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CORROSION

CONTROL
Microbiological Corrosion-What Causes It and
How It Can Be Controlled
Abstract
A. W. BAUMGARTNER
ASSOCIATE MEMBER AIME
A synopsis of conditions that must be present for corro-
sion of ferrous metals to occur is presented. These criteria
are discussed as they are encountered in oil producing and
gathering systems and in water-storage, transfer, treating
and injecting equipment.
The role of bacteria in corrosion is described in detail.
Special emphasis is placed on sulfate-reducing "Desulfo-
vibrio" bacteria, since these microorganisms are directly
responsible jar practically all corrosion attributable to bac-
teria in the oil-producing industry. Typical situations that
should lead operating personnel to suspect the presence oj
these microbes, as well as more specific methods for their
detection, are given.
Techniques jor controlling undesirable bacteria are out-
lined. Critical considerations for both chemical and me-
chanical methods of eliminating or correcting microbial
corrosion problems are also stressed.
Introduction
In defining oilfield corrosion Stiff" says, "It is the holes
in the industry's pockets". Many petroleum engineers
prefer to define corrosion as a process that tends to in-
crease the horizontal permeability of pipe, tubing, or
casing. Actually, corrosion is a complicated process result-
ing in metal loss from wet metal surfaces.
This paper primarily concerns the function of bacteria
in contributing to corrosion of oilfield equipment, how to
detect and evaluate their action, and some critical consid-
erations in effectively controlling microbial corrosion. To
appreciate and understand the role of bacteria in oilfield
corrosion, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic fun-
damental concepts of corrosion of all iron metals. '"
Criteria for Corrosion
Today, most authorities explain the corrosion mechan-
Original manuscript l'eceivnd in f,'Jciety of Petroleum Engineers office
May 8, 1962. Revised manuscript Aug, 21, U)(:i2. Paper pr2sented
at Fifth Bienniel Secondary Reeovery Symposium of SPE held May 7-8.
1962, in Wichita Falls, Tex.
given at end of paper.
':'In this paper "iron" is used [ts a g'enel'ic term to include all steelg
and iron-containing metals.
]071 SPE 391
BRADFORD LABORATORIES,
DIV. OF HAGAN CHEMICALS & CONTROLS, INC.
ABILENE, TEX.
ism as an electrochemical process.'" For this process to
take place, three requirements must be fulfilled.
1. An electromotive force or potential difference must
be present. Before a metal can corrode it must have an
anode or area that has a positive potential which attracts
negatively charged particles or ions (anions), and a cath-
ode or area that has a negative charge or potential to
which positively charged particles or ions (cations) are
attracted.
2. There must be an electrical circuit or couple estab-
lished between the anode and the cathode.
3. The anode and cathode, electrically connected, must
be in contact with a solution that will conduct a current
(electrolyte). Water containing some dissolved salts serves
this need.
While satisfying all of these criteria will produce some
corrosion and while the magnitUde of the potential differ-
ence (electromotive force) determines the tendency for
corrosion to occur, the actual rate oj corrosion depends
upon other factors that contribute varying degrees of re-
sistance or inhibition to the process.
Every new piece of oilfield iron product-whether it be
tubular goods, pumps, rods, pressure vessels, etc.-con-
tains anodic and cathodic areas. Normalizing or heat
treating may reduce these areas somewhat, but a number
always remain. Mill scale, an oxide of iron (Fe,O,), is
cathodic to the anodic iron and represents another source
of potential difference.
The use of dissimilar metals is still another common
occurrence of "built-in" anodes and cathodes. Generally,
metals or alloys at the top of the electromotive or galvanic
series (Fig. I) are corroded when coupled to metals below
them-providing the other requirements for corrosion are
met. In other words, a metal in this list is usually anodic
to metals below it and cathodic to those above it.
Of course, the second criterion for corrosion is easily
met in most oil-producing or water-injection equipment be-
cause differences in potential may be found in the same
section of metal or in different parts installed in intimate
contact with each other. Use of insulated flanges can re-
duce or eliminate a significant portion of these electric
couples.
