceonparticipationinaradicalandproximalotherof
deconstructionmovesBeingItselfintonewlight.Ineverymomentmanisalwaysseparatedfromthe
Klein141
signfrommeaning,fromhisultimateconcern.Yetthislossmakesitfound,forinthishemustalways
assertthemeaning,thefullnessoffaithmustbearticulatedineveryexpression,ineveryactionthistrace
andfaitharerebuiltandthusmustbeassessed,andthereforeconstitutecreativity.Theabilitytocreate
impliesthatwhichisnotyet,tospeak
"asthoughoneknows"isspirittotranscendtimebyremainingcompletelywithinit.Equallysoit
assertsthetimelessnessofthenatureoftheother,it'spresenceandnonpresenceactasabastionfrom
decayandabsolutedeath.
Suchphenomenologicalabsenceoftheabsoluteother,isthefullnessofpresence.Ambiguity
andabsolutenothingnessallowthefullnessofcreation.Directpaintingisalreadyallegoricand
impassioned.Thatiswhythereisnotruewriting.Theduplicationofthethinginthepainting,andalready
inthebrillianceofthephenomenonwhereitispresent,guardedandregarded,maintained,however
slightly,facingtheregardandundertheregard,opensappearanceastheabsenceofthethinginits
selfsameness[propre]anditstruth.Thereisneverapaintingofthethingitselfandfirstofallbecause
thereisnothingitself
[257]
.InTillichianterms,thephenomenologyoffaithandtheultimateconcernhave
fusedtoconstitutetheentiretyofreality.Deconstructionassertstheothernessofthetraceandthe
signifieraretheonlynecessarypiecesforreality.Thereisnooriginarypresencebywhichtoclaim
aesthetics,toconquernonbeingortorelaymeaning.BeingItselfneededthis,torealizethatneitherit
northerealmofspiritcouldbeassertedinessentialconfidence.Botharealwaysswallowedindoubt
onceonerealizesneitheractuallyexist.thatmanisisolatedwithinhissyntheticsocialsignandhis
confidencetospeak.Anycontextbywhichconcernisexpressedorsignsareusedarealways
motivated,neverpureyetshiningbrightlywiththegreatestpassion.Thereisnothingtomovebeyond
andtoassess,nothingisascertainedmorethanthemovementsfaithandphenomenologymakethatmust
Klein142
cometobeunderstoodbytheindividual.heinveststheentityofhimself,intothisexistence,justasthe
painterisnolongerforcedtosubstitutebutrathertogivelife."Ineveryactoffaitheverynerveofman's
bodyeverystrivingofman'ssoul,everyfunctionofman'sspirit.Faithisnotamatterofthemindin
isolation....butthecenteredmovementofthewholepersonalitytowardsomethingultimatemeaningand
significance
[258]
.Heisconsumedwithhisfaith,itisthecompletionofhimandhisownunique,
secretiveyetabsolutelyintimateexpressionofultimacy.Deathmoveshimintolife,andlifeintodeath,for
resolutepowerconductsthetotalitybeyondthemboth
Manmustalwaysbeincompleteoutsiderelationtotheinside,hemustretainthepowerof
theotherinorder.Hemustassertbeyondhimselfinordertoreachintocreateit.Itisinthispowerof
symbolizingaspresencethatfaithispossible,thatmancanexpressanultimateconcern.Theinteraction
assumedbyparticipation,remainsisolatedwithinexpressions,yetitistheallconsumingdevotionto
realitybywhichmansignifies."BeingItselftranscendseveryfinitebeinginfinitely....faithbridgesthis
infinitegapbyacceptingthefactthatinspiteofitthepowerofbeingispresent,thathewhoisseparated
isaccepted.Faithisnotaopinionbutastate.Itisthestateofbeinggraspedbythepowerofbeing
whichtranscendseverythingthatisandinwhicheverythingthatisparticipates."
