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Philip A. Russell
Littleton/Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant
2900 S. Platte River rive
Englewood! "olorado #0$$0
The insolu%le &omponent o' wastewater &onsisting o' a mi(ture o' various natural and petroleum
organi& oils and 'ats! t)pi&all) re'erred to as *ats! +ils and ,rease -*+,.! inter'eres with 'a&ilit)
pro&esses and %e&omes a regulator) issue when it enters a re&eiving stream. T)pi&all)! the
&on&entration o' *+, in in'luent wastewater and e''luent is estimated gravimetri&all) %)
e(tra&ting $ liter o' water sample with an organi& solvent 'ollowed %) the su%se/uent
evaporation o' all o' the solvent. The mass o' the remaining residue is measured gravimetri&all)
and &orre&tions are applied to produ&e a &on&entration estimate0 no other in'ormation a%out the
nature o' the *+, is provided %) this method. ,ravimetri& proto&ols also result in -$. the
release o' signi'i&ant amounts o' organi& solvent to the atmosphere and -2. a relativel) ina&&urate
mass estimate %e&ause o' the error introdu&ed %) measuring a small mass &hange in a relativel)
massive &ontainer.
A method was developed %) our la%orator) that utili1es *ourier Trans'orm 2n'ra Red -*T2R.
spe&tros&op) to anal)1e *+, in water/wastewater samples. Advantages o' this pro&edure
$. The a%ilit) to /uanti') a wide range and low levels o' *+, -400 to 5$.0 mg/l.
2. Redu&ing anal)ti&al sample si1e to 56 ml organi& solvent
7. The a%ilit) to &hara&teri1e the &hemi&al nature o' the sample e(tra&ted 'rom
wastewater and water samples.
*or /uanti')ing *+, in in'luent and e''luent samples! *T2R provides a method that is more
sensitive and/or pre&ise than gravimetri& methods. *T2R also permits the identi'i&ation o' *+,
&omponents! in&luding determining whether an o%served am%ient sli&8 is produ&ed %) *+, 'rom
a wastewater 'a&ilit) or another sour&e.
*at! oil! grease! *+,! *T2R! 2R! in'rared spe&tros&op)! anal)ses
2n'rared -2R. Spe&tros&op) is not an anal)ti&al method &ommonl) asso&iated with water
anal)ses. At least! in part! that is %e&ause water strongl) a%sor%s 2R radiation and e''e&tivel)
mas8s 2R a%sorption %ands. 2R spe&tros&op) is! however! a power'ul tool 'or /uanti')ing organi&
&hemi&als and identi')ing the &hemi&al stru&ture o' the mole&ules %eing investigated. 9) using
an appropriate solvent it is possi%le to e(tra&t organi& &hemi&als 'rom water and ta8e advantage
o' the anal)ti&al advantages o' 2R spe&tros&op). We used a &om%ination o' organi& &hemi&al
solvent e(tra&tion and *T2R spe&tros&op) to /uanti') and reveal the &hemi&al nature o' the &lass
o' organi& &hemi&al %roadl) re'erred to as :*ats! +ils and ,rease; -*+,. present in muni&ipal
*ourier Trans'orm 2n'rared Spe&tros&op) -*T2R. is an opti&al inter'eren&e method 'or &olle&ting
a &omplete in'rared spe&trum in real time. The method &an %e used in %oth transmitted and
re'le&tive modes. 2R energ) or 're/uen&) is usuall) e(pressed as a wavenum%er! W -&m
.! whi&h
is the re&ipro&al o' the wavelength -$/.. The region o' interest 'or 2R organi& anal)ses is
%etween =4000 and 400 &m
-&ommonl) re'erred to as the >id 2n'rared range.. The reason that
in'rared is su&h a good tool to gain in'ormation on organi& &hemi&als is that their &hemi&al %onds
reall) :ro&8 and roll; when stimulated %) 2R radiation0 spe&i'i&all) the atomi& %onds vi%rate
when stimulated %) 2R and predi&ta%l) resonate at 're/uen&ies related to ea&h %onds energ).