To transport oil or gas, to conduct a water-injection pro-
gram, or to transport or convey any of these fluids neces-
JOllRNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
sitates that much of the equipment used come in contact
with some water. Even oil and gas transmission lines are
- subject to corrosion due to water in the form of conden-
sate. Thus, the three criteria that must be met before cor-
rosion will occur are very easily satisfied in most oil-
producing operations.
Fig. 2 is a diagram of these factors in a corrosive situ-
ation. Iron metal at the anode loses two electrons. The
electrons flow through the metal pipe to the cathode. Cur-
rent flow is in the opposite direction and may be thought
of as passing through the electrolyte. The iron atoms, on
losing electrons at the anode, become iron ions and enter
the water as positively-charged soluble particles of iron.
Fe - 2e--+Fe
H
+ 2e.
The cathode, being negatively charged, attracts hydrogen
ions (H+) which arise from the disassociation or ionization
of water.
H,O--+H+ + OH-.
At the cathode, hydrogen ions accept electrons and become
atoms of hydrogen.
2H' + 2e--+2H.
Since the electrolyte must remain electrically neutral, the
positively charged ferrous ions (Fe") often are oxidized
to ferric ions (Fe+++) which react with the negatively-
charged hydroxyl ions to form ferric hydroxide, or rust.
Fe
H
+ H,O--+Fe+++ + 20H--+ferric hydroxide (rust).
If enough hydrogen accumulates at the cathode, it
becomes polarized; that is, the electron flow from the
anode to the cathode is inhibited or retarded by the hydro-
gen film. Corrosion is then said to be stifled. All of the
criteria for corrosion to occur still may be satisfied, but
the rate of corrosion decreases and may eventually cease
entirely.
For corrosion to occur at a significant rate, some means
of cathodic depolarization must be active. In many systems
Anodic End (corroded or sacrificed-least noble)
Magnesium and its alloys
Aluminum
Zinc
Steel or Iron
Cast Iron
Lead-tin Solders
Increasing Tin
Standard
Electrode
Potential
EO (volts)
Brass
Copper
Bronze
Monel
Silver Solder
Nickel
Stainless Steels
Silver
Platinum
Gold
Cathodic End (protected or retained-most noble)
Fig. I-Galvanic or electromotive series of
metals.
OCTOBER, 1962
initial corrosion is high for a short period of time, but
the deposition of certain corrosion products or the absence
of an active cathodic depolarizing mechanism soon results
in a drastic reduction of the corrosion rate. No serious
damage to the metal part occurs.
In many other cases, where corrosion continues and
metal loss is evident, an effective cathodic depolarizing
mechanism is encountered. When the environment is
acidic (below a pH of about 5.5), the hydrogen atoms
forming at the cathode unite to form molecular hydrogen
which is evolved as a gas.
2H--+H,t (gaseous).
Corrosion or metal loss at the anode can continue as long
as additional ions of hydrogen are attracted to the cathode,
receive electrons, form molecular hydrogen and evolve as
a gas.
In neutral- or alkaline-pH waters, dissolved air (oxy-
gen) can act as a cathodic depolarizer. Oxygen reacts with
hydrogen (at the cathode) to form water.
0, + 2H,--+2H,0.
Again, continued depolarization of the cathode permits
metal loss to take place at the anode.
Role of Microorganisms
Oxygen Concentration Cells
As stated, oxygen is an excellent cathodic depolarizer;
many factors influence its activity, however, such as its
concentration, velocity of the water flow, other ions
present, pH factor and actual availability of oxygen at
the cathode.':! Microorganisms also can affect corrosion
rates.'" '-D, 11, 12, H. ,G. 11 One method is by the establishment
of oxygen concentration cells. Any species or mixed popu-
lation of bacteria, algae, or other microorganic growth
that tends to produce nonconducting layers on the metal
surface can accelerate or increase an oxygen corrosion
potential.
