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More is not always better y

Stocking Rate for your


L d F S t d Landscape, Farm System and
Location Location
Chris Glassey
11
th
July 2014
Stocking rates should be g
constantly reviewed
Changing economics: Maximum milk production and
pasture utilisation per hectare does not equal maximum
profit
Greater feed allowance/cow to realise genetic
improvement improvement
Likely requirements to farm within N discharge limits Likely requirements to farm within N discharge limits
reduce farm N surplus
Pastoral 21-Waikato after 3
years
Future Farm Current farm Future -
Current
Cows/ha 2.6 3.2
CSR kg Lwt/T DM 74 80
MS/cow 442 367 +75
MS/ha 1158 1186 -28
$OP/ha* $3903 $4093 -190 (5%)
N leached/ kg 25 58 33 (55%) N leached/ kg
ha*
25 58 -33 (55%)
* 2 years data only
Definitions Definitions
St ki t /h Stocking rate = cows/ha
e.g. Otorohanga average stocking rate
2007-08 2012-13 This group
Cows/ha 2.93 2.88 2.86
Less cows = more feed/cow ?
improved pastures more N/ha PKE improved pastures, more N/ha, PKE
Versus bigger cows, more appetite
Cows/ha doesnt fully inform us about the balance
between feed demand and feed supply
Comparative Stocking Rate (CSR)
Cow Lwt
Home grown
f d
Kg Lwt / t DM ha offered
St ki t
Cow Lwt
feed
Imported
Stocking rate
Imported
feed
Useful to determine the effects of a change in Useful to determine the effects of a change in
feed demand and supply on farm performance
Comparative Stocking Rate, p g ,
CSR, Otorohanga District
2012-13 This group
Cows/ha 2 88 2 86 Cows/ha 2.88 2.86
Lwt/ha 1328 1327
Tonnes offered DM/ha 16.6 15.9*
DM/cow 5.8 5.6
CSR 80 83.5
This groups cows average 464 kg liveweight
Feed offered estimated from group data supplied
First message First message
Assess the balance between feed supply and
feed demand for your farm. feed demand for your farm.
Use comparative stocking rate (CSR) in Use comparative stocking rate (CSR), in
addition to cows/ha. Also use t DM/cow/year
Attempt to Link with profit
No one perfectly accurate formula No one perfectly accurate formula
Any Questions ? y
Finding the Optimum for Profit
7000
8000
6000
More cows
increases
revenue
More cows
increases
4000
5000
$
/
h
a
Revenue/ha
faster than
costs
costs
faster than
revenue
3000
Revenue/ha
Costs/ha
1000
2000
0
29 44 59 74 88 103 118 132 147
Cows/ha 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Revenue/ha 3600 4950 6000 6750 7200 7350 7200 6750 6000
CSR
S
CRIT
S
MAX
S
OPT
Costs/ha 1411 2116.5 2822 3527.5 4233 4938.5 5644 6349.5 7055
Stocking rate
DairyNZ Stocking Rate Trial (18-20 t
)
1200
4700
DM/ha, pasture only)
Max. Profit
Max. milk
1100
1150
4200
4700
$
/
h
a
)
1000
1050
3200
3700
k
g
/
h
a
)
p
r
o
f
i
t

(
$
OP $/ha
900
950
2200
2700
s
o
l
i
d
s
(
k
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

800
850
1200
1700
M
i
l
k
s
O
p
MS/ha
800 1200
CSR (Lwt/t DM)
91 60 70 76 89
CSR (Lwt/t DM)
Research; impact of CSR Research; impact of CSR
on production, feed use & profit p , p
12 multi year farmlet trials 1990 to 2010 12 multi-year farmlet trials,1990 to 2010
98 individual farmlet years 98 individual farmlet years
Consistent management & measurement g
Statistical analysis y
Farmlet profiles Farmlet profiles
N f % f
Farm
System
No. of
farmlet
years
% of
imported
feed
MS/ha
years feed
1 50 0 1172
2 24 6 1205
3 12 15 1510
4 5 22 1870
5 7 29 1710 5 7 29 1710
Research Results Research Results
RelationshipbetweenCSRandMS/cowandpastureutilisation
90%
95%
460
500
85%
90%
420
460
80% 380
Pastureutilisation
%
KgMS/cow
1 unit decrease in CSR 0.5%
75% 340
decrease in pasture utilisation (P<0.01)
1 unit decrease in CSR 4.5 kg
increase in MS per cow (P< 0.001)
70% 300
70 75 80 85 90 95
CSR
MS/cow PastureUtilisation
Reduce CSR by 10 Reduce CSR by 10
Decrease pasture utilisation by 5%
Increase MS/cow by 45 kg MS/cow
>80% pasture utilisation still achievable with >80% pasture utilisation still achievable with
high MS/cow (>90% of liveweight)
CS f f CSR is not a strong predictor of profit
3500
3300
3500
3100
(
$
)
0
0
8
2700
2900
O
p

