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11

th
Century
Treaty of Devol (1108)
an agreement made between Bohemond I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I
Komnenos
intended to make the Principality of Antioch a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire
o Bohemond agreed to become a vassal of the Emperor and to defend the Empire whenever
needed. He also accepted the appointment of a Greek Patriarch.
o In return, Bohemond was given the title of sebastos and doux (duke) of Antioch.
manifested the Byzantine tendency to settle disputes through diplomacy rather than warfare
SIGNIFICANCE: It provided the legal basis for Byzantine negotiations with the crusaders for the
next thirty years, and for imperial claims to Antioch during the reigns of John II and Manuel I.
Concordat of Worms
This was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on 1122, signed in
the city of Worms in Germany. This ended the Investiture Controversy, which was the most significant
dispute between the popes and the emperors over who would control appointments of church officials.
In the Concordat of Worms, the emperor guaranteed the free election of the bishops and abbots, while the
pope guaranteed the emperor the right to attend the actual elections so as to settle potential disputes and to
invest on the elected bishops and abbots their obligations and rights.
Lasting Effects:
This agreement would later on serve as the step towards the idea of separation of Church and
State.
This would end the belief in the divine right theory.
This would give greater independence to the Catholic Church.
Treaty of Durham
The Treaty of Durham was a peace treaty concluded between King Stephen of England and King David I
of Scotland on February 5 1136. The treaty was a result of a conflict rooted from acquisition of territories.
David I crossed the border of Scotland and reached Durham. By reaching Durham, he took Carlisle,
Wark, Alnwick, Norham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Stephen was able to redeem the territories in the
Battle of Standard. In order to appease David I and refrain from another conflict, a negotiation was made
which gave David I the chance to retain Carlisle and a great part of Cumberland and Lancashire, and
Doncaster.
Later on the treaty was followed by another Treaty of Durham (1139) which gave the Earldom of
Northumberland including Carlisle, Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire to the north of Ribble,
except the castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle to Scotland. Moreover, Stephen of England recognised the
independence of Scotland. David I, via his son Henry, now controlled an English territory which stretched
to the Tees. The treaty was made due to the fact that Stephen was facing several problems at once, civil
war at home and protecting the redeemed territories from Scotland.
Main Significance of the treaty:
It gave Scotland the independence that it is enjoying until today.
It serves as an example that one can appease a defeated country through a treaty, giving them rights to
some territories.

Treaty of Shaoxing 1141
The Treaty of Shaoxing is the agreement which ended the conflicts between the Jin Dynasty and Southern
Song Dynasty. It also legally drew up the boundaries of the two countries and forcing the Song Dynasty
to renounce all claims to its former territories north of the Huai river (which included its old capital
Kaifeng). In short, the treaty reduced the Southern Song into a quasi-tribute state of the Jurchen Jin
Dynasty.

Treaty of Zamora (1143)
Based on the terms of the accord, King Alfonso VII of Len and Castille recognized the Kingdom
of Portugal in the presence of King Afonso I of Portugal at the Cathedral of Zamora.
Both kings promised durable peace between their kingdoms.
SIGNIFICANCE: It recognized Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of Len. Portugal
also recognized the suzerainty of the pope.

Treaty of Constance
The First Treaty of Constance was signed between the Emperor Frederick I and Pope Eugene
III in 1153. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I
Comnenus to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his
enemies in revolt in Rome. In 1155, as part of the agreement securing his imperial coronation,
Frederick reaffirmed the terms of Constance for Pope Adrian IV. The Second Treaty of
Constance made peace between the Emperor and the Lombard League in 1183.

Treaty of Benevento
This was the treaty concluded between Alexander III and King William I of Sicily at Benevento.
It is established in the hope of resolving conflicts between the Pope and the secular monarchs.

The treaty granted the king a number of ecclesiastical rights, which would include the right to
appeal to Rome. This treaty also asserted the Popes right to authorize religious reforms.

This was seen essential as later on it would pave the way for the independence of the Church and
of the State from each other or the idea of the separation of the Church and the State.

Treaty or peace of Venice 1177
The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north
Italian city-states of the Lombard League (Lombard League, Italian Lega Lombarda , league of
cities in northern Italy that, in the 12th and 13th centuries, resisted attempts by the Holy Roman
emperors to reduce the liberties and jurisdiction of the communes of Lombardy. Originally formed for
a period of 20 years on Dec. 1, 1167, the Lombard League initially consisted of 16 cities, later
expanded to 20) and Frederick; Holy Roman Emperor (challenged papal authority and sought to
establish German predominance in western Europe. He engaged in a long struggle with the cities of
northern Italy (1154-83), sending six major expeditions southward.) . The Norman Kingdom of
sisily also took part in negotiations and the treaty thereby determined the political course of
all Italy for the next several years.

Treaty of Ramla
The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of
Arsuf. Under the terms of the agreement, Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, the
city would be open to Christian pilgrimages. Also, the treaty reduced the Latin Kingdom to a geopolitical
coastal strip that extended from Tyre to Jaffa. It is important to note that neither Saladin nor King Richard
were fond of the overall accord but had little other choice. The Muslim ruler had been weakened by the
trials and expense of war and King Richard had to deal with threats to his kingdom at home.
Main Significance of the Treaty:
The treaty gave Christians the opportunity to retain the relevance of the place in the religion. It also
served as a sign that Christian still has the chance to regain Jerusalem.
It serves as an example of a treaty which gave favourable conditions though not totally pleasing to both
sides due to the fact that both of them have weighed that it is better to accept the treaty than continuing
the war because of problems at home or the cost of the war.

Treaty of Le Goulet 1200
The Treaty of Le Goulet was signed by the kings John of England and Philip II of France in May 1200
and meant to settle once and for all the claims the Norman kings of England had as Norman dukes on
French lands. Hence it concerned bringing an end to the war over the Duchy of Normandy and finalising
the new borders of what was left of the duchy, as well as the future relationship of the king of France and
the dukes of Normandy. The treaty was a victory for Philip in asserting his legal claims to overlordship
over John's French lands.
The terms of the treaty signed at Le Goulet included clarifications of the feudal relationships binding the
monarchs. John was accepted as the rightful heir of Richard to all the fiefs that hid father and brother had
held in the continent, with a few modifications of the border.