Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

MODELING OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF FLOODING IN

THE CITY OF MANADO TONDANO ESTUARY


Marthen Kumajas
State University of Manado
e-mail: kumajasmarthen@yahoo.co.id
ABSTRACT
The river is a multi-resource functions that are vital to human life. The main functions of
the river is a source of drinking water, ower generation, irrigation fields ! farms and
a"uaculture, transort, suly of #uilding materials, tourism and so forth. $n fact the condition of
the river, discharge and water "uality is even more alarming, as these resources are non-
renewa#le. This research will #e discussed further on hysical varia#les such as changes in
seed, density, momentum and drag force, the social imact, attitudes and #ehavior are good in
order to flood ha%ard mitigation and control, and the relationshi #etween attitudes and #ehavior
in order to mitigate ha%ard and flood control. &hysical varia#le modeling analysis results showed
that the increasing flood flooding the ma'imum seed of the river flow will #e shifted toward the
surface, so with the momentum, #ut the density of the river water is almost evenly on all levels
of the river water, #ut the drag force will #e larger, #ecause the drag force deends on the seed
of the river flow.
Keywords: modeling the physical properties, Spearman correlation, the social impacts of
flooding
1. Introduction
The river is a multi-resource functions that are vital to human life. The main function of
the river is a source of drinking water, ower generation, irrigation fields ! farms and
a"uaculture, transort, suly of #uilding materials, tourism and so forth. $n fact the condition of
the river, discharge and water "uality is even more alarming, as these resources are non-
renewa#le. $n addition to the otential and #enefits of a #road and vital thing, rivers often
#ecome a source of harm to humans. (loods that occurred in various laces #esides causing huge
material losses also can cause casualties. )*uriidou, +,,-..
/#jectives and olicies of irrigation develoment in the long term develoment of the
second )&0& $$. are: )1. the rovision of ade"uate water and e"uita#le for the entire life of the
community and so on, )+. the esta#lishment of the system of water allocation is efficient,
effective, and fair and so, )2. reservation of water sources maintained and imroved
environmental "uality. (urther irrigation develoment olicy secifically focuses on four issues:
)1. strengthening the irrigation infrastructure, )+. an increase in the utili%ation of water resources,
)2. environmental damage control, )-. strengthening the institutional develoment of irrigation in
the irrigation field &0& $$ in 3orth Sulawesi include : )1. the develoment of management
systems, )+. information systems and water control, )2. utili%ation of water resources, )-.
rotection and reservation of water resources, and )4. revention of natural disasters. /ne
strategy for achieving develoment goals is the develoment of irrigation 3orth Sulawesi 5iver
region )&6S., in which each &6S should have a Master &lan )Master &lan. 5iver 7asin
8eveloment, which eriodically needs to #e fi'ed ! imroved )9nonymous, +,,2..
6atershed )6atershed., which is widely known as the 89S is #asically an area of land
which is an integral art of the river and its tri#utaries, which serves to accommodate, store, and
drain water from rainfall to the lake or the sea natural, which is the limit of its land and maritime
#oundary toograhical searation. till the water area is still affected #y land-#ased activities.
/ne or more watersheds and ! or small islands of #readth : +,,, km+ forming a unity of natural
resources management area called 5iver 7asin ! 5iver 7asins )9rticle 1 of ;aw no. <!+,,-..
&ro#lem of damage settlements, inundation, erosion of river #anks, reventing erosion
and destruction of levees, etc., are closely related to the hysical style of water flow momentum.
7oth of these hysical "uantities, the "uantity will #e very #ig at the time of the flood, #oth due
to the increase in the rate of flow and density )density. of water masses. Theoretically, increased
flooding will increase the force caused #y the flow of the floating charge )susended load., on
the other hand, the imact of increasing erosion of the river #ed due to increased momentum
transort streams with #ase material )#ed load transort.. Measurements will #e undertaken #y
the =entre for *nvironmental Management of the Ministry of *nvironment )+,,<. in the mouth
of the river Tondano, concluded that the discharge of sediment transort increased significantly
more than the increase in flow in the event of flooding. This fact in addition to indicators of
erosion on the ustream, can also indicate the otential for environmental damage is "uite high,
esecially #ecause of the increased momentum and drag force in the event of flooding. 7alasch,
et al .. )1>>+., stated that the availa#ility of measurement data varia#le have the flow and
sedimentation mechanisms of sediment source to outlet, is imortant information for land
conservation in the ulands and also the information that forms the #asis for society and
governance in the conte't of natural resource management. So the data and information flow
varia#les results in the area of the estuary, as well as rovide an overview of the rocesses that
occur in the ulands, among others, relating to the use of agricultural land. 9nother ro#lem lies
arising in connection with the rovision of data and information on the condition of the river is
the availa#ility of funds, e"uiment, methods, research teams and so forth. 7esides re"uiring
e'ensive e"uiment, o#servation and data rocessing re"uires funding and e'ertise.