[259]
Thepurityof
inexpressiblefaithisthemotivehere,itisonethatalwaysconducts.Tobeginwiththispowerful
quotation,Tillichhasgraspedthenecessityofvolitionbutalsoit'simpossibletonegatetheabyss.He
requiresit,thedistancebetweenmanandmeaninglessbywhichhecomestounderstandit.Hefully
graspsthis,asheissurroundedonallsidesbynothingness,byalackofambiguityandconstant
translation.Theonlyabsolutethenisthathisentiretyhoversoveritsnegation,thatactualizationmustbe
donewhenBeingItselfcouldneverbeanoption.Heassumesimpossibility,thestruggletorisefrom
Klein143
manactualization,isovercomingtheperceptionthatmanalreadywasactualized.ThatGodjustifiedhim
inpurity,asonobjectivesourceandthequestwasover.Yethetranscendsthepossibilitytobejustone
answer,andincludesthenecessaryprerequisitestospiritualassertions.Thisistheincessantstatusof
man,implyinginfinitude,andhiscreativityinordertonotbetakenabsolutelybytheabyss."Thegift
madetomebyGodasheholdsmeinhisgazeandinhishandwhileremaininginaccessibletome,the
terriblydissymmetricalgiftofthemysteriumtremendumonlyallowsmetorespondandonlyrousesme
totheresponsibilityitgivesmebymakingagiftofdeath[enmedonnantfamort],givingthesecretof
death,anewexperienceofdeath[260]"Thepowerofcreativespeechandambiguouswritingiswhat
givesformanddynamicsandtodecision.Itwillnevercontainit'sobjectabsolutely,butthe
observationofwhatultimacyiscanonlybeconstructedwiththeselfsacrificetoaffirmit.Nietzsche's
infatuationwithliferemainthebeginningofthis,andcarriesintomanintohisnewlydefinedultimate
concern.Rather,Beingitselfbothspokeoutoftheabyssofmeaningless,useditandfunneleditto
incorporateitintocreation,ratherthefullnessofthesignifiedindecision.Ittranscendsanyinadequacies
andproceedsoutwards,directingthenowcompletedsignsoffaithandthusofmanhimself."Thefaith
whichcreatesthecouragetotakeintoitselfhasnospecialcontent.Itissimplyfaith,undirected,
absolute.[261]"Ifitdidhavecontent,thetracewouldbetranscendedandmeaningwouldbethrown
backintotheGodwhocreatedmeaning..
ItisthefinalityofthemomentthatisTillich'sfaithasenseofcompletionthatequallysomustbe
itsownorigin.Itisthisdifferanceoffaith,thatmakesBeingItselfpossible,inthearbitrarysymbolsof
faiththeycometomanconstant.BeingItselfisalwayssubstituted,aboveandwithindifference,
containedwithinandwithoutfromreality,andgivespowercreativeactualizationineverymomentof
man'sexistence.Itcanneverbediscussedwithoutselfeffacement,andneverempoweredwithout
Klein144
subjectingittoaninfinitenonbeing.NothingnessistheessentialbeginningofBeingItself,andthusthe
beginninghasalwaysbeentheend.It'suniversalityissimilartothatofthealphabeticsign,fundamentally
socialandconfinedtotheinfinitelyambiguouscontextwithinwhichitisarticulated.Thetracepushes
beyondthisaslanguageingeneral,andBeingItselfdoesaswell.Itresignsinthispartialinexpressibility
asthefinalknownotherness.Faithtakesthisnewfinalmovementsoitcanconstantlymbemakingit,to
speak"asthoughitknows"andbethe"endofwriting[262]."

[1]Derrida,PossibilityofJustice,24
[2]Derrida,GiftofDeath,74
[3]Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,126
[4]
Tillichiantermusedtodefinetheobjectofmansaspiration,ofthatwhichhecanaffirminspite
of.ItistheGodbeyondtheGodoftheism,beyondallontologicaldistinctionandcategorizationsofbeing.It
isthisthatwillbeusedtounderstandbothDerrida,andthecontextbywhichTillichshouldberead.
