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1. Diagrams of all the distinct non-isomorphic trees on 6 or fewer vertices are listed

in the lecture notes. Extend this list by drawing all the distinct non-isomorphic

trees on 7 vertices.

2. Give an example of a 3-regular graph with 8 vertices which is not isomorphic to

the graph of a cube (prove that it is not isomorphic by demonstrating that it

possesses some feature that the cube does not or vice-versa).

Note that this graph contains several 3-cycles (triangles), whereas the cube does

not, therefore the graphs cannot be isomorphic.

3. For each of the regular polyhedral graphs (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron,

dodecahedron, and icosahedron), try to answer the following questions:

What is its degree and diameter?

Tetrahedron: degree 3, diameter 1

Cube: degree 3, diameter 3

Octahedron: degree 4, diameter 2

1

Dodecahedron: degree 3, diameter 5

Icosahedron: degree 5, diameter 3

Is it Eulerian? If so, find an Eulerian circuit, otherwise prove it is not.

Only the octahedron is Eulerian, since all the others have odd degree.

Label the vertices of the octahedron to match a die, i.e. numbers from 1

to 6 with non-adjacent vertices summing to 7. One Eulerian circuit is:

1-2-4-6-3-5-1-3-2-6-5-4-1.

Can you find a Hamiltonian circuit?

4. Examples of the graphs of several saturated hydrocarbons are shown in the

lecture notes - CH

4

(methane), C

2

H

6

(ethane), C

3

H

8

(propane), and others. The

graph of a saturated hydrocarbon is always a tree where each hydrogen atom is

represented by a vertex of degree 1 and each carbon atom is represented by a

vertex of degree 4.

Given n carbon atoms, how many hydrogen atoms can be added to make up a

saturated hydrocarbon, i.e. what chemical formulas for saturated hydrocarbons

are possible?

C

n

H

2n+2

In the examples listed in the lecture notes, both butane and isobutene have the

same chemical formula C

4

H

10

, but different molecular structures. Is there

another saturated hydrocarbon besides propane with the molecular formula

C

3

H

8

? How many different saturated hydrocarbons are their with 5 carbon

atoms? Can you conjecture a general formula?

Propane is the only saturated hydrocarbon with the formula C

3

H

8

. There are 3

different saturated hydrocarbons with the formula C

5

H

12

, corresponding to the

three non-isomorphic trees with 5 vertices (note that all the vertices of these

trees have degree less than or equal to 4). In general the number of different

molecules with the formula C

n

H

2n+2

is equal to the number of non-isomorphic

trees on n vertices with all vertices having degree less than or equal to 4 these

are called quartic trees. For n = 1,2,3, the sequence of these numbers begins:

1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 18, 35, 75, 159, 355, 802, 1858, 4347, 10359, 24894, 60523,

There is no simple formula known for the numbers in this sequence. For more

information about what is know, lookup this sequence on-line in Sloanes

Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences:

http://www.research.att.com/~njas/sequences/

2

5. For each of the graphs K

5

and K

3,3

count the number of distinct Hamiltonian

cycles they contain. For K

5

count the number of distinct Eulerian circuits.

K

5

has 5!/(5*2) = 12 distinct Hamiltonian cycles, since every permutation of the 5

vertices determines a Hamiltonian cycle, but each cycle is counted 10 times due

to symmetry (5 possible starting points * 2 directions).

K

3,3

has 6*3*2*2*1*1/(6*2) = 6 distinct Hamiltonian cycles pick one of the six

vertices to start at and then count the number of choices for each successive

vertex and divide by 12 since each cycle will be counted 6*2=12 times due to

symmetry.

If we do not distinguish the starting point or direction, the number of Eulerian

circuits in K

5

is 12 + 120 = 132. These can be counted by considering the

decomposition of an Eulerian circuit on K

5

into cycles. Since there are 10 edges

in such a circuit there are two ways this can be done, either as two 5-cycles, or

as a two 3-cycles and a 4-cycle.

In the case of two 5-cycles, since we are not distinguishing starting point we will

assume we begin the circuit by traversing one of the 5-cycles. There are 5! ways

to choose the first 5-cycle, and 5 possible starting points, giving 5!/5 = 24 distinct

possibilities. Once we have fixed these choices, there are exactly two

possibilities for the second cycle it must visit the vertices in an order which

skips every other vertex relative to the first, and it can do so in one of two

directions relative to the first (once we fix the orientation of the first cycle, we can

distinguish orientations of the second). We could have chosen the two cycles in

either order, so we obtain 24*2/2 = 24. Finally note that reversing the order of

the circuit also results in a circuit which consists of a 5-cycle followed by a 5-

cycle, so we divide by 2 again to get 12.

