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I nternational MSc Programme Sustainable Energy Engineering I nternational MSc Programme Sustainable Energy Engineering

THERMAL COMFORT AND INDOOR CLIMATE


Lecture:
- CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC SYSTEMS
Assist. Prof. Igor BALEN
Why HVAC system?
- heat and mass transfer between indoors and outdoors not controlable
by passive means Thermal Comfort indoors cannot be achieved
- very strict IAQ requirements (operating theaters, chip production, ...)
- natural ventilation not posible/restricted
traffic noise
large/deep rooms
high wind-induced pressure differences
Cooling coil
Heat transfer
from air to
cooling medium
Extended
surface coil
Drain Pain
Removes
moisture
condensed
from air
stream
Evaporator
Condenser
Expansion valve
Compressor
Controls
Operation
principles
Operation
principles
Heating coil
Heat transfer
from heating
mediumto
air
Heat pump
(condenser)
Furnace
Boiler
Electric resistance
Controls
Operation
principles
Blower
Overcome
pressure drop
of system
Adds heat to air
stream
Makes noise
Performs diffe-
rently at different
conditions (air
flow and pressure
drop)
Operation
principles
Duct system
(piping for
hydronic
systems)
Distribute
conditioned
air
Remove air
from space
Provides
ventilation
Makes noise
Affects comfort
Affects indoor
air quality (IAQ)
Operation
principles
Diffusers
Distribute
conditioned
air within
room
Provides
ventilation
Makes noise
Affects comfort
Affects IAQ
Operation
principles
Dampers
Change
airflow
amounts
Controls outside
air fraction
Affects building
safety
Operation
principles
Filter
Removes
pollutants
Protects
equipment
Imposes substantial
pressure drop
Requires
maintenance
Operation
principles
Controls
Makes
everything
work
Temperature
Pressure (drop)
Air velocity
Volumetric flow
Relative humidity
Enthalpy
Electrical Current
Electrical cost
Fault detection
HVAC system basic classification
1. Low-velocity (low-pressure)
- air flow velocity in ducts 2-8 (10) m/s
- pressure drop in ducts (external) 500-2000Pa
- ducts usually in rectangular shape; sides ratio 1:2 to 1:4,5
- comfort applications: hotels, theaters, museums, concert halls...
2. High-velocity (high-pressure)
- air flow velocity in ducts 10-30 m/s
- pressure drop in ducts (external) 1500-3500Pa
- ducts usually in round shape
- applications: bussiness/office buildings, buildings with limited space for
placing of the ducts ...
HVAC system typology
- Three generic types of HVAC systems:
All-air system
Air-water system
All-water system
1. All-air system
- low-velocity
- high-velocity
Single duct Dual duct
- warm air duct
- cold air duct
Constant Air
Volume (CAV)
Variable Air
Volume (VAV)
Single zone Multiple zone
- with zone reheat coils
- with zone AHU
- with central AHU
Unitary
- single-package
- split
HVAC system typology
Constant Air
Volume (CAV)
Variable Air
Volume (VAV)
HVAC system typology
2. Air-water
- low-velocity
- high-velocity
Induction units Radiant
heating/cooling
Three-pipe
HSUP+CSUP
RET common
Two-pipe
SUPPLY+RETURN
Four-pipe
HSUP+HRET
CSUP+CRET
With zone
heating/cooling
coils
Fan coil units
With changeover
between hot and
cold medium
Without
changeover
Valve control
- one exchanger
Damper control
- two exchangers
Unitary air conditioners
- consist of one or more factory-made assemblies that normally include an
evaporator or cooling coil and a compressor and condenser combination.
- heating and cooling function, ventilation
- air-source unitary heat pump consisting of one or more factory-made
assemblies, which normally include an indoor conditioning coil,
compressor(s), and an outdoor coil must provide a heating function and
possibly a cooling function as well.
- water-source heat pump is a factory-made assembly that rejects or
extracts heat to and from a water loop instead of from ambient air.
- split system is a unitary air conditioner or heat pump having more than
one factory-made assembly (e.g., indoor and outdoor units)
Unitary air conditioners
Rooftop HVAC system (single-package)
- limited to five or six floors because
duct space and available blower power
become excessive in taller buildings.