i''erent %ond :groups; resonate at spe&i'i& 're/uen&ies. The 're/uen&) spe&tra o' 2R radiation
will e(hi%it a%sorption o' radiation at spe&i'i& wavelengths depending upon the &hemi&al
stru&ture o' the &hemi&al. *igure $a illustrates a t)pi&al a%sorption spe&tra showing wavelength
versus per&ent transmittan&e0 the relativel) strong regions o' a%sorption are produ&ed %) the
resonan&e o' 'un&tional groups within the sample. *igure $% is the same spe&tra displa)ed using
the more &ommonl) a&&epted wavenum%er versus a%sorption &onvention. A good re'eren&e on
2R prin&iples and anal)ti&al theor) &an %e 'ound in Smith $99?. The spe&tra in the =2900
wavenum%er region are &reated %) "<@ stret&hing vi%rations and are routinel) used 'or
/uantitative anal)ses. The spe&tra in the =$?00 to 600 wave num%er :'ingerprint; region are
&reated %) other &hemi&al %onds in&luding "<@ %ending vi%rations! %ran&hed al8anes! dou%le
&ar%on %onds -al8enes.! triple &ar%on %onds -al8)nes.! aromati& stru&tures! "<+ %onds -al&ohols
and phenols.! "<+<" %onds -ethers.! "A+ %onds -&ar%on)ls! 8etones! aldeh)des! &ar%o()li&
a&ids! esters.! nitrogen &ompounds -amides! imides! nitriles.! organi& &ompounds &ontaining
sul'ur! sili&on or halogens! and some inorgani& &ompounds. A good re'eren&e on 2R spe&tral
interpretation &an %e 'ound in Smith $999.
*igure $a. An e(ample o' a raw 2R spe&tra -+&tane. showing a spe&tra using wavelength -&m
versus per&ent transmittan&e.
*igure $%. An e(ample o' an 2R spe&tra -+&tane. showing 2R a%sorption using wavenum%er
versus a%sorption.
:*ats! +ils and ,rease; -*+,. is a method de'ined proto&ol. *+, is t)pi&all) that &omponent in
wastewater -or environmental waters. whi&h &an %e e(tra&ted using a h)dropho%i& solvent. The)
are a group o' &hemi&als that %e&ause o' their h)dropho%i& nature and a%ilit) to &olle&t de%ris!
&an &ause severe pro%lems in sewer s)stems and wastewater treatment plants. *+, ma) %e
&omposed o' natural oils and 'ats! and petroleum %ased produ&ts. T)pi&all) the maBor &omponent
o%served in wastewaters will %e natural oils and 'ats whi&h are o' animal or plant origin. These
lipids are %ased on the trigl)&eride -tria&)lgl)&erol. &hemi&al stru&ture whi&h &onsists o' a
gl)&erol mole&ule where ea&h h)dro()l group has %een ester'ied with a 'att) a&id. The resulting
stru&ture loo8s li8e 'igure 2 where ea&h :R; represents a 'att) a&id. 2t is the nature o' the 'att)
a&id &omponents that &ause the &hara&teristi&s o' *+,0 in general! the more &ar%on atoms in the
:tail; o' the 'att) a&id and the more prone to pol)meri1ation! the more li8el) the resultant
mole&ule is &lassi'ied as a 'at or grease versus an oil. *att) a&ids t)pi&all) 'ound in natural 'ood
oils will have the 'ollowing stru&tures3
"@7 <-"@2.$4<"++@ Palmiti& a&id
"@7 <-"@2.$?<"++@ Steari& a&id
"@7 <-"@2.C<"@A"@<-"@2.C<"++@ +lei& a&id
"@7 <-"@2.7<-"@2<"@A"@.2<-"@2.C<"++@ Linolei& a&id
2t should %e re&ogni1ed that a *+, sample &olle&ted in the 'ield will rarel) %e a pure &hemi&al0
even a puri'ied natural oil will %e a mi( o' gl)&erols o' similar %ut di''erent atomi& masses!
ele&tri&al &harges and saturation -num%er o' dou%le %onds.. "ompared to most petroleum
produ&ts! trigl)&erides are polar &ompounds and there'ore &apa%le o' intera&tion with ions in
solution in water.