Slime-forming microorganisms such as the iron bacteria
Crenothrix and Gallionella; heterothrophic bacteria such
as Aerobacter aerogenes; Escherichia coli and Thiobacillus;
algae; fungi and others are able to attach and grow
on submerged surfaces by secreting a mucilaginous ma-
terial or by attaching via stalks or other holding appen-
dages.":!' Ii-S, 12. 14, 11 Once established, they increase the size
and amount of their deposit by their own growth and by
entrainment and absorption of suspended solids in the
ANODE+'\:: _____________ 2e CATHODE
Fe-2e-Fe + 2e IRON PIPE WALL
Fig. 2-For corrosion to proceed the cathode lllust be de-
polarized, and sulfate-reducing bacteria can accomplish
this as shown. The cathode may also be depolarized if
oxygen is present and it reacts with hydrogen at the
cathode, or if the pH is low and hydrogen gas is evolved
at the cathode. (The last two reactions are not shown.)
1075
water. Since the microbial-debris mass is usually semi-
permeable, it shields or separates the area immediately
- under the mass from the main water stream. Oxygen con-
centration under the mass soon becomes lower than in
the main water body. This difference in oxygen concen-
tration accentuates the cathodic area (usually the metal
exposed to the main water flow), permitting accelerated
corrosion at the anode under the deposit. Corrosion taking
place under a microbial-debris mass usually assumes the
form of pits, with the major portion of the mass being
raised away from the metal in the form of a tubercle.
While any no];\conducting deposition such as rust or scale
can produce this effect, micf(:Jorganisms habitually cause
or accelerate the establishment of this type corrosion.
Field inspections may readily reveal situations that by
their appearance should be suspect of oxygen-concentra-
tion-cell corrosion. Usually, the outer surface of the
microbial-debris mass is reddish or tan colored due to the
presence of oxides and hydroxides of iron. The mass itself
may be gelatinous and slimy or hard and brittle, especially
if carbonate or sulfate deposits are present. The area under
the mass where metal loss occurs may also be reddish
or tan, but more frequently is greenish or black. The major
material present here is black magnetic iron oxide (Fe,O,),
which can be distinguished from black iron sulfide (FeS)
by solubilizing in acid or testing with a magnet. Iron sul-
fide produces hydrogen sulfide upon addition of an acid,
and is not affected by a magnet as is magnetic iron oxide.
Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
Another role played by the slime-forming bacteria is
to produce a microbial-debris layer so thick and dense
that no oxygen can penetrate it. Corrosion can still take
place in a system carrying an oxygen-containing water
if the area under the deposit (whether it be microbial in
nature or not) is anaerobic or free of oxygen and if
sulfate-reducing bacteria are present. Sulfate-reducing bac-
teria (Desulfovibrio) are also active in promoting and
accelerating corrosion of systems completely void of oxy-
gen." 6, 8, 9, 14
While other microorganisms (such as sulfide- or acid-
producing bacteria) may play some role in corrosion,
sulfate-reducers are by far the most important and damag-
ing in the oil-producing industry.
The role played by sulfate-reducers is twofold.'
1. Sulfate-reducers are extremely efficient and active
cathodic depolarizers. As part of their metabolic and
growth functions these bacteria reduce sulfate ions in the
water, utilizing hydrogen available at the cathode to pro-
duce hydrogen sulfide.
SO, + 10 ~ H , S + 4H,O.
For each molecule of sulfate ion that is reduced to a
molecule of hydrogen sulfide, approximately 10 atoms
(five molecules) of hydrogen are consumed. This repre-
sents a tremendous depolarization of the cathode if the
bacteria obtain all or most of the hydrogen from this
surface. Consider further that sulfate-reducers can pro-
duce up to 3,100 ppm of hydrogen sulfide.1O The magnitude
of their ability to depolarize the cathode is apparent.