[5]
OG,8
[6]Derrida,OfGrammatology,108
[7]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,156
[8]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,189.Thismightseeminitiallycontradictorytotheendresultachievedby
OfGrammatology,however,thiswillbedealtwithlaterintheessay.
[9]
Thanatail
[10]Tillich,CouragetoBe,173
Klein145
[11]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,211
[12]
justasthetracedoesnotrequireanysymbolstoformulateitsexistence
[13]
don'tbealarmedbytranscendent,wewillgettospatialterminology
[14]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,240
[15]DynamicsofFaith,41"symbolshaveonethingincommonwithsigns:theypointto
anythingbeyondthemselves.
[16]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume,1,214
[17]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume1,207
[18]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume1,215
[19]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,185
[20]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,186
[21]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,218
[22]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,87
[23]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,15
[24]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,189
[25]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,209
[26]"Toacceptthispowerofacceptanceconsciouslyisthereligiousanswerofabsolutefaith,ofa
faithwhichhasbeendeprivedbydoubtofanyconcretecontent,whichneverthelessisfaithandthesource
ofthemostparadoxicalmanifestationoftheCouragetoBe

Tillich,177,CouragetoBe

[27]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume1,184
[28]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume1,185
[29]
Tillich,systematictheology,volume1,193
[30]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyIntroduction,11
[31]
SystematicTheology,volume1,197

[32]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,91
Klein146
[33]Derrida,TheGiftofDeath,70
[34]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,volume1,186
[35]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,218
[36]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,279
[37]Deride,GiftofDeath,45
[38]Arbitraryasartificial,secondary,lackingwithconstitution.Onedefinitionofarticulated
languagemightconfirmthatconclusion.InLatin,articulusmeansamember,part,orsubdivisionofa
sequenceappliedtospeech[language],articulationdesignateseitherthesubdivisionofaspokenchain
intosyllablesorthesubdivisionofthechainofmeaningsintosignificantunits....Usingthesecond
definition,wecansaythatwhatisnaturaltomankindisnotspokenlanguagebutthefacultyof
constructingalanguagei.e.,asystemofdistinctsignscorrespondingtodistinctideas"DerridaOf
Grammatology,66(asquotefromAStructureonGeneralLinguistics,26)
[39]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,63
[40]
Derrida,OfGrammatology63
[41]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,159
[42]
OfGrammatology,Derrida,286
[43]Derrida,OfGrammatology,315(ReferencingtheEssayontheoriginofLanguages,
Rousseau,2122)
[44]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,299
[45]Derrida,GiftofDeath,84.Heisgoingtocontinueontodisagreewithwhatthisidea
proposedbyLevinas.However,forthesakeofusingthegiftofdeathasanepistemicmovementin
additiontoareligiousone,thatdisagreementcanandwillbeaddressedlateron.
[46]Derrida,GiftofDeath,86
[47]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,301
Klein147
[48]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,299
[49]Anexpansiononthetermdispersion."thatsocialdistance,thedispersionofthe
neighborhood,istheconditionofoppression,arbitrariness,andvice.Thegovernmentsofoppression
allmakethesamegesture:tobreakpresence,thecopresenceofcitizens,theunanimityofassembled
peoples,tocreateasituationofdispersion,holdingsubjectssofarapartastobeincapableoffeeling
themselvestogetherinthespaceofoneandthesamespeech,oneandthesamepersuasiveexchange."
OfGrammatology,138ITistheseparationofselfandother,longimplyinglogocentricdogmain
additiontoreflectingtherelationbetweensocietyanditsconstituents.