*igure 2. "hemi&al stru&ture o' a trigl)&eride.
The instrument used to /uanti') and /uali') samples 'or this stud) is a Di&olet 2mpa&t 4$0 *T2R
spe&trometer e/uipped to handle %oth samples appropriate 'or transmitted and re'le&ted 2R
radiation. The instrumentEs spe&tral range is =6000 to 400 W. The instrument is e/uipped to
e(amine a sample %) dire&t transmittan&e using a $ &m path length /uart1 &ell or 2R transparent
thin 'ilm and %) re'le&tion using @ori1ontal Attenuated Total Re'le&tion -@ATR.. A s&hemati&
view o' a transmission setup is shown i' 'igure 7a0 the a&tual instrument &on'iguration is shown
in 'igure 7%. The @ATR sample holder permits the anal)sis o' small samples o' less than 60ul o'
e(tra&t solution0 multiple evaporations &an %e used to &on&entrate a dilute sample. 9e&ause the
@ATR sample holder uses a 1in&<selenium &r)stal! the lowest W that &an %e o%served is =?60. A
s&hemati& view o' the transmission setup is shown i' 'igure 4a! the a&tual instrument
&on'iguration is shown in 'igure 4%. The program used to &olle&t! displa) and assist in
interpretation o' 2R spe&tra is Di&oletEs +mni& so'tware. Fuantitative data is e(ported to Statso't
Statisti&a 'or anal)ti&al &omparative anal)ses and displa).
Sample preparation
All samples 'or *T2R anal)ses! e(&ept /ualitative and /uantitative standards! were prepared
using EPAEs +il and ,rease method $??4 -GSEPA $999. sample e(tra&tion pro&edure. Water
samples were prepared 'rom three e(tra&tions 'rom $000 ml o' water using a total o' =$00ml
*reon $$7 instead o' n<he(ane. E(tra&ted samples were &entri'uged to improve separation o' the
h)dropho%i& &omponent 'rom the water phase. *reon was re&)&led %) distillation redu&ing
anal)ti&al &ost and air pollution! and produ&ed a solvent o' higher /ualit) than the original
produ&t. The amount o' solvent re/uired 'or /uantitative anal)ses was less than 6 ml and &ould
%e re&)&led0 the amount o' solvent re/uired 'or @ATR &onsisted o' 'rom 40 H 200ul. E(tra&ted
samples were stored in $26ml glass &ontainers with Te'lon &aps0 repeat temporal anal)ses
demonstrated that samples &ould %e stored at room temperatures 'or over a )ear without nota%le
&hanges in /uantit) or &hemi&al &omposition o' the e(tra&ted samples.
*igure 7a. A s&hemati& representation o' a transmission 2R setup.

*igure 7%. The instrument &on'iguration 'or transmission 2R spe&tra &olle&tion.
*igure 4a. A s&hemati& representation o' a @ATR setup.
*igure 4%. The instrument &on'iguration 'or a @ATR 2R spe&tra &olle&tion0 the )ellow strip in
the &enter o' the sample holder is the InSe &r)stal.
Fuantitative anal)sis
Samples were anal)1ed using GSEPA method 4$7.2 e(tra&tion pro&edure and GSEPA $??4Es
standard solution o' 60Jsteari& a&id and 60J he(ade&ane 'or &ali%ration purposes. A series o'
dilutions were used to &reate a &ali%ration &urve using the "<@2 as)mmetri& stret&hing vi%ration
a%sorption pea8 at 2970 W0 an e(ample is shown in 'igure 6. Standard solutions made 'rom
natural oils and petroleum produ&ts were also prepared and &ompared with the $??4 standard.