(rom the a#ove e'lanation shows that the need for a hysical varia#le modeling the
flow of river water is the water mass density, velocity, momentum, and the drag force. 7y
knowing the hysical modeling of the four varia#les are e'ected to get an idea of the vertical
rofile of velocity, density, and momentum flow #ased on water deth variations.
2. Pr!iou" R"#rc$
5ecent studies were conducted in the 5iver Tondano was conducted #y the =enter for
*nvironmental Management of the Ministry of *nvironment )+,,<.. Tondano was located in
3orth Sulawesi. The watershed lies in 1o and +o ;U with toograhy of the mountains.
6atershed area is aro'imately 4,,.>< km+ )a#out - a#out 4,,,,, ha.. The results 3anloy et.al,
)+,,?., Ministry of *nvironment )+,,>. and the $nstitute for *nvironmental @ealth Technician
Manado =ity )+,11. suggested that estuaries Tondano from year to year water "uality continues
to decline due to community activities ranging from ustream to downstream.
5esearch of 9gung &riam#odo, 9nna (atchiya, and 7illy Aolianto, titled Behavior
Analysis Society of the Ciliwung Bantaran'Sungal Household Waste isposal Activities in the
!illage of Kampung "elayu, #ast $a%arta. The urose of this study was to determine: 1. the
characteristics of the #anks of the =iliwung 5iver. )+. The attitude of the #anks of the =iliwung
5iver to the imact of household waste #eing dumed into river, attitudes towards household
waste disosal activities to the river and attitudes towards river health rogram. )2. The action
taken #y the u#lic in #anks of the =iliwung 5iver in household gar#age. )-. 6hat factors are
affecting u#lic attitudes of the river #ank =i$iwung towards the imact of waste. Stairs are
discharged into the river. =ommunity ska household waste disosal activities to the river and
attitudes towards river health rogram. )4. 6hat factors are affecting the river #ank =i$iwung
community action in household gar#age. )B. The relationshi #etween attitudes and actions of
the =iliwung 5iver in the household trash.
The results of their research showed as follows: )1. the attitude of the eole living in the
long side of the river a#out duming gar#age into the river is neutral, #ut on the imact and the
river is a ositive rogram, )+. the eole who live on the long side of the negative #ehavior in
the waste streamC )2. the factors that influence eoleDs attitudes towards living in the long side
of the river #ank on the domestic concerns are: age, legal status, and the distance #etween their
home #y the river, )4. the relationshi #etween attitudes and #ehavior to carry out waste disosal
is negative.
8iana @endrawan research, with the title and Situ 6ater "uality in 0akarta, 8eartment of
*nvironmental *ngineering, (aculty of ;andscae 9rchitecture and *nvironmental Technology,
University of Trisakti, 0ournal Makara, Technology, Eol. >, 3o.. 1, 9ril +,,4: 12-1>. 0akarta is
crossed #y 12 major rivers and several small streams and -, there sread across 4 areas of the
city with huge otential as surface water to suort human life. 6ith the cityDs raid oulation
growth and the develoment of its use, there is a tendency to changes in conditions and water
"uality in the river and there 8K$ 0akarta. &oulation density can affect environmental ollution
and the river there. This is associated with the level of awareness of the oulation to maintain a
healthy and clean environment. *stimation of water ollution can #e done #y looking at the
effects of ollutants on a"uatic organisms and living environment. Unit estimators resence of
these ollutants are classified within the arameters of hysics, chemistry and #iology. $n setting
water "uality, these arameters should not stand alone #ut can #e transformed in a single value
reresenting the so-called 9ir Fuality $nde'.
5esults of calculation of the value of $K9 showed that ?2G and <>G of the river there is
in 8K$ 0akarta in the #ad category. This is due to the disrution of the river and there well, lack
of u#lic awareness and government in maintaining the river and there.