In the case of two 3-cycles and a 4-cycle, since we are not distinguishing starting

point, we will assume we begin the circuit by traversing the 4-cycle. There are

5*4*3*2 ways to choose the 4-cycle, and 4 possible starting points within the

cycle, giving a total of 5*4*3*2/4 = 30 distinct possibilities. Once we have fixed

these choices, note that the two 3-cycles must each consist of a diagonal of the

4-cycle plus two edges containing the point not included in the 4-cycle. Following

the 4-cycle, the either the next vertex in the circuit is this fifth point, or it is the

opposite diagonal and then the fifth point (2 choices). From the fifth point the 3-

cycle which has not been traversed at all must be followed in one of 2 directions

(2 choices), and then the final step back to the starting vertex is determined.

This gives a total of 30*2*2 = 120 possible cycles. Note that if we reverse the

order of the circuit, we do not get a circuit which starts with a 4-cycle so we dont

need to correct for over-counting as we did above.

Note that it was necessary to consider these two cycle decompositions

separately in order to count them correctly because they have different

symmetries. It is easy to get the wrong answer if you dont do this.

6. Consider the graph of H

n

, the n-dimensional hypercube. The vertices of H

n

can

be labeled with binary strings of length n so that H

n

contains 2

n

vertices with

3

edges between vertices which differ in 1 bit, e.g. the edges of H

2

are {00,01},

{01,11}, {11,10}and {10,00}. Note that H

n

is a regular graph.

What is the degree and diameter of H

n

? n

For which values of n is H

n

Eulerian? When n is even.

Find a Hamiltonian cycle for H

2

, H

3

, and H

4

.

H

2

: 00, 01, 11, 10

H

3

: 000, 001, 011, 010, 110, 111, 101, 100

H

4

: 0000, 0001, 0011, 0010, 0110, 0111, 0101, 0100,

1100, 1101, 1111, 1110, 1010, 1011, 1001, 1000

Prove that H

n

is Hamiltonian for all n (hint: use induction on n).

The base case is H

2

which is shown above. Given a Hamiltonian cycle

for H

n-1

, a Hamiltonian cycle for H

n

can be constructed by using the cycle

for H

n-1

to traverse the vertices in H

n

whose labels begin with 0, but

instead of returning to the starting vertex traverse the vertices with labels

beginning with 1 in reverse the order. See the Hamiltonian cycles for H

3

and H

4

above as examples.

7. Consider a set of 21 dominos with the ends of each domino labeled with between

1 and 6 dots and each combination uniquely represented. In class we proved

that you cannot construct a cycle using all 21 dominos with adjacent edges

matching. What is the largest legal domino cycle you can make with this set?

If we remove 3 non-adjacent edges from K

6

all the vertices have even degree.

Adding in the 6 self-loops doesnt change this, so the resulting graph contains an

Eulerian circuit. Thus we can make a domino cycle with 21-3 = 18 dominos. This

is the best possible, since in any other case the graph with edges corresponding

to the dominos is not Eulerian.

A standard set of dominoes contains 28 dominoes with the ends of each domino

labeled with between 0 and 6 dots. Every combination is uniquely represented

by one domino. Prove that you can construct a legal domino cycle using all the

dominos in this set.

Every vertex in K

7

has even degree so it is Eulerian. This is still true when self-

loops are added.

8. At an international peace conference two delegates from each of five countries

are to be seated for dinner at a round table with 10 places. In order to promote

international communication, the delegates should be seated so that the two

delegates from the same country are not adjacent, and so that every possible

combination of adjacent countries occurs around the table. Find a seating

arrangement that satisfies these constraints.

Let A, B, C, D, and E represent the countries, and label the vertices of K

5

with

these letters.. Using an Eulerian circuit of K

5

we can construct a seating

4

arrangement by writing down the vertices visited each vertex will appear twice

in our list, and we can put the two delegates for the country in the corresponding

positions. In such a list the same letter can not appear consecutively, and every

possible adjacent pair will occur exactly once. ABCDECADBE is one example.

9. With a standard deck of 52 cards, what is the longest sequence of card you can

construct so that any two adjacent cards are either the same suit or the same

rank, but no three cards in a row have the same suit or rank?

A deck of cards can be represented by edges of the graph K

4,13

, since each card

matches one of 4 suits with one of 13 ranks. This graph has 4 vertices with odd

degree. Any sequence of cards satisfying the specified constraints corresponds

to a trail in this graph. If we eliminate two non-adjacent edges, the resulting

graph will have only 2 vertices with odd degree and thus will contain an Eulerian

trail, but otherwise it will not. Thus 52-50 = 50 cards is the longest possible

sequence.

5

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Combinatorics: The Fine Art of Counting

Summer 2007

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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