2. Another factor in acceleration of corrosion by sul-
fate-reducers is the production of hydrogen sulfide. In a
closed air-free system, much of this gas reacts with the
iron entering into solution at the anode to form insoluble
iron sulfide.
H,S + e ~ F e S + H,.
Iron sulfide is cathodic to iron or steel surfaces. Thus,
1076
if the sulfate-reducers become localized and grow under
debris, scale, other bacterial masses and in cracks or
crevices, they effect an accelerated corrosion attack. The
iron sulfide being deposited on the upper inside surfaces
of the tubercle or scale forms a surface area considerably
larger than the anodic area, further accentuating the
corrosion that takes place at the anode.
How to Recognize the Problem
Any gelatinous, slimy, or hard deposit of reddish-tan
or black color-whether in the form of a tubercle or
a more-or-less uniform layer when laid down on equip-
ment in contact with water-should be examined further.
If the other characteristics previously described are evi-
dent, more definite tests should be made. In regard to
sulfate-reducer problems, any water, gas, or crude that
contains the sour-gas hydrogen sulfide (especially if it
was free of this product at one time in the past) should
be suspected of harboring sulfate-reducers. Any pitting-type
corrosion accompanied by the presence of a tubercle or
black iron sulfide, usually rather loosely attached and
fairly easily removed to reveal bright silvery metal in the
pit area, should also be investigated and analyzed further
for the presence of this microorganism.'
A microscopic examination of a suspected deposit will
identify iron and sulfur (slime) bacteria, algae and fungi.
Cultural analyses for aerobic bacteria and for the detec-
tion and enumeration of sulfate-reducing bacteria should
be made in accordance with the methods and materials
described in API RP 38.
'
-
3
Other test methods carry a
risk of being inaccurate and unreliable.
At the present time, only laboratory tests are outlined.
However, an active American Petroleum Institute sub-
committee currently is working on a suitable procedure
to permit certain field evaluations of microbial problems.
It should be emphasized that no field test kit or method
is as yet recommended. Further, when a field test pro-
cedure is outlined, it will not replace the laboratory test
because the latter is still to be the preferred method of
analysis.
These remarks are not intended to imply that all field
tests now being employed are not valid. On the contrary,
many of the tests now used have been submitted to the
API subcommittee for study and were found to be reliable
when properly used. It is merely intended to interject at
this point a word of caution regarding the widespread use
of microbial field tests until they can be approved and
recommended for general use to the industry.
Evaluation of microbial problems must be based on
reliable bacterial-analysis data and a thorough study of the
entire situation so as to relate and place in proper per-
spective all of the many factors that contribute to the
various facets of the problem." 11,"
Treating Considerations
Mechanical Treatments
Basically, two avenues of treating a recognized microbial
problem are open-mechanical and chemical.
Mechanical treatments are rather limited, both by their
nature and by their effect on microbial problems. From
the standpoint of controlling the growth or population
of bacteria in a water-injection system, the following
points may be considered.
1. Selection of a water source can reduce or circumvent
a potential problem. Taking water directly from a river
JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
or stream rather than from an alluvial-sand well could
avoid some difficulty associated with iron bacteria's fouling
the pump, the sand face and the surrounding water sand.
On the other hand, unless the water depth is carefully
selected in the stream or pond, severe algal or bacterial
growths will be ingested into the system. Many subsurface
water sources are heavily infested with sulfate-reducers,
while others are not. The careful selection of the water
source strata may offer an opportunity to avoid potential
problems.
2. Aeration of a water to aid in hydrogen-sulfide or iron
removal will also tend to render the water less suitable
to the growth or reproduction of strictly anaerobic bac-
teria such as sulfate-reducers. However, these microbes,
being rather hearty and rugged, can survive in the presence
of oxygen so as to localize, concentrate and cause trouble
at a point further downstream in the system. In itself,
aeration is not a suitable means for controlling a sulfate-
reducing bacterial problem.
The same problem applies to de aeration or partial oxy-
gen removal. While this will make life less suitable for
strict aerobic bacteria, some facultative microorganisms
will survive in water with minimum oxygen residuals.