Unitary air conditioners
Air-/water-sourced heat pump
Typical schematic of air-to-air heat pump
single-package reverse-cycle system
for both heating and cooling
single source of energy can supply
both heating and cooling requirements
heat output can be as much as two to
four times that of the purchased
(electric) energy input (in kWh).
vents and/or chimneys may be
eliminated
Unitary air conditioners
Individual room air-conditioning system
Unitary air conditioners
Split system
- different types:
- mono-split, multi-split, CRV, VRV
- new multi-split VRV with up to 50 indoor units connected to one outdoor
unit, up to 300m length and 50m height difference of refrigerant piping
Central HVAC systems
- equipment room for a central system is normally located outside the
conditioned area - in a basement, penthouse, service area, or adjacent to
or remote from the building require space at a central location and a
potentially large distribution system
- larger air-handling equipment is usually custom-designed and fabricated
to suit a particular application
- most of the components are available from many manufacturers
completely assembled or in subassembled sections that can be bolted
together in the field
- specific design parameter must be evaluated to balance cost,
controllability, operating expense, maintenance, noise, and space
- close year-round control of temperature and humidity are possible
All-air systems
Central single-duct, single-zone, constant air volume
-common duct distribution system at a common air temperature feeds all
terminal apparatus (diffusers)
- one controlled space with one thermostat that maintains a set point
All-air systems
Central single-duct, multiple-zone, constant air volume
- zone temperature or zone supply volume flow rate is controlled by
terminals
- reheat coils are used to control the temperature and/or relative humidity
Typical schematic of a system with zone reheat coils
All-air systems
Central single-duct, multiple-zone, constant air volume
- system with zone air-handling units (AHU)
All-air systems
Central single-duct, variable air volume
- controls temperature in a space by varying the quantity of supply air rather
than varying the supply air temperature
- VAV terminal unit at the zone varies the quantity of supply air to the space
- supply air temperature is held relatively constant: while supply air
temperature can be moderately reset depending on the season, it must
always be low enough to meet the cooling load in the most demanding
zone and to maintain appropriate humidity
- greatest energy saving associated with VAV occurs at the perimeter
zones, where variations in solar load and outside temperature allow the
supply air quantity to be reduced
- potential problems with minimum outdoor air supply (increasing CO
2
concentration) and humidity control, where particular care should be taken
in areas where the sensible heat ratio (ratio of sensible heat to sensible
plus latent heat to be removed) is low, such as in conference rooms
All-air systems
Central single-duct, variable air volume
All-air systems
Variable air volume (VAV) box
- VAV box or a cooling VAV box is a terminal device in which the supply
volume flow rate is modulated by varying the opening of the air passage by
means of a single-blade butterfly damper
- pneumatic or direct digital control (DDC) of a damper
- minimum supply air rate 30% of design flow rate
All-air systems
Central dual-duct, constant air volume
- separate warm (45C) and cold (12-16C) air duct
- temperature control by mixing warm and cold air in proper
proportion to satisfy the load of the space
All-air systems
Central dual-duct, variable air volume
- may include single-duct VAV terminal units connected to the
cold air chamber
All-air systems
Central dual-duct, variable air volume
- terminal units that function like a single-duct VAV cooling terminal unit
and a single-duct VAV heating terminal unit in one physical package
All-air systems
Dual-duct VAV box and operating chart
All-air systems
Advantages:
The location of the central mechanical room for major equipment allows
operation and maintenance to be performed in unoccupied areas. In
addition, it allows the maximum range of choices of filtration equipment,
vibration and noise control, and the selection of high quality and durable
equipment.
Keeping piping, electrical equipment, wiring, filters, and vibration and
noise-producing equipment away from the conditioned area minimizes
service needs and reduces potential harm to occupants, furnishings, and
processes.
These systems offer the greatest potential for use of outside air for
economizer cooling instead of mechanical refrigeration for cooling.
Seasonal changeover is simple and adapts readily to automatic control.
Advantages (continued):
A wide choice of zoning, flexibility, and humidity control under all
operating conditions is possible, with the availability of simultaneous
heating and cooling even during off-season periods.
Air-to-air and other heat recovery may be readily incorporated.
They permit good design flexibility for optimum air distribution, draft
control, and adaptability to varying local requirements.
The systems are well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust or
makeup air quantities (negative or positive pressurization, etc.).
All-air systems adapt well to winter humidification.