[50]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,300
[51]Derrida,OfGrammatology,300
[52]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,240
[53]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,314
[54]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,301
[55]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,75
[56]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume3,58
[57]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,89
[58]Derrida,GiftofDeath,25
[59]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,238
[60]Tillich,CouragetoBe,17
[61]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,156
[62]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,200
[63]
Tillich,systematicTheology,volume1,180
[64]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,126
[65]
Tillich,systematictheologyVolume1,197
[66]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,77
Klein148
[67]
Derrida,OG,72
[68]
Derrida,OG,203,Progressconsistsalwaysoftakingusclosertoanimalitywhileanullingthe
progressthroughwhichwehavetransgressedanimality.Ifanythingthatonwardsenseismanaffirminghis
telosinthesamemomenthedeclaresitsexistence.Thatsenseofmeliorationisassyntheticasthesigns
thatwouldhavebeenusedtodescribeit.
[1]
Tillich,systematictheology,volume3,64
[2]
Tillich,couragetobe,161
[3]
Tillich,couragetobe,56

[69]
Derrida,OG,202
[70]
Thesearefurthermoredependentupontheoppositionalcomponentswhicharesoontobe
deconstructedusedtoassemblealanguagebasedonsuchsynthesis:Inadditiontothesystemof
oppositionsthatcontrolstheentireEssay(servitude/politicolinguisticliberty,North/South,
articulation/accent,consonant/vowel,capital/province//autarchicanddemocratic.(Derrida,OG200)
[71]
Derrida,OG,275
[72]
OG,279theabsoluteliteralisattheorigin.
[73]
Derrida,OG,277
[74]Derrideansecret(GiftofDeath,willbetouchedonlater)
[75]
Derrida,OG275
[76]
Derrida,OG276
[77]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,277
[78]
Derrida,OG,276
[79]
Derrida,OG,275
[80]
Derrida,OG,277
[81]
Derrida,OG,315articulation,whichreplacesaccent,istheoriginoflanguages.
[82]
Derrida,OG279,Rousseauhadproposed,withanoriginofpassion,thattherewouldequally
beamomentwhereinwhichspeechwasinitsfullnesspurelyinthenatureofpassionitself.passionwhich
expressestheliteraladequatelywithouttheneedforasociologicalbasis.Thatdirectaccesstotheobject,
Klein149
wasmotivatednotbythisintensityhowever,butbytheaccurateexpressionofit.
[83]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,12
[84]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,52
[85]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,15
[86]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,59
[87]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,46
[88]
Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume2,205
[89]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,132
[90]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,46
[91]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,130.healsoincludespsychosocialknowledgein
thefollowingparagraph,describingwithitasimilarrelationtothatofhistoryandscience.
[92]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,132
[93]
DynamicsofFaith,48
[94]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,47
[95]
Tillich,systematictheologyVolume2,205
[96]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,125
[97]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1.Thereisnoreality,thing,oreventwhichcannot
becomeabearerofthemysteryofbeingandenterintoarevelatorycorrelation.
[98]Tillich,Systematictheologyvolume1,137
[99]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,120
[100]
Derrida,DeconstructionandthepossibilityofJustice,16
[101]sinceLevinasalsowantstodistinguishbetweentheinfinitealterityofGodandthe"same"
infinitealterityofeveryhuman,oroftheotheringeneral,thenhecannotsimplybesaidtobesaying
somethingdifferentfromKierkegaard.(Derrida,GiftofDeath,84)
[102]IfIobeyinmydutytowardsGod(whichismyabsoluteduty)onlyintermsofduty,Iam
notfulfillingmyrelationtoGod.InordertofulfillmydutytowardsGod,Imustnotactoutofduty,by
meansofthatformofgeneralitythatcanalwaysbemediatedandcommunicatedandthatiscalledduty.
(Derrida,GiftofDeath,63)
Klein150
[103]Derrida,GiftofDeath,78
[104]Infactitmustbegreat."exceptionalorextraordinary,anditneedstobethatabsolutelyand
parexcellence:itisasifabsoluteresponsibilitycouldnotbederivedfromaconceptofresponsibilityand
therefore,inorderforittobewhatitmustbeitmustremaininconceivable,indeedunthinkable:itmust
thereforebeirresponsible
inordertobeabsolutelyresponsible"(Derrida,GiftofDeath,68)Thushisdecisionis
monumentous,initsabilityforvictoryanddefeat,whethermanisawareofitornot.