/

h
a

(
c
d
o
n
a
l
d

2
0
7
0
9
0

2500
2700
M
a
c
N
Z

7
N
Z

9
2300
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Ultimately profit is determined by:
<70 71-80 81-90 91-100 >100
CSR
Implementing good
management practices
Key messages Key messages
Profit/ha is optimised at a CSR lower than
maximum MS production/ha
Profit reduction is small if CSR not optimised Profit reduction is small if CSR not optimised
O i CSR f fi h i Optimum CSR for profit changes over time
Questions?
CSR v ROC: 23 farms Waipa district
y = -0.0011x + 0.1218
R = 0.1612
8 0%
9.0%
CSR v ROC: 23 farms Waipa district
6.0%
7.0%
8.0%
4.0%
5.0%
Return on Capital
1.0%
2.0%
3.0%
0.0%
0%
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
CSR kg Lwt/tDM
RETURN ON CAPITAL (ROC) at 4-Yr Av Values
Linear (RETURN ON CAPITAL (ROC) at 4-Yr Av Values)
Messages Messages
Trend for ROC to improve as CSR is reduced Trend for ROC to improve as CSR is reduced
N t t l ti hi Not a strong relationship
-10 CSR = +1.1%
Good grazing management practices
required required
Example farm Example farm
Reduce CSR from 90 to 80 Reduce CSR from 90 to 80
Reduce cow numbers
Increase feed supply for same cow numbers Increase feed supply for same cow numbers
Base farm assumptions Base farm assumptions
13.2 t Pasture DM offered/ha
2.8 t DM/ha imported feed p
3.1 cows/ha; 90 CSR
Crossbred cows; Lwt of 464kg
Current pasture utilisation 90%
325 kg MS/cow or 70% of Lwt; 1006 kg MS/ha
Change CSR from 90 to 80 Change CSR from 90 to 80
Base farm 80 CSR 80 CSR Base farm
90 CSR
3.1 cows/ha
80 CSR
adjust cow
numbers
80 CSR
import feed
(+2.0 t DM/ha)
(-0.34 cows/ha)
Kg MS/cow 325 370 370 Kg MS/cow 325 370 370
Kg MS/ha 1006 1018 1147
t DM/ha 13 8 13 6 15 2 t DM/ha
eaten (cow)
13.8
(4.5)
13.6
(4.9)
15.2
(4.9)
N l hi N leaching
Your challenge g
Estimate your annual pasture growth, feed offered
and feed eaten
Estimate your CSR annually Estimate your CSR annually
Low: <75 ; Medium: 75 - 85 ; High: >85
Adjust CSR for herd improvement ( 3 k L t/ t DM/ ) Adjust CSR for herd improvement- (-3 kg Lwt/ t DM/year)
Know your feed demand (t DM/cow)
Know your current N input and N surplus/ha
How will feed supply change on your farm if lower How will feed supply change on your farm if lower
N input is required?
CSR
Comparative Stress Rate !!!
HIGH CSR
LOW CSR
DESIRED CSR
Efficiency
S i bili Sustainability
Profitability
100%
CSR v MS as % of Cow Liveweight
y = -0.0166x + 2.0957
R = 0.7917
80%
90%
100%
60%
70%
80%
40%
50%
60%
MS as % of Cow
liveweight
20%
30%
40%
0%
10%
20%
0%
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
CSR kg Lwt/t DM
Milksolids as Percent of Cow Liveweight Linear (Milksolids as Percent of Cow Liveweight)

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