Open and closed systems tend to favor the growth of
either aerobic or anaerobic bacteria, but neither can be
depended upon to completely eliminate the converse
microbial problem.
3. Since all algae require sunlight for their growth, an
entirely closed system precludes the possibility of algal
growth. Open ponds and tanks also leave the water
system open to a myriad variety of other airborne micro-
biological invasions. Those most adaptive and suited to
the environment of a particular system will usually become
established and, hence, may represent the origin or accel-
eration of later corrosion.
4. Coagulation, sedimentation and filtration are water-
treating practices that can affect, to a limited degree, the
microbial popUlation in a water system.
All these procedures usually tend to reduce the total
bacterial popUlation; as usually practiced, however, these
methods are not very efficient, in themselves, for correct-
ing a specific microbial problem. Usually at points down-
stream from these units, a progressive increase in numbers
of microbes is found unless other treatments are used.
Chemical Treatments
Chemical treatment, then, is the most effective and
certain way to assure adequate control of a microbial
problem. Chemical products may be placed in two broad
categories. Those that kill bacteria are bactericides, and
those that inhibit or retard the growth of bacteria but
do not kill the organisms at use concentrations are termed
bacteriostats. Materials demonstrating the same results
against other forms of life are classed as biocides and
biostats, respectively.
In making an initial choice between a biostat and bio-
cide, the author prefers to use a biocide, for the following
reasons: ( 1) a more positive, definite correction of a
specific problem can be expected; (2) the chances for
the development of a resistant strain (as will be seen
later) are felt to be less imminent; and (3) using a bac-
teriostat necessitates continuous treatment while a biocide
can be applied intermittently, or "slug-treated".
Several other factors should be considered when chemi-
cal treatment is employed.
1. The single most-important action that can be taken
OCTOBER, 1962
to assure the successful application of a biocide (or corro-
sion inhibitor, for that matter) is to clean the system. Just
as drastic, thorough and extensive a cleaning process as
possible should be employed. Biocides cannot kill bacteria
unless they contact the bacterial cell. Again, cleaning a
system is of primary importance in treating a microbial
problem.'
One of two cleaning approaches normally is used-
either a drastic or a gradual clean-up. A drastic clean-up
entails one or more of the following operations: surging
and flushing the lines; acidizing the system; using pigs,
scrapers, or a squeegee action; and applying detergents
and solvents.
A slow gradual clean-up utilizes a product that has
detergent as well as biocidal properties. In this case,
chemical feed levels are usually started low and gradually
increased. Installation of disposable cartridge-type filters
at the wellhead is a good practice to prevent washing the
removed debris down-hole to the injection sand face.
Any cleaning or precleaning program should include
attention to purging of filters, removal of tank bottom
sludge and scouring of the vessels. Filter media and tank
bottom sludge can become fouled with bacteria and act
as a refuge or focus of infection for the remainder of
the system. Filters and tanks should be sterilized with
high concentrations of biocide after cleaning. When again
placed into service, their operation should be reviewed
to be certain it is optimum and efficient.
2. A chemical product should never be applied to a
water-injection system before its compatibility with the
water has been determined. Many materials will precipi-
tate in high brines and even in some fresh waters to give
a suspended solid that can be filtered-out on the sand face,
causing a plugging action.
5
,7 Also, compatibility with other
chemicals being used should be checked. It would be
sheer folly to add a biocide that is inactivated by or that
inactivates another chemical being used.
3. A thorough analysis of the microbial problem is
important. By tracking down the source of the bacterial
infection, for example, it may be found that only one
source water-the produced water-has a sulfate-reducing
or other harmful bacterial population. Treating this volume
of water alone could provide considerable savings com-
pared to treating the entire injection-water volume. How-
ever, for good control it would still be necessary to shock-
treat the entire system periodically to guard against the
establishment of bacteria that may have eluded the initial
produced-water treatment.