6elly 8harma 7hakti research, entitled etermination of &riority 'egional Wastewater
(reatment Services )n istrict (anah A*ang, Central $a%arta, (inal 8eartment of =ity and
5egional &lanning, (aculty of *ngineering, 8ionegoro University, +,,4. 9ccording to research
conducted #y the Ministry of *nvironment, the =iliwung 5iver has e'ceeded water standards
grou =. Means the =iliwung 5iver water is no longer fit for consumtion.
9yu 3yoman 5atmini research, with the title Heavy "etal Content of +ead ,&*-,
"ercury ,Hg- and Cadmium ,Cd- )n "eat .ish Sweep/Sweep ,Hyposarcus pardalis- )n the
Ciliwung 'iver Srengseng Station, Condet And "anggarai, (aculty of 7iology, 3ational
University, 0akarta , +,,>. (ish #rooms )@yosarcus ardalis. is one kind of fish that can live in
olluted waters along the =iliwung river. The fish turned out to #e consumed #y the u#lic is
made as shredded and dumlings. The ro#lem is when the fish consumed #rooms contain heavy
metals such as living in a olluted river, it can cause havoc in the future. Therefore it is necessary
to do research on the content of heavy metals &#, @g and =d in fish flesh. *'amination of heavy
metals is done using 9tomic 9#sor#tion Sectrofotometer )99S..
The results showed that the #rooms fish caught in the river =iliwung containing 2 to
heavy metals &#, @g, and =d, although the levels did not e'ceed the standard set, #ut if taken
continuously for a long time it may #ring occurrence of oisoning. $t should #e in notice as these
three metals are #io accumulative.
6ili 5endanikusuma research, with the title =ommunity &ercetion of =iliwung 5iver
&late 9ctivity H&rocurement of )nfrastructure #nvironment &ollution &reventionH in 7a#akan
Eillage Market, =entral 8istrict of 7ogor, 7ogor, in the &ost Iraduate (orum vol. 21. 3o.1,
0anuary +,,?. 5iver serves as a source of life. @owever, many rivers are olluted condition of
one of them due to the disosal of waste #y eole who live in the =iliwung 5iver &late. The
urose of this study was to determine the u#lic ercetion of the #anks of the =iliwung 5iver
on the H&rocurement of $nfrastructure *nvironment &ollution &reventionH and to determine the
factors associated with the ercetion of the u#lic a#out the activities along the river.
%. H&'ot$"i"
$n this research it will #e further discussed several hyotheses. The discreancies are
three levels of flooding on varia#le change hysical form of seed, density, momentum and style
of drag.
(. R"#rc$ Mt$od"
(.1. Mt$od o) An#*&"i"
This research uses data analysis to test the four research o#jectives em#odied in the four
hyotheses were tested in this study are resented in chater 2. @ere is resented hyotheses and
data analysis methods used to answer the hyotheses.
H&'ot$"i" #nd Mt$od o) An#*&"i"
H&'ot$"i" Analysis Tools
The #ig difference in the three levels of flooding on varia#le
change hysical form of seed, density, momentum and style
of drag. =urve (itting
Curve Fiting
ANOVA
+.%. Sco' o) R"#rc$
5esearch related to the social asects of the imact of floods, traced "ualitatively through
interviews #y the researcher to the resondent selected. 5esearch instrument is the researcher
himself #y using reference oints of the interview. Tracking information from resondents that
one to the ne't resondent and validation using triangulation techni"ues )3asution, +,,2C
Moloeng, +,,-..
+.(. S#,'*"
Testing samles of water mass for the determination of density and measurements of
grain material transort is carried out in the la#oratory of hysics (M$&9 U3$M9 in Tondano.
Time measurement and samling carried out #etween the months of /cto#er +,1, through to
March +,11 deending on water conditions. 8ay o#servation is determined deending on the
level of flooding and tidal conditions
+. R"u*t" o) H&'ot$"i" T"tin-
$n this research it will #e discussed further the analysis of research hyotheses that have
#een mentioned earlier. =omarison of three models of the influence of the imact of flooding to
changes in varia#le seed in estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate in flood levels 1, + and 2 are
resented grahically as follows:
Fi-ur 1 The imact of flooding on varia#le seed change
;ocation in Ternate on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
8escrition: The green line is the flood level 1 )low., yellow is the flood level +
)medium., and red is the flood level 2 )high.
