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What is RESEARCH?

Research may be defined literally as to search again,


To take another more careful look, and to find out more..
- Selltiz,et al. 1971
According to Kerlinger (1986), research is a
systematic, objective and
comprehensive investigation of a certain
phenomenon.
Webster defines research as an investigation
undertaken to discover new facts
or to get additional information.
Attributes of a Good Research
SYSTEMATIC
Research should clearly follow an
orderly procedure in discovering truth
or in finding a solution to a problem.
ANALYTICAL
The data gathered should be
thoroughly studied to avoid errors in
interpretation.
EMPIRICAL
Conclusions drawn from hard
evidence should reflect authentic life
experiences or observations.
VALID and VERIFIABLE
Conclusions drawn should be based
on findings and results and should be
correct.
CONTROLLED
All considered variables, except those
that are tested, should be kept
constant.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
By Kumar as cited by Mauricio and
Young
The Three Perspectives
Application of the
research study
Objectives in
undertaking the
study
Type of information
sought
Pure and Applied
Descriptive
Correlation
Explanatory
Exploratory
Qualitative
Quantitative
Application of the Research
Study
PURE
Pure research is done to
discover basic truths or
principles.
Researchers gather
information not to solve
any problem or
recommend solutions but
to expand their knowledge
about a particular topic
that interests them or they
have little knowledge
about.
APPLIED
This is conducted to
clarify an issue or
solve a problem.
Researchers gather
information to
recommend solutions
to pressing problems
or issues.
Check some examples
PURE
1.The influences of
romanticists on
contemporary writers
2. The development of jazz
from the beginning up to
the present time
3. The different forms of
alternative medicines
APPLIED
1. The language
problem in education
2. Strategies to make
interpretation of
poetry easier
3. The addition of one
or two years to
secondary education
OBJECTIVES IN
UNDERTAKING THE STUDY
DESCRIPTIVE
This aims to present clearly an existing
situation, problem, or phenomenon.
Look at this..
A research that shows the attitudes of
students to classical literature.
A study that shows the effects of text
messaging on the grammatical competence
of students.
CORRELATION
This is undertaken to discover or establish
the existence of a relationship, association,
or interdependence between two or more
aspects of a situation.
E.g.
A study on learning strategies and the
success of students.
EXPLANATORY
This attempts to explore all the possible
causes of a certain phenomenon.
E.g.
A researcher may want to find out all the
possible causes that lead to students
addiction to computer games.
A study on the causes of the declining
proficiency in English of Filipino students.
EXPLORATORY
This is conducted to investigate the
possibilities of undertaking a particular
study.
It is also sometimes known as a feasibility
study or a pilot study.
Questions about the study are frequently
raised before it is undertaken.
Check the examples..
Researchers may want to find out if adding one
or two years to programs of study in the
university will improve the quality of education.
Questions:
1. What courses should be added to improve the
programs?
2. How should these additional courses be
designed to enrich existing programs?
The TYPE OF INFORMATION
SOUGHT
QUALITATIVE
This presents data which have been
gathered in non-numerical form.
E.g.
A researcher might want to find out how
successful the graduates of a particular
program of study have been from 1995 to
2000.
QUANTITATIVE
This presents information that has been
gathered through the use of variables
measured on nominal or ordinal scales.
E.g.
A study on the number of professionals who
are not practicing their professions and are,
instead, into other jobs.
Writers on research types often argue that
qualitative and quantitative research are in
many ways indistinguishable, but there are
still differences.