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1) The acronym SCSI stands for Small Computer System

It refers to a standard bus defined by the American Natinal
standards institute(ANSI)
Under the designation X3.131[2].

2) In the original specifications of the standard, devices such as

disks are connected to a
computer via a 50- wire cable,which can be up to 25 meters
in length and can transfer
data rates up to 5 megabytes.

3) A SCSI bus may have 8 datalines,in which case it is called a

narrow bus transfers data
one byte at a time.
The SCSI connectormay have 50,68,or 80 pins ,because SCSI
has various options.

4) Transfer Rate Of SCSI Bus :

The maximum transfer rate in commercial devices that are

currently available varies from
5 megabytes to 160 megabytes.The most recently version of
the standard is intended to
support transfer rates up to 320 mega ytes , and 640 mega

The maximum transfer rate on a given bus is often a function of

the cable and the number
of devices connected ,with higher rates for a shorter cable and
fewer devices.

5) To achieve the high data transfer rate ,the bus length is

typically limited to 1.6 m for SE
signaling and 12 m for LVd signaling. The maximum capacity
of the SCSI Bus is 8 devices
for a narrow bus, and 16 devices for a wide bus.
6) The SCSI bus is connected to the processor bus through SCSI
controller ,
as shown in the below figure.



Additional SCSI Ethernet Usb

ISA interface
memory controller interface controller

IDE Disk
Disk cd-Rom
controller controller

CD-Rom Key board

Disk1 Disk2 Game
An Example of a computer System using different interface

7) This controller uses DMA to transfer data packets from the

main memory to the device ,or
vice versa.
A packet may contain a block of data, commands from the
processor to the device , or
status information about the device.

8) Operation Of the SCSI Bus :

To know the operation of the SCSI Bus , let us consider how it

may be used with a disk
drive.The communication with adisk drive differs substantially
from the communication
with the main memory .

Data are stored on a disk in blocks.called sectors .where each

sectors may contain
several undred bytes.These data may not be necessarily be
stored in contigious sectors.
Some secors may be defective and must be skipped.

9) In disk drive a read or write request may result in accessing

several constraints of the
mechanical motion of the disk, there is a long delay on the
order of the everal
milliseconds, before reaching the first sector to or from which
data are to be transffered.
Then a burst of data are transffere at high speed .Another
delay may ensue ,follwed by
aburst data.A single read/write request may involve several
such bursts .Hence the SCSI
protocol is designed to facilitate this mode of operation.
10) A controller connected to a SCSI bus is one of two types an
initiator or a target .An
initator has the ability to select a particular targer and send
commands specifying the
operations to be performed. The disk controllers operates as
a target . It carries out the
commands it receive from the initator.

The intiator establishes a logical connection has been

established it can be suspended
and restored as needed to transfer commands and bursts of
data while particular
connection is suspended,other devices can be use the bus to
transfer information .

11) This ability to overlap data transfer request is one of the key
features of the SCSI bus
that leads to it’s high performance.

12) Data transfers on the SCSI bus are always controlled by the
target controller.
To send a command to a target, an initiator request
controller of the bus and after
winning arbitration , selects the controller.It wants to
communicate with and hands
control of the bus over to it.Then the controller starts a data
transfer pperation to
receive a command from the initiator.


Bus Signal :

There are different signals shown in below table

Category Name Function

Data -DB(0) to –DB(7) Datalines:carry I

byte of Information during the
Information transfer
And identifies device during
Arbitration selection
and Reseletion phases.

-DB(p) Parity bit for the databus

Phase -BSY Busy: asserted when the bus

is Not free

Information type -C/D control/data:

Asserted during Transfer of
control information.

-MSG message:idicates
that the information
Being transferred is
a message

Handshake -REQ request: asserted by atarget

to Request
a data transfer

-ACk asserted by the

initiator when it
has completed a

Direction of transfer –I/O input/output:

assrted to
Indiacate an i/p

14) Here _ sign indicates that the signals are active ,or that
dataline is equal to 1,when
they are in the low voltage state. The bus has no
addresslines,Instead ,the datalines
are used to identify the bus controllers involved during
the selection or reselection
and arbitration.

15) Phases Of SCSI Bus:

The main phases involved in the operation of the SCSI bus

are arbitration ,
selection,information transfer,and reselection.


The bus is free when the _BSY signal is in the inactive state.
Any controller can request
the use of the bus while it is in this state.When 2 or more
cotrollers may generate such
a request at same time ,an arbitration scheme must be
A controller requests the bus by asserting the _BSY signal.
And by assrting its associated dataline to identify itself .The
SCSI bus uses a simple
distributed arbitration scheme. It is shown in below figure.





free Aribitration Selection

Phases involved in the operations ofthr SCSI bus

16) Assume that controller 6 is an initiator that establishes a

connection Controller 5 . After
winning arbitration controller 6 proceeds to the selection
phase, in which identifies the

17) Selection:

Having won arbitration ,controller 6 contiues to assert _BSY

and _DB6 .Any other
controller that may have been involved in the arbitration
phase ,such as controller 2 in
the figure must stop driving the data lines.
Once the _SEL line becomes active, if it has not already done
so.After placing the
address of the target controller on the bus ,initiator
releasest he _BSY signal.

18) The selected target controller responds by asserting –BSY

this informs the initiator that
the connection it is requesting has beenestablished,so that
it may remove the address
information from the datalines .The selection process is now
complete and the target
controller is asserting _BSY signal.

19) Information Trarnsfer:

The information transfer between two controllersmay

consist of commands from the
target to the initiator to the target states , responses from
the target to the initiator or
data being transferred to or from the i/o device .
Handshake signaling is used to control
Information transfers at the end of the transfer , the target
controller releases –BSY
signal ,thus freeing the bus for use by other devices.

20) Reselection:

When a logical connection suspended and the target is

ready to be restore it,the target
must first gain control of the bus .It’s starts an arbitration
cycle ,and after winnig
arbitration ,it selects the initiator controller.The initiator now
asserting –BSY .Before
data transfer begins,the initiator must hand controller over
to the target . This is
achieved by having target controller assert –BSY after
selecting the inititor the target
respose with states information and data transfer
operations .The latter are controlled
by the target , because it is a target that knows when data
is available ,when to
suspend and reestablish connections
Circuit for SCSI Bus

sel D Q


T R Qc


Clk2 >
T R Qc