$t can #e seen from (igure 1 that the flood levels and flood levels +, the osition of
ma'imum velocity shifts toward the surface #y the rising water level. This haens also at flood
level + and 2. To test whether there are significant differences in the seed of change of the three
levels of flooding are resented in 9endi' 17 using 9nalysis of Eariance )93/E9., shows
the ( value of 4, B<<, and ( for ,.,,,.Karena Sig Sig (J ,.,4 )4G error rate . indicate that there
are significant differences #etween the change in velocity due to the imact of floods at different
levels.
(igure 4.? resents a comarison of the difference in average seed due to the imact of
flooding on level 1, +, and 2 in the estuary Tondano on Kamung Ternate Eillage ;ocation
y = 20.33+0.856 x 0,002 x
2
y = 18,5 + 0,!01 " ,002 x
2
y = 3,381 + 1,328 x 0,008x
2
distance from the bottom of river (cm)
(cm)
Fi-ur 2 The average seed in Ternate ;ocation on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure + shows that the average seed at flood level is -4.+, cm!det 1-1, the
average seed of the flood level is <2.1, cm!det +-1, and the average seed of the flood level was
<-.>, cm 2. sec-1. To e'amine the differences in the three flood level continued testing of the
93/E9 Tukey Test or commonly known as ;S8 )least significant difference., as follows:
Testing the difference in seed at level 1 to level flood + with the difference in seed is +<.>
cm!det- 1, the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig t K,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a significant
difference in the seed at flood levels 1 and +. $t can #e seen that the flood level + has a higher
seed than the seed at flood level 1. Testing the difference in seed at level 1 with a flood 2
flood level with the seed difference is +>.< cm!det-1, the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig
tJ ,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a significant difference in the seed at flood levels 1 and 2. $t
can #e seen that the flood level 2 has a higher seed than the seed at flood level 1. Testing the
difference in seed at flood level + and level 2 #y flooding the seed difference is 1.? cm!det-1,
the value of ,.?4, t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,:,4 )4G error rate. indicates no difference in the
seed at flood levels + and 2. This indicates the seed at flood levels + and 2 are the same. $t can
#e concluded in the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate that the seed at flood levels + and 2
are the same height, #ut the flood level 1 has a lower velocity than the flood levels + and 2.
=omarison of three models of the influence of flood imacts to changes in varia#le
density Tondano estuary on the location of Ternate in flood levels 1, + and 2 are resented in the
following grah:
Fi-ur % The imact of flooding on the varia#le density changes
;ocation in Ternate on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure 4.1+ shows that the grah of curvature flood level 1 )green. is more curved
than the flood level + )yellow.. 6hen comared to the flood level + and level 2 flood )red., chart
2 more gentle flood level with flood level + which indicates that the growing flood or rising
water level of the river #ed sediment concentrations to the surface evenly.
To test whether there are significant differences in changes in density at three levels of
flooding are resented in 9endi' 1=. 7y using tool 9nalysis of Eariance )93/E9., it shows
the ( value of 12- B?-, and ( for ,.,,1. 9s Sig (J ,.,4 )4G error rate . indicates that there are
significant differences #etween the change in density resulting from the imact of floods at
different levels.
(igure 4.12 resents a comarison of the average density difference resulting from the
imact of flooding on level 1, +, and 2 in the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate.
Fi-ur ( The average density in Ternate ;ocation on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
y = 1,158 0,0001 x +
0,000000# x
2
y=1,1116 0,0001 x +
0,000001x
2

y =1,0! 0,001 x +
0,00006 x
2

(rom (igure 4.12 shows that the average density of the flood level was 1.,2 kg!lt 1-1, the
average density of the flood level was 1.,B kg.lt +-1, and the average density of 2 flood level is
1.11 kg. lt-1. To e'amine the differences in the three flood level continued testing of the 93/E9
Tukey Test or commonly known as ;S8 )least significant difference., as follows: Testing
differences in density at the level of the flood 1 flood level + with a density difference was ,.,+1
kg.lt- 1, the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a significant
difference in density at flood levels 1 and +. $t can #e seen that the flood level + has a higher
density than the density at flood level 1. Testing the density difference at the level of the flood 1
flood level 2 with the difference density is ,.,<< kg.lt-1the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig
t K,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a significant difference in density at flood levels 1 and 2. $t can
#e seen that the flood level 2 has a higher density than the density at flood level 1. Testing the
density difference at the level of the flood + flood level 2 with the difference density is ,.,4B
kg.lt-1the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a significant
difference in density at flood levels + and 2. $t can #e seen that the flood level 2 has a higher
density than the density at flood level +. $t can #e concluded that, the density of the flood level 2
ossess the highest density, #ut the flood level 1 has the lowest density.