Sample &on&entrations were &al&ulated as 'ollows
" A -a( -K. L %. M -S M 0.$.
" "on&entration o' *+, in sample
K "orre&tion 'or +N, standard -$.0 'or GSEPA $??4 standard.
S "orre&tion 'or a&tual sample si1e in ml
0.$ "orre&tion 'or e(tra&tion magni'i&ation -$000ml @+@ $00ml solvent.
*or /uantitative anal)sis! onl) a portion o' the total spe&tra 'rom 7600 to 2600 W was &olle&ted
and stored 'or su%se/uent mass estimate using standard ta%le values.
*igure 6. A set o' transmittan&e spe&tra showing spe&tral results 'rom EPA method $??4 standard
Fualitative anal)ses
*or /ualitative anal)sis o' the 2R :'ingerprint;! guidan&e was used 'rom Smith $99?! Smith $997
and the manu'a&turers @ATR user manual -Di&olet OO.. The e(tra&t sample used 'or /uantitative
anal)ses is suita%le 'or @ATR anal)sis and re/uires onl) =40 H 200 ul o' e(tra&t solution.
Standard samples were t)pi&al applied 'rom a diluted solution. The use o' *reon $$7 'a&ilitated
ver) rapid sample preparation %e&ause o' rapid! &omplete evaporation as veri'ied %) time series
2R anal)ses. *or :'ingerprint; &omparison! the total spe&tra 'rom 7600 to ?00 W was &olle&ted
and stored 'or re'eren&e and displa). The *T2R spe&trometer was set to &olle&t and average 72
&omplete spe&tra at a resolution o' 4 W and ATR &orre&tion0 total a&/uisition time per sample
was 7$ se&onds. T)pi&al 'ingerprint spe&tra are shown in 'igures ?! C! # and 9. A sample o' a
simple linear organi& &hemi&al! he(ade&ane! is presented in 'igure ?0 the a%sorption pea8s are
produ&ed %) "<@7 and "<@2 %ond vi%rations. A sample o' a 'att) a&id! steari& a&id! is presented in
'igure C0 the a%sorption pea8s are produ&ed %) "<@7! "<@2 and "A+ %ond vi%rations. A sample o'
a gl)&erol is presented in 'igure #0 the a%sorption pea8s are produ&ed %) "<@7! "<@2 and strong!
%road +<@ %ond vi%rations. A sample o' a natural oil! &anola! is presented in 'igure 90 the
a%sorption pea8s are produ&ed %) "<@7! "<@2 and &ar%on)l/ester %ond vi%rations.
*igure ?. 2R spe&tra a sample o' he(ade&ane.
*igure C. 2R spe&tra a sample o' steari& a&id.
*igure #. 2R spe&tra a sample o' gl)&erol.
*igure 9. 2R spe&tra a sample o' olive oil.
An intensive stud) o' *+, was &ondu&ted at the two in'luents and &om%ined e''luent at the
Littleton/Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant -LEWWTP.! Englewood! "olorado! 'rom
$99? through 2000. *+, was anal)1ed again in 2007 with a possi%le indi&ation o' a positive
Pretreatment Program impa&t on one in'luent wastewater stream.
Fuantitative anal)sis o' e''luent and in'luent samples
The results o' anal)ses are presented graphi&all) in 'igure $00 trends have %een shown using
a least s/uare regression &urve 'it. Dote that there are two s&ales in the graph to di''erentiate
e''luent and in'luent results. Ta%le $ summari1es data 'rom all *+, /uantitative
E''luent samples were not &olle&ted in 2007.
*igure $0. 2n'luent and e''luent *+, values 'rom $99? through 2000 e(pressed in EPA $??4
e/uivalent values.
Ta%le $. Summar) o' LEWWTP *+, data derived 'rom *T2R anal)ses 'orm $99? through
2000! and 2007.
