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Name: _____________________________________ Period: ______

HONORS Unit 1 Fundamentals of Chemistry Practice Packet


1.1 Observe Like a Scientist:
Dont forget to read one place PAST the calibrated markings!
1. Graduated cylinders can have numerous scales. 2. Determine the volume in mL:
Determine the value (in mL) for the smallest marking on each:




3. Draw in the meniscus for the following volumes: 4. What temperature is shown in this example?
______C
5. Determine the length of black bar in both mm and cm:
(Hint: How many millimeters are in a centimeter? Which line represents which on the meter stick?)

______mm ______cm

______mm ______cm

6. Fill in the table with all possibilities discussed today:
Type of Measurement Scientific Tool(s) Used Units
Length Mm, cm or m
Electric Balance
Temperature


7. What part of a liquid do you read from in graduated cylinder or beaker?
a. The highest point the liquid reaches
b. The dip in the liquid at the meniscus
c. The middle, and then double the value
d. Neither of these tools are suitable for measuring a liquid
8. Below is a data table produced by three groups of students who were measuring the mass of a paper clip which
had a true/accepted mass of 1.0115 g. The last row is the average of their measurements.
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
1.01 g 2.863287 g 1.013251 g 2.05 g
1.03 g 2.754158 g 1.013258 g 0.23 g
0.99 g 2.186357 g 1.013255 g 0.75 g
Ave = 1.01 g Ave = 2.601267 g Ave = 1.013255 g Ave = 1.01 g
a. Which group(s) are the most accurate?
b. Which group(s) are the most precise?
c. Which group is the most accurate and precise?

1.2 Formulas and Density:
Dont forget to use significant figures for all calculations!
1. For each of the variables in the density formula (a) give the word that the variable letter stands for, (b) define the word in
your own words and (c) give ALL the possible units for that variable.
Variable (a) Word (b) Definition (c) Units
D


m


V


2. A block of aluminum occupies a volume of 15.0 mL and weighs 40.5 g. What is its density?


3. Mercury metal is poured into a graduated cylinder that holds exactly 22.5 mL. The mercury used to fill the cylinder
weighs 306.0g. From this information, calculate the density of mercury.


4. What is the weight of the ethyl alcohol that exactly fills a 200.0mL container if the density of ethyl alcohol is 0.789 g/mL.



5. Calculate the density of sulfuric acid if 35.4 mL of the acid weighs 65.14 g.


6. Find the mass of 250.0 mL of benzene. The density of benzene is 0.8786 g/mL.


7. A block of lead has dimensions of 4.50 cm by 5.20 cm by 6.00 cm. The block weighs 1591 g. From this information,
calculate the density of lead.


8. What volume of silver metal will weigh exactly 2500.0 g if the density of silver is 10.5 g/cm
3
?



9. A rectangular block of copper metal weighs 1896 g. The dimensions of the block are 8.4 cm by 5.5 cm by 4.6 cm. From
this data, what is the density of copper?



10. A flask that weighs 345.8 g is filled with 225 mL of carbon tetrachloride. The weight of the flask and carbon
tetrachloride is found to be 703.55 g. From this information, calculate the density of carbon tetrachloride.



11. 28.5 g of iron shot is added to a graduated cylinder containing 45.5 mL of water. The water level rises to the 49.1 mL
mark. From this information calculate the density of iron.



12. For each of the following indicate how many significant figures the number contains:
48.67 _____________ 1203 ___________ 0.0123 __________ 0.487 ____________
0.01530 ___________ 1000 ___________ 986.0 ___________ 13.05 ____________
1.20 ______________ 980 ____________ 20.005 __________ 1660 _____________

13. For each of the following complete the mathematical operation and express your answer with the correct number of
significant figures and unit.
1.20ft x 10ft = ________________ 43.00in x 83.00in = __________ 96g/1.43mL = __________________
5.12g/8kJ = _________________ 87in + 8.3in = ______________ 9.21g + 0.34g = ________________
90.5in 1.55 in = _____________ 14.7kJ 0.3 kJ = ___________ 13.0020ft 0.0006ft = ___________
1.3 States of Matter
1. Fill in the blanks using the words variable, fixed, compressible and not compressible.
Solids have a __________________ shape and __________________ volume. Liquids have a __________________ shape and a
__________________ volume. Gases have a __________________ shape and __________________ volume. Gases are
__________________, but solids and liquids are __________________.
2. How are kinetic energy and potential energy related? (Hint: Can you have lots of both types of energy?)



3. Draw a brief sketch of what the particles of a solid, liquid and gas would look like below. Label each of the three drawings.








4. In each pair, circle which substance has the most kinetic energy:
a) Water vapor or Liquid water c) Ice or Water vapor
b) Liquid Helium or Helium gas d) Orange Juice or Orange Popsicle

5. Imagine that you are a water (H2O) particle frozen in the solid state.
a) Describe what would happen to your particle spacing if you were melted into a liquid and then boiled into a gas.


b) Describe what would happen to your kinetic energy if you were melted into a liquid and then boiled into a gas.


c) Describe what would happen to your potential energy if you were melted into a liquid and then boiled into a gas.


6. Define compressibility in your own words:


7. Why can gases be easily compressed?

8. Why cant solids be easily compressed?


1.4 Phase Changes:
1. Draw a heating curve, and label each of the following: solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, heat of
vaporization and heat of fusion.







2. Draw a cooling curve, and label each of the following: solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, heat of
vaporization and heat of fusion.








3. Why did the temperature of your ice/water mixture stay the same until all the water was a liquid even though heat was still being
added? (Hint: What was all that thermal/heat energy doing during the phase change?)





4. Describe what happened to the particles of the ice as heat was added in terms of particle spacing and kinetic energy.





5. Imagine you are a water vapor molecule in a cloud. Describe what would happen to your kinetic energy, potential energy and
particle spacing (with nearby water molecules) as you fall from the cloud and condense into rain and then freeze into ice on the ground.






1.5 Thermochemistry:
Dont forget to use significant figures for all calculations!
1. Boiling water is usually the first step when making pasta.
a) Is this reaction endothermic or exothermic? How do you know?


b) Draw brief sketch of what happens to heat with the water and the surroundings when boiling water (Hint: Draw heat as an
arrow and use it to point to the direction the heat is going).



2. What is the difference between having a low specific heat capacity and having a high specific heat capacity?



3. What is the amount of heat required, in joules, to raise 23g of water for a total temperature change of 42C?



4. If 5,118 joules are added to 95g of water, how much will the temperature change?



5. If 5,118 calories are added to 95g of water, how much will the temperature change?



6. What mass of water will absorb 325 joules of energy and result in a total temperature change of 15C?


7. What mass of water will absorb 325 calories of energy and result in a total temperature change of 15C?



8. What is the amount of heat required, in calories, to raise 520g of water from 60C to 67C? (Hint: Calculate the temperature change
first!)


9. For all questions 3-8, label each one as endothermic or exothermic and be prepared to explain why you chose that answer. Pay
special attention to the words included in the question to help.



10. Calculate the amount of heat needed to melt 35.0 g of ice at 0 C. Express your answer in joules and kilojoules.



11. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 190.0 g of liquid water at 18 C to steam at 100. C. (two calculations!).



12. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 96 g of ice at 24 C to water at 28 C. (figure out how many steps first and be
sure to use correct specific heats)



13. Calculate the amount of heat released to the environment as 245 g of steam at 140 C is cooled to 15 C.

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