4. No biocide kills instantaneously. Especially when
using an organic biocide, it is extremely important to
provide sufficient contact to permit the biocide to achieve
the desired per cent kill of the bacterial popUlation.
5. A question of whether to treat continuously or
intermittently usually arises. When using a bacteriostat,
it is absolutely necessary to treat continuously. A biocide,
on the other hand, can be used to control a microbial
problem by adding lethal concentrations for sufficient
periods of time on an intermittent basis. This is called the
"slug treatment" and has been found to be very effective
both for injection systems and for producing wells. When
practicing a slug treatment, it is desirable to use a product
that has a good hysteresis effect. Biocides that form films
much like those laid down on metals by good organic
corrosion inhibitors often demonstrate this effect.
Economics is an important aspect of any chemical treat-
ment, and a slug treatment usually proves advantageous
1.077
in this regard. For example, using a bacteriostat or biocide
at 20 ppm to gain bacterial growth inhibition or kill in
- 5,000 BWPD requires a daily addition of about 41;4 gal
of chemical. A slug treatment of the same biocide applied
for 12 hours/day at 30 ppm would give much greater
assurance of kilIing the bacteria it contacted, but would
only require a daily addition of slightly over 3 gal of
chemical. If the product used to slug-treat had a good
hysteresis effect and also possessed detergent or cleaning
properties, it most likely would have provided better
microbial control than the bacteriostat or the same biocide
added at the lower concentration. Further, constant ex-
posure of bacteria to a bacteriostat or biocide greatly
increases the chances for the microorganisms to become
resistant or adaptive to the chemical. Evolution of a re-
sistant strain is more likely to occur under conditions of
continuous treatment than when a lethal biocide-slug
method is employed.
6. To combat resistant strains, many operators attempt
to alternate biocide treatment between two different prod-
ucts. Frequency of alteration varies from every other day
to weekly or even monthly. It is much more desirable
to alternate biocides not on a time basis but, rather, on
the basis of demonstrated effectiveness as determined by
microbiological analyses and other criteria. Again, frequent
exposure of a bacterial population to two biocides runs
the risk of developing a strain of bacteria resistant to both
products. Switching to a third product could be costly
and difficult since the spectrum of good available biocides
is rather limited. Changing to a second or alternate biocide,
when the first product has been shown by reliable analyti-
cal data to be no longer effective, will usually produce
an effective kill. If after a period of usage the second
product becomes ineffective, a return to the first product
in many instances will again produce the desired kill.
7. Finally, for obvious reasons, it is imperative to evalu-
ate the effect of any biocide treatment. Bacterial enumera-
tions are most often performed,but it must be remembered
these analyses only tell the number of living bacteria in
a sample of water or in a flowing stream at a certain
point in the system. They can reveal whether a biocide
is killing bacteria in a water-but they give little data as
to the numbers and nature of the attached microbes in
contact with the metal surfaces. A corrosion coupon in-
stalled in a water stream for a representative period of
time and analyzed by chemical, microscopic and cultural
methods can provide this vital additional data. Compared
to information of the same nature obtained prior to any
treatment, it yields essential clues in evaluating biocide
treatments.
Inspection of corrosion nipples, meter runs, pipe sec-
tions, filters and filter media, tanks and tank sediments,
and open ponds-coupled with suitable analyses-furnishes
additional valuable data.
Water analyses-especially for total iron, hydrogen
sulfide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, pH, total solids and total
sulfides-also can give evidence of the effectiveness of
a biocide treatment when corrosion has been a problem.
However, iron and other analyses must be viewed with
considerable circumspection when taken by themselves as
an indication of bacteria or corrosion control. Suspended
solids, other minerals, microscopic, cultural and all other
analytical data shOUld be appraised by a practiced special-
ist to correctly ascertain if a biocide treatment is effective."