Sampl L!"a#$!% FOG (m&'L)
FOG (m&'L)
Englewood 2n'luent 77.? P 9.9 26.2 P 4.#
Littleton 2n'luent 2C.? P C.6 77.9 P $#.#
2#.# P 2.#
E''luent 0.?2 P 0.6$ DA
EPA $??4 standard e/uivalents
Without outlier value o' #?.?
Fualitative anal)ses o' e''luent and in'luent samples
The results o' sele&ted in'luent and e''luent sample :'ingerprint; 2R @ATR spe&tra are presented
graphi&all) in 'igures $$ and $2. The spe&tra show a %asi& &onsisten&)0 when &ompared with the
spe&tra o' natural oils! it is o%vious that the &omposition o' the &olle&ted *+, samples &losel)
mat&h those o' natural trigl)&erides as shown in *igures $7 and $4. Some di''eren&es are
possi%l) present %ut %e&ause o' the nature o' trigl)&erides! pro%lems with mi(tures o' di''erent
animal and vegeta%le oils! and possi%le &hemi&al rea&tions in the &olle&tion or treatment s)stems
it would %e ver) di''i&ult to tease out su%tle &hemi&al in'ormation. The results also indi&ate that
most! i' not all! the *+, &omponents entering the 'a&ilit) are natural oils and 'ats versus
petroleum %ased produ&ts.
*igure $$. Sele&ted 'ingerprint 2R region 2R spe&tra 'rom in'luent samples.
*igure $2. Sele&ted 'ingerprint 2R region 2R spe&tra 'rom e''luent samples.
*igure $7. Sele&ted 'ingerprint 2R region 2R spe&tra 'rom in'luent samples and a &omparative
trigl)&eride samples.
*igure $4. Sele&ted 'ingerprint 2R region 2R spe&tra 'rom e''luent samples and &omparative
trigl)&eride samples.
Spe&ial studies
2n addition to studies o' the nature o' in'luent and e''luent samples! other studies were &ondu&ted
to e(amine -$. &ali%ration pro&ess and standards! -2. the nature o' *+, moving through a
WWTP! -7. the di''eren&e o' *+, &olle&ted 'rom di''erent WWTP 'a&ilities! -4. the potential
appli&ation o' *T2R to e(amine environmental *+, impa&t and -6. the potential to use the *T2R
proto&ol to provide a mi&ro<method 'or gravimetri& assessment o' *+,.
1. Calibration
The *T2R instrument remained sta%le 'rom the %eginning o' the proBe&t through the
present. E(amples o' the &ali%ration data are shown in 'igures $6a! $6% and $?.
"ali%ration data has remained &onsistent and linear 'or a range 'rom 0 to 400 mg/L 'or
the EPA >ethod $4?4 and other standards.
*igure $6a. "ali%ration data! 0<600 mg/L! dual log s&ale.
*igure $6%. "ali%ration data! 0 to $00 mg/L.
*igure $?. "ali%ration data! 0 to 400 mg/L! 2007.
+ne other aspe&t o' &ali%ration &on&erns the nature o' standards and 2R response. EPA
method $??4 pres&ri%es a spe&i'i& standard made o' 60J steari& a&id and 60J
he(ade&ane. While this standard ma) wor8 well 'or GSEPA >ethod $??4 gravimetri&
anal)ses! it is ill suited 'or wastewater and environmental waters &ontaminated with
natural oils. Standard &ali%ration series were made 'rom motor oil and &anola oil! and
&ompared with the &ali%ration &urve produ&ed %) the GSEPA $??4 standard0 ea&h
material produ&ed a di''erent relationship %etween sample mass &on&entration and
a%sorption -*igure $C.. Samples &ontaining &al&ulated &on&entrations o' motor oil and
&anola oil pro&essed %) &omplete sample e(tra&tion produ&ed e(pe&ted results.
*igure $C. "ali%ration regressions produ&ed %) GSEPA standard $??4! motor oil and
&anola oil. -EPA $??4 slope A 2C7! motor oil slope A 7#C! &anola oil slope A 4#?.