By increasing the air change rate and using high-quality controls, it is
possible for these systems to maintain the closest operating condition of
0.15 K dry bulb and 0.5% rh. Today, some systems can maintain
essentially constant space conditions.
All-air systems
All-air systems
Disadvantages:
They require additional duct clearance, which reduces usable floor space
and increases the height of the building.
Depending on layout, larger floor plans are necessary to allow enough
space for the vertical shafts required for air distribution.
Ensuring accessible terminal devices requires close cooperation between
architectural, mechanical, and structural designers.
Air balancing, particularly on large systems, can be more difficult.
Perimeter heating is not always available to provide temporary heat
during construction.
Air-water systems
Central primary air, high-velocity system (induction units) or low-velocity
system (fan coils)
Air-water systems
Central primary air, with fan coils
Air-water systems
Central primary air and fan coils, separated
Advantages:
Individual room temperature control allows the adjustment of each
thermostat for a different temperature at relatively low cost.
Separate heating and cooling sources in the primary air and secondary
water give the occupant a choice of heating or cooling.
Less space is required for the distribution system when the air supply is
reduced by using secondary water for cooling and high velocity air. The
return air duct is smaller and can sometimes be eliminated or combined
with the return air system for other areas, such as the interior spaces.
The size of the central air-handling apparatus is smaller than that of an all
air system because little air must be conditioned.
Dehumidification, filtration, and humidification are performed in a central
location remote from conditioned spaces.
Air-water systems
Air-water systems
Advantages (continued):
Ventilation air supply is positive and may accommodate recommended
outside air quantities.
Space can be heated without operating the air system via the secondary
water system. Nighttime fan operation is avoided in an unoccupied
building. Emergency power for heating, if required, is much lower than for
most all-air systems.
Components are long-lasting. Room terminals operated dry have an
anticipated life of 15 to 25 years. The piping and ductwork longevity should
equal that of the building. Individual induction units do not contain fans,
motors, or compressors. Routine service is generally limited to
temperature controls, cleaning of lint screens, and infrequent cleaning of
the induction nozzles.
Air-water systems
Disadvantages:
For most buildings, these systems are limited to perimeter space;
separate systems are required for other areas.
More controls are needed than for many all-air systems.
Secondary airflow can cause the induction unit coils to become dirty
enough to affect performance. Lint screens used to protect these terminals
require frequent in-room maintenance and reduce unit thermal
performance.
The primary air supply usually is constant with no provision for shutoff.
This is a disadvantage in residential applications, where tenants or hotel
room guests may prefer to turn off the air conditioning, or where
management may desire to do so to reduce operating expense.
A low primary chilled water temperature is needed to control space
humidity adequately.
Air-water systems
Disadvantages (continued):
The system is not appropriate for spaces with high exhaust requirements
(e.g., research laboratories) unless supplementary ventilation air is
provided.
Central dehumidification eliminates condensation on the secondary water
heat transfer surface under maximum design latent load. However,
abnormal moisture sources (e.g., from open windows or people
congregating) can cause condensation that can have annoying or
damaging results.
Energy consumption for induction systems is higher than for most other
systems due to the increased power required by the primary air pressure
drop in the terminal units.
The initial cost for a four-pipe induction system is greater than for most
all-air systems.
All-water systems
Chilled water systems
Two-pipe constant flow
Two-pipe constant flow
with primary loop
Two-pipe constant flow
with secondary loops
All-water systems
Four-pipe fan coils
- separate hot and cold supply and return piping
- heating and cooling possible in different rooms at the same time
Induction unit
- centrally conditioned primary air is supplied to the unit plenum at
medium to high pressure
- medium- to high-velocity air flows through the induction nozzles and
induces secondary air from the room through the secondary coil
- secondary air is either heated or cooled at the coil, depending on the
season and the room requirement
Fan coil
Ventilation Air
Cooling Coil
Filter
Heating Coil
Supply Air
Return Air
Drain pan
Fan
- heat, cool, move air by forced
convection through the conditioned
space, filter the circulating air, and
introduce outside ventilation air
- available in many configurations
(vertical floor mounted, horizontal
ceiling mounted, ...)
Special systems
Dehumidification heat pump
Special systems
All-water heat pump with thermal storage and optional solar collectors
Special systems
OUTSIDE
RETURN
SUPPLY
EXHAUST
System with indirect evaporative cooling
Special systems
System with dessicant rotary wheel
Central vs. decentralized HVAC