=omarison of three models of the influence of the imact of flooding on the change in
momentum varia#le estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate in flood levels 1, + and 2 are resented
in the following grah:
Fi-ur + The imact of flooding on the momentum varia#le changes
;ocation in Ternate on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure 4 shows that the flood level of chart 1 )green., momentum is 4?.>2 gr.cm
ma'imumnya-+.det.-1 at the deth of ?, cm from the #ottom of the river. (lood level + )yellow.
at the deth of 14B cm from the #ottom of the river, momentum is >+.14 gr.cm ma'imum -+.det.-
1 and ;evel 2 flood )red. at the deth of 1B, cm from the #ottom of the river, is the momentum
with ma'imum >>.2? gr.cm-+.det.-1, which indicates that the high rising flood surface )water
level. the #iggest momentum shift osition or move from the center to the surface of the imact
on the damage art of the river #ank, #uilding oles, talud and so forth.
y=2,#3 + 0.!33 x 0,002 x
2
y = 22,1 + 0,!26 x 0,003 x
2

y = ,!15 +1,33 x 0,008 x
2
To test whether there are significant differences in the change in momentum of the three
levels of flooding are resented in 9endi' 18.Menggunakan tool 9nalysis of Eariance
)93/E9., shows the ( value of B> ,,<, and ( for ,.,,1.Karena Sig Sig (J ,.,4 )4G error rate .
indicate that there are significant differences #etween the change in momentum due to the imact
of floods at different levels.
(igure 4.1? resents a comarison of the average difference of momentum due to the
imact of flooding on level 1, +, and 2 in the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate.
(igure B
The average momentum in Ternate ;ocation on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure 4.1? shows that the average momentum at level 1 is -B.-4 gr.cm flood-
+.det-1, the average momentum of the flood level is <B.?2 gr.cm +-+.det-1, and the average
momentum the flood level is ?2.,1 gr.cm 2-+.det-1. To e'amine the differences in the three flood
level continued testing of the 93/E9 Tukey Test or commonly known as ;S8 )least significant
difference., as follows: Testing differences momentum at flood level 1 to level + with a flood of
momentum difference is 2,.2< gr.cm- +.det-1, the value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,.,4
)4G error rate. indicates a significant difference in momentum in flood levels 1 and +. $t can #e
seen that the flood level + has a higher momentum than the momentum at flood level 1. Testing
differences momentum at flood level 1 to level 2 with the difference momentum flood is 2B.44
gr.cm-+.det-1 the value of ,.,,1t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a
significant difference in momentum in flood levels 1 and 2. $t can #e seen that the flood level 2
has a higher momentum than the momentum at flood level 1. Testing differences momentum at
flood level + with level 2 with flood momentum difference is B.1? gr.cm-+.det-1, the value of
,.114t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,:,4 )4G error rate. indicates no difference in momentum on
flood levels + and 2. This indicates momentum in flood levels + and 2 are the same. $t can #e
concluded in the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate, that momentum on flood levels + and 2
are the same height, #ut the flood level 1 has a momentum lower than the flood levels + and 2.
=omarison of three models of the influence of flood imacts to changes in varia#le drag
force Tondano estuary on ;ocation Ternate in flood levels 1, + and 2 are resented in the
following grah:
(igure <
The imact of flooding on the change varia#le drag force
;ocation in Ternate on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure 4.++ shows that the flood level chart 1 )green., ma'imum drag force is
2+>,.?1 3ewton on the deth of ?+ cm from the #ottom of the river. (lood level + )yellow. at the
deth of 14- cm from the #ottom of the river, ma'imum drag force is <>B?.>4 3ewton and
flooding ;evel 2 )red. at the deth of 1B- cm from the #ottom of the river, ma'imum drag force
is ??,B.>, 3ewton, which indicates that with the increase in high-level flooding )water level.
osition of the largest drag force shifted or moved from the center to the surface of the imact on
the damage art of the river #ank, #uilding oles, talud and so forth.
To test whether there are significant differences in the three drag force changes in flood
levels are resented in 9endi' 1*. Using the tool 9nalysis of Eariance )93/E9., shows the (
value of 4B ?>,, and Sig ( for ,,,1. 7ecause the Sig (J ,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates that there
are significant differences #etween the change in drag force of the imact caused #y flooding at
different levels.