2. WWTP process effects on FOG
Samples o' *+, were &olle&ted 'rom various lo&ations within the LEWWTP treatment
pro&ess and anal)1ed %) *T2R 'or &on&entration and &omposition. The /uantitative
spe&tra are presented on a &ommon s&ale in *igure $#0 the redu&tion in &on&entration is
&learl) evident as wastewater is treated %) 'a&ilit) pro&esses.
*igure $#. Spe&tra &olle&ted a'ter se/uential stages o' treatment.
The samples were also anal)1ed 'or &omposition %) @ATR. *igure $9 illustrates the
&omposition in the in'luent! post primar) &lari'ier e''luent! post se&ondar) &lari'ier
e''luent and 'inal e''luent. 2t is o%served that little! i' an)! &hange o&&urs in the
&omposition o' *+, as it moves through an a&tivated sludge 'a&ilit) other than a
redu&tion in &on&entration.
*igure $9. *ingerprint spe&tra 'rom various pro&esses.
3. FOG from different facilities
Samples 'rom other 'a&ilities in the enver metropolitan area were anal)1ed to see i' the
&ompositional results o%served at our 'a&ilit) were &onsistent with other in'luents. The
results are presented in *igure 20. +verall! it would appear that trigl)&erides are the
dominant &omponent o' in'luent wastewater! at least in this region.
*igure 20. *ingerprint 2R spe&tra 'rom three wastewater treatment 'a&ilities in the
enver region.
4. Potential environmental applications
9e&ause o' the &hemi&al nature o' organi& h)dropho%i& &hemi&als that might &ontaminate
ur%an waters! the 2R signatures o' various &hemi&als o' &on&ern were e(amined. The
'ingerprint 2R spe&tra o' e''luent *+, and various petroleum %ased &ompounds are
presented in *igures 2$a -overlapping 'ull s&ale. and 2$% -separate 'ull s&ales.. 2t is
o%vious that the nature o' these &ompounds is nota%l) di''erent0 while it is not possi%le to
di''erentiate t)pi&al *+, produ&ts! it is eas) to di''erentiate natural oils 'rom petroleum
produ&ts and determine the &omposition o' various petroleum produ&ts.
*igure 2$a. *ingerprint spe&tra 'rom various natural oil and petroleum produ&ts!
overlapping spe&tra.
*igure 2$%. *ingerprint spe&tra 'rom same suite o' natural oil and petroleum produ&ts!
presented as dis&rete spe&tra.
5. Micro ravimetric meas!rement potential
To test the possi%ilit) that the method developed might %e amena%le to a :mi&ro;
gravimetri& approa&h! we evaporated $0 ml o' sele&ted sample e(tra&ts in a 6C mm
aluminum weighing dish and &ompared the resulting weight to the values predi&ted %)
/uantitative 2R spe&tral anal)ses. The &orrelation %etween e(tra&t sample mass and
measured 2R a%sorption is presented in 'igure 220 with a &orrelation &oe''i&ient o' 0.9#!
the &ovarian&e is e(&ellent. The relationship %etween the gravimetri& measured mass and
2R estimated mass &an also %e &al&ulated and is presented in *igures 27a and 27%. Dote
that 2R estimated mass values are presented as &anola oil value e/uivalents to illustrate
the e(&ellent agreement. ata &olle&ted in 2007 agrees ni&el) with previous
*igure 22. "orrelation %etween o%served 2R a%sorption and gravimetri& measurements!
*igure 27a. "orrelation %etween o%served 2R estimates and gravimetri& measurements!
*igure 27%. "orrelation %etween o%served 2R estimates and gravimetri& measurements!
Fuanti'i&ation and &ali%ration

The 2R approa&h to measuring the *+, &omponent in wastewater &an produ&e a&&epta%le
results with the advantages o' -$. high sensitivit) and wide linear range! -2. limited
environmental e(posure to e(tra&t solvent release! -7. more rapid anal)ti&al results! and -4.
the availa%ilit) o' &hemi&al in'ormation a%out the nature o' the *+, &omponents.