[105]DerridaGiftofDeath,41
[106]Derrida,GiftofDeath,64
[107]Derrida,GiftofDeath,75
[108]
Tillich,CouragetoBe,87
[109]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume3,40
[110]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume3,34
[111]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume3,42
[112]wewillseehowthisisunitedwithinthefactthatthisisalwaysincorrectsoonenough.
(Kant,Critiqueofpurereason,473)

[113]Derrida,GiftofDeath71
[114]Derrida,GiftofDeath,96
[115]Kierkegaard,FearandTrembling,14
[116]Derrida,OfGrammatology.
[117]Derrida,DeconstructionandThePossibilityofJustice,47.Thistextmightalsobeviewed
skeptically,astheentireessayisusingdeconstructiontoilluminateit'stitle:aMysticalFoundationto
Authority.However,thisdivinityisimportant,fordeconstructionhasalreadyloweredthedivinitytous
Klein151
andustoit.Ithasgivenusabsoluteproximitybymakingitimpossibletoachieve.Theunknowabilityof
thelawitself,thespiritofthelaw,isthesamefinalityandaporiatheindividualfacesinhimselfinhis
decision.Tonegatehecreates,andtocreatehedestroys.Thisparadoxconsumeshim,andistheself
law,theselfmystic,selfunknowniswheremanalwaysstartsandendshisdecisions.Thepowerof
deconstructionisthatitcanincludethis,thatitmustincludethisinordertodeconstruct.Let'sexplore
thisconceptalittlemore.

[119]
Derrida,DeconstructionandthepossibilityofJustice,30
[120]Derrida,GiftofDeath,54Itremblebecause
Iamstillafraidofwhatalreadymakesmeafraid,ofwhatIcanneitherseenorforesee.Itremble
atwhatexceedsmyseeingandmyknowing[monvoiretmonsavoir]althoughitconcernstheinnermost
partsofme,rightdowntomysoul,downtothebone,aswesay."
[121]Derrida,GiftofDeath,80
[122]
Derrida,DeconstructionandthePossibilityofJustice,16
[123]CouragetoBe,boththebookandtheconceptwillbeusedlateron.
[124]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,125
[125]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,
[126]here"walkasthosewhocamebeforeyou"(Pascal,Pensees).
[127]Kierkegaard,FearandTrembling,3
[128]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1.
[129]
Derrida,52
[130]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,105
[131]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,240
[132]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,47
[133]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,65
[134]
Derrida,Speechandphenomena,62
Klein152
[135]Derrida,OfGrammatology,66
[136]Derrida,OfGrammatology,6
[137]ParticipationisaTillichianterm,butonethathasbeenusedinaphenomenological
descriptionoftheothersinceHegel.Hisdescriptionsdescribetheepistemologicalnatureofthetrace
adequately."thetaskoftheindividual...consistsinactualizingtheuniversal[inourcase,theselfimposing
trace],andgivingitspiritualvitality,bytheprocessofbreakingdownandsupersedingfixedand
determinatethoughts."(Hegel,PhenomenologyoftheMind,16)Thespiritastheabsolute
phenomenologicalexpression,inDerrideanthoughtisavailablenow,andthisopposestherigidityof
passivityattheoriginwiththesamevigorasthetrace.
[138]Derrida,OfGrammatology,314
[139]Derrida,DeconstructionandthePossibilityofJustice,44
[140]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,61
[141]Derrida,GiftofDeath,80
[142]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,314
[143]Tousethegiftofdeathepistemologically:"He[God]giveshimbackhissonafterassuring
himselfthatAbrahamastrembledrenouncedallhope,andirrevocabledecidedtosacrificehisbeloved
sontohim"Derrida,GiftofDeath,95.HumanityistheAbrahamofdecision,intheunavoidablearena
ofMountMariahthatishiseverychoice.Onlywhenhehasgivenupanyotherpossibility,whenhewas
revokedhisrelationshiptopossibilityinfavoroftheabsoluteselfother,doeshedecide.Onceagain
humanitycannotremainsilent,evenasAbraham,inhistaciturnity,spokeloudestofall.