(igure 4.+2 resents a comarison of the difference in average drag force due to the
imact of flooding on level 1, +, and 2 in the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate.
y = -1441 + 125.3 x 0.383 x
2
y = -1380 + 121.1 x 0.392 x
2
y = -980 + 103.8 x 0.631 x
2
(igure ?
9verage drag force on ;ocation Ternate on (lood ;evels 1, +, and 2
(rom (igure 4.+2 shows that the average drag force on 1 flood level is ++>4.-, 3ewton,
the average drag force on the flood level is 4>,?.-> 3ewton +, and the average drag force on 2
flood level is B42<.B, 3ewton. To e'amine the differences in the three flood level continued
testing of the 93/E9 Tukey Test or commonly known as ;S8 )least significant difference., as
follows: Testing differences in drag force on 1 flood level with flood level + with drag force
difference is 2B12.,? 3ewton, o#tained a value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,.,4 )4G error
rate. indicates a significant difference in drag force on flood levels 1 and +. $t can #e seen that
the flood level + has a higher drag force than the drag force on the flood level 1. Testing of
differences drag force on 1 flood level with flood level 2 with the difference is -+-+.1> 3ewtonDs
drag force, o#tained a value of ,.,,1 t Sig. 7ecause the Sig t K,.,4 )4G error rate. indicates a
significant difference in drag force on flood levels 1 and 2. $t can #e seen that the flood level 2
has a higher drag force than the drag force on the flood level 1. Testing of differences drag force
on flood levels + to 2 flood level with drag force difference is B+>.11 3ewton, the value of ,.21,
t Sig. 7ecause the Sig tJ ,:,4 )4G error rate. indicates no difference in drag force on flood levels
+ and 2. This indicates the drag force on flood levels + and 2 are the same. $t can #e concluded in
the estuary Tondano on ;ocation Ternate that the drag force on flood levels + and 2 are the same
height, #ut the flood level 1 has a lower drag force than the flood levels + and 2.
.. Di"cu""ion
=omarison of the data and grah density, velocity, momentum, and the drag force on
three different levels of flooding, rovide an interesting conclusion. =omarison chart density at
three levels flooding the conclusion that increased flooding could increase cross-river transort
through the material at the study site. The evaluation shows that the condition of #eing without
flooding or flood the area around the measurement into the deosition areaC /n the other hand a
large increase in flooding, sreading from the #ase to the surface density is almost evenly which
can lead to erosion of the river #ed surface, river #ank erosion )Een Te =how, 1>?-C 9llen,
1>>,.. This occurs due to the increased momentum and drag force. This suggests that the surface
of the river #ottom at the study site to #e volatile and su#ject to change due to relationshi of
flood. Material deosited on the river #ed can #e easily carried #y the flow, and even at the time
of the flood, there was a shift #etween sections with a more shallow in the direction of the width
of the river .
=hart seed and momentum shows that the increase in flooding caused increase in flow
velocity and momentum, and the layer had a greater increase is the middle layer close to the
surface. $ncreased seed and greater momentum flow on the middle layer close to the surface,
giving the conclusion that increased flooding, more otential to cause erosion of the cliffs on the
river #ed erosion. &hysically it can #e seen that the erosion of the river #anks around the study
site is high, even when enlarged flood level fre"uent landslides and damage river #anks include
talud construction, ga#ions, and suort #uildings and so forth.
The relationshi #etween drag force with momentum )unity distance. and seed
e'ressed in the e"uation: ( L v to the conclusion that if an increase in flooding, increased total
drag force and the total force working lines shifted toward the surface of the river )corresonding
shift momentum curved grah, seed and drag force.. $n such conditions, the drag force moment
of the construction or o#jects that are ut in the river rose sharly either due to increased style
and arm style )due to shift work line style..
5esults of researcherMs o#servation from the location, social imacts resulting from
increased flooding occurs when the floods rise over and a#ove +.4 meters, due to the high land
a#ove the river water level of ,.4 meters. Susected cause of the flooding e'erienced #y a
minority due to natural factors, and artly #ecause of the damage caused #y the activities of
eole. Most of the residents showed a ositive attitude towards the environmental imact
caused #y the activities of eole that look of attitude arove, give e'lanations, suervise and
rerimand, and even reorted to the government.