The one possi%le pro%lem is that the 2R &ali%ration method is dependent on using an
appropriate standard0 i' one is wor8ing with wastewater! a natural oil should %e used as a
standard. 9e&ause the 2R method produ&es a linear &ali%ration relationship 'or a wide range
o' &on&entrations! a simple slope adBustment &an %e used to produ&e :e/uivalent; mass
estimates. Ta%le 2 presents the relationship! as multipli&ation 'a&tors! o' various standards
o%served in our resear&h.
Ta%le 2. Translation ta%le to &onvert standard e/uivalent *+, values.

Ta%le 7 presents a summar) o' our /uantitative data! using %oth EPA method $??4 and &anola
oil standard e/uivalent estimates0 it was o%served previousl) that the mi&ro<gravimetri&
estimates &orrelate more a&&uratel) with the &anola oil &ali%ration.
Ta%le 7. Summar) o' LEWWTP *+, data derived 'rom *T2R anal)ses 'orm $99? through
2000! and 2007.
FOG (m&'L)
FOG (m&'L)
FOG (m&'L)
77.? P 9.9 26.2 P 4.# 69.# P $C.? 44.9 P #.6
2C.? P C.6 77.9 P $#.#
2#.# P 2.#
49.$ P 27.4 ?0.7 P 77.6
6$.7 P 6.0
E''luent 0.?2 P 0.6$ DA $.$0 P 0.6$ DA
EPA $??4 standard e/uivalents
Without outlier value o' #?.?
Datural oil e/uivalents
*rom this ta%le! it is possi%le to &on&lude that the Pretreatment *+, Program in the
Englewood &olle&tion distri&t ma) %e having a measura%le e''e&t on *+, entering the
Fuantitative studies have also demonstrated that a mi&ro<gravimetri& proto&ol is 'easi%le and
would signi'i&antl) redu&e solvent release into the atmosphere.
"ompositional anal)sis
The a%ilit) to o%serve the 'ingerprint region o' the 2R spe&tra has &learl) indi&ated that the
nature o' *+, o%served in wastewater 'a&ilities is &omposed mainl) o' trigl)&erides. 2t has
also %een demonstrated that *T2R &an %e used to di''erentiate natural oils 'rom petroleum
produ&ts in waste or environmental waters. 2t &an %e used with ease to identi') the nature o'
:sli&8s; on still waters and determine i' the) are produ&ed %) a spe&i'i& point sour&e. With
more resear&h! *T2R &an also %e used to identi') &hemi&al &hanges that ma) o&&ur to natural
oils as the) move through &olle&tion s)stems and 'a&ilit) pro&esses.
Di&olet. OO 9aseline sampling 8it userEs manual. Thermo Ele&tron "orporation! >adison! W2.
Smith! 9rian ". $99?. *undamentals o' *ourier trans'orm in'rared spe&tros&op). "R" Press
LL"! 9o&a Raton! *L.
Smith! 9rian ". $999. 2n'rared spe&tral interpretation3 a s)stemati& approa&h. "R" Press LL"!
9o&a Raton! *L.
GSEPA. $9#7. >ethod 4$7.2! Revision A3 +il and grease! total re&overa%le!
spe&trophotometri&! in'rared. Pages 4$7.2<$ to 4$7.2<7 in >ethods 'or &hemi&al anal)sis o'
water and wastes. EPA/?00/4<C9/020. Environmental monitoring and support la%orator)!
+''i&e o' resear&h and development! "in&innati! +@ 462?#.
GSEPA. $999. >ethod $??43 D<he(ane e(tra&ta%le material -@E>0 oil and grease. and sili&a
gel n<he(ane e(tra&ta%le material -S,T<@E>0 non polar material. %) e(tra&tion and
gravimetr). GSEPA national &enter 'or environmental pu%li&ations and in'ormation!
"in&innati! +@ 46242.