Summary
Many bacteria can contribute to corrosion in an aerobic
107<1
or anaerobic environment, but sulfate-reducers are the
most active and economically significant. Alert, prompt
field recognition of a potential microbial problem can be
the origin of a more detailed and conclusive examination
of the true nature of the trouble. Chemical treatment.
properly employed and judiciously and expertly evaluated,
will control the situation and help avoid costly damage
due to microbial corrosion.
References
1. "Recommended Practice for Biological Analysis of Water-
Flood Injection Waters", RP 38, API Div. of Production
(May, 1959)
2. Allred, R.: "Methods for Counting of Sulfate-Reducing Bac-
teria and for the Screening of Bactericides", Paper presented
at Science Sym. of St. Bonaventure U. (Oct. 23-24, 1957>-
3. Allred, R. C: "The Role of Microorganisms in Oil Field
Water-Flooding Operations-', Prod. Monthly (1954) 18.
4. Allred, R. C, Mills, T_ A. and Fisher, H. B.: "Bacterio-
logical Techniques Applicable to the Control of Sulfate-
Reducing Bacteria in Water-Flooding Operations", Prod.
Monthly (1955) 19.
5. Anderson, K. E. and Liegey, F.: "Bactericide Screening
Using the Strict Anaerobe Desulfovihrio Desulfuricans",
Prod. Monthly (1956) 20.
6. Anderson, K. E., Postgate, J. R., Starkey, R. L., Williams,
O. B. and ZoBell, C: Series of papers presented at Science
Sym. of St. Bonaventure U. (Oct. 23-24, 1957).
7. Baumgartner, A. W.: "Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria-Their Role
in Corrosion and WelI Plugging", Proc., Seventh Annual
West Texas Oil Lifting Short Course, Texas Technological
College (April 23-21, 1959).
8. Beck, J. V.: "The Role of Bacteria in Oil Production", Prod.
Monthly (1946) 10, 9.
9. Booth, G. H. and Tiller, A. K.: "Polarization Studies of Mild
Steel iII Cultures of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria", Trans., Far-
raday Soc. (1960) 56.
10. Breed, R. S., Murray, E. G. D. and Smith, N. R.: Bergey's
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Williams & Wilkins
(1957).
11. Ellenberger, A. R. and Holben, J. H.: "Flood Water Analyses
and Interpretation", Jour. Pet. Tech. (June, 1959) XI, No.6,
22.
12. Sloat, B., Clayton, J. M. and Ellenberger, A. R.: "Water
Treatment in Water Flooding", Prod. Monthly (1957) 21.
l3. Speller, F. N.: Corrosion, Causes and Prevention, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Tnc., N. Y. (1951).
14. Starkey, n. L.: "The General Physiology of the Sulfate-
Reducing Bacteria in Relation to Corrosion", Prod. Monthly
(1953) 22,9.
15. Stiff, H. A. : "Corrosion-The Holes in the Induslry's Pocket",
The Atlantic Lectures, The U. of Texas (Oct. 30, 1958);
Pet. Engr. (May, 1959).
16. Tiller, A. K. and Booth, G. H.: "Polarization Studies of Mild
Steel in Cultures of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria. Part 2",
Trans., Farraday Soc. (June, 1961).
l7. Whitsell, L. B., Huddleston, R. L. and Allred, R. c.: "Field
Evaluation of Microbial Problems and Effective Chemicals
for Their Control", Proc., Ninth Annual West Texas Oil
Lifting Short Course, Texas Technological College (April
12-13, 1962). ***
A. W. BAUMGARTNER is manager of
Bradford Laboratories, an Abilene, Tex.,
firm associated with the Oilfield Div.
of Hagan Chemicals & Controls, Inc.
In addition to his membership in SPE,
Baumgartner is chairman of the West
Texas Waterf/ood Assn., and holds
memberships in NACE, ACS and the
API Study Committee on Biological
Analysis of Waters. He received a BS
degree from Grove City College and later was awarded
an MS degree from St. Bonaventure College in New York.
JOLUI\AJ. OF I'ETUOLEI;M '1'E(:II'\OI.O(;Y