/. Su,,#r& #nd Conc*u"ion
(rom the results of this research on the hysical condition and social condition to
increased flooding, and attitudes ! #ehaviors in the community ha%ard mitigation and flood
control can #ring conclusion that the results of analysis of hysical varia#les flood modeling
shows that increasing the ma'imum seed of the flooding river flow will #e shifted toward the
surface, so with the momentum, #ut the density of the river water is almost evenly on all levels
of the river water, #ut the drag force will #e more large, #ecause the drag force deends on the
seed of the river flow.
*nvironmental conditions of the settlement are visi#le from a distance the condition of
rivers and creeks, high residential land on the surface of the river, and the condition of the
surface of a ool of residential land in a state of #eing, yet still in the dangerous category. /f
linkage analysis, it shows that the influence of the distance from the river to the high surface area
of the surface of the river and the settlement of land surface water level during the flood. This
means that the home away from the river, it will result in higher residential land from the river
surface and the lower the height of the flood )inundation. on settlement land.
(lood imacts e'erienced #y eole living along the #anks of Aag Tondano river is an
interactive ro#lem #etween hysical factors, social, environmental, and resource utili%ation.
Solutions to ro#lems should #e #ased on a series of interactions #etween the four factors
REFERENCES
[1]. Bartnik,., !a"#y$ki, !., an" !i%&a'ik A. 1992. Suspended Load and Bed Load Transport
in Mountain Streams Determined by Different Methods. International Assoiation of
!ydrologial Sienes.
[2]. ()ri*i"+), (, an" V. !)rray. 2004. "ubli !ealth Impat of Floods and Chemial
Contamination. ,+)rna' +- .)/'i% 0#at' 1Ox-2, V+' 26, **.336-383.
[3]. 4i, 5., ), 6., 7ai (., an" 8) 9. 2012. Flood Loss Analysis and #uantitative $is%
Assessment in China. Nat 0a:ar"$. 7+i;
[4]. 4in, <.,., =&an>, <.0, ?an, <.=., 4##, 0.<, an" =&i) <.,. 2011. &ational "oliy of 'atershed
Management and Flood Mitigation after the ()* Chi+Chi ,arth-ua%e in Tai.an. Nat
0a:ar"$, V+'. 56. .. 309-331.
[5]. Nan'+&y, ,.B., ,aya"i, @, an" A$tiart+. 2008. Studies (ondano 'iver .lood Control
Alternatives in the city of "anado. =ivil *ngineering (orum Eol 1?.
[6]. Nan'+y, B.,. ,aya"i, @. A$tiart+. 2008. 'iver .lood Control Alternatives study (ondano in
"alang0 3o NE$$$!1-0anuari =ivil *ngineering (orum +,,?
[3]. Na$)ti+n. 6. .r+-.7r. 2003. 1aturalistic 'esearch "ethods0 ?ar$it+, Ban")n>
[8]. .riaB/+"+ A.Cat%&iya, A., "an <+'iant+, D. 20110 Behavior Analysis Society of the Ciliwung
Bantaran'Sungal Household Waste isposal Activities in the !illage of Kampung "elayu,
#ast $a%arta0
[9]. @atBini, N. A. 2009. Heavy "etal contengt +ead ,&*-, "ercury ,Hg- and Cadmium ,Cd- )n
"eat .ish Sweep/Sweep ,Hyposarcus pardalis- )n the Ciliwung 'iver Srengseng Station,
Condet And "anggarai, (aculty of 7iology, 3ational University, 0akarta
[10]. @#n"anik)$)Ba, . 2008. &u#lic &ercetion of the =iliwung 5iver &late 9ctivity
H&rocurement of )nfrastructure #nvironment &ollution &reventionH in 7a#akan Eillage
Market, =entral 8istrict of 7ogor, 7ogor, in the &ost Iraduate (orum vol. 21. N+.1
[11]. 6ant+$+. 2002. 6.66; &rofessionally &rocessing ata Statistics0 &(
#le2"ediaKomputindo, ,akarta
[12]. 6)>iy+n+, 2003.. 'esearch "ethods ,3uantitative Approach, 3ualitative, and ' 4
-7andung: 9lfa#eta. +2
[13]. V#n, ?# =&+E. 1986. 0an"/++k +- A**'i#" 0y"r+'+>y. !%DraEF0i'' B++k =O., ?+r+nt+.
[14]. 9a-irat+$. 1986. .&y$i%$. ,+&n i'#y G 6+n$ An%. N<.