[144]
Tillich,systematictheology,volume1,195
[145]
Derrida,SpeechandPhenomena,66
[146]ThisideacanbefurthersupplementedwithHegeliantheory,whoasadequatelygrasped
Klein153
thedestructionneededfordeconstruction."FirstinpointouttheNow,andithasbeenassertedtobe
thetruth.Ipointitout,however,assomethingthathasbeen,orassomethingcancelledanddoneaway
with.Ithusannulandpassbeyondthatfirsttruth.....thirdlywhathasbeenisnot(hissecondpoint,
actuallyonlyhasminorrelevancehere,howevertheconclusionandthepointing,furthermorebeingthe
conclusionbeingthepointingoutinadeconstructedsense,negatesthemiddlepointofhasbeen)isnot.
Ithensupersede,cancelitshavingbeen,thefactofitsbeingannulled,thesecondtruth,negatethereby
thenegationofthenowandreturnindoingsotothefistposition:thenowis.(Hegel,phenomenologyof
theMind,59)
[147]Derrida,GiftofDeath,54
[148]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,60
[149]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,62
[150]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,298
[151]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,298
[152]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,209
[153]."Itistheprocessthatcreatesitsownmomentsinitscourseandgoesthroughthemall
andthewholeofthismovementconstitutesit'spositivecontentandit'struth."(Hegel,Phenomenology
oftheMind,28)Theprocess,astitledbyHegel,asprocessmustdisregardtheorigin,andinfact
assumesthatanystepisnecessary.everyinstantofitisthetruthmancantreatitasnothingless,andin
factdeconstructstheentireprocessashegoes.
[154]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,56
[155]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1
[156]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,238
[157]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,58
[158]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume3,41
Klein154
[159]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,271
[160]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,53
[161]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,97
[162]Derrida,GiftofDeath,61
[163]Derrida,T
[164]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,57
[165]OfGrammatology
[166]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume2,190
[167]Tillich,systematicTheology,Volume3,30
[168]
Tillich,systematictheology,volume1193
[169]
Tillich,systematictheology,volume1,191
[170]TillichianTerm,SystematicTheologyVolume1,84"Thebasisofgenuineheteronomyis
theclaimtospeakinthenameofthegroundofbeingandthereforeinanunconditionalandultimate
way.
[171]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume2,240
[172]Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume3,87
[173]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,309
[174]
Tillich,systematictheology,194
[175]Tillich,SystematicTheology,Volume1,254
[176]Tillich,DynamicsofFaith
[177]Hegel,PhenomenologyoftheMind,26
[178]
Tillich,systematictheology,189
[179]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,184
[180]
Tillich,SystematicTheologyVolume1,199
Klein155
[181]Derrida,TheGiftofDeath,108
[182]Hegel,PhenomenologyoftheMind,2
[183]
TillichSystematicTheologyVolume1,191
[184]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,300
[185]
Derrida,SpeechandPhenomena,67
[186]
Tillich,DynamicsofFaith,85
[187]Derrida,SpeechandPhenomena,102
[188]Derrida,OfGrammatology,62
[189]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,62
[190]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,64
[191]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,63
[192]Derrida,GiftofDeath,47
[193]ThiscanfurtherbesupplementedbyDerrida'sunderstandingofRoseau.ITdescribes
somethingthatisrealeverysecond,butfadesfromviewifconfrontedasanimage.Man'sperceptionof
itiswhenit'spotencyismostassured.""Theimageisdeath,apropositionthatonemaydefineormake
infinitethustheimageisadeathorthedeathisanimage.imaginationisthepowerthatallowstoaffect
itselfwithitsownrepresentation(Derrida,OfGrammatology,84)
[194]Hegel,PhenomenologyoftheMind,69)
[195]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,314
[196]
Saussure,LecturesonGeneralLinguistics,44
[197]
Derrida,OfGrammatology,68