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# 1.

2 Gaussian Elimination 19
It can be argued that this statement is true when solving small systems by hand since
GaussJordan elimination actually involves less writing. However, for large systems of
equations, it has been shown that the GaussJordan elimination method requires about
50% more operations than Gaussian elimination. This is an important consideration
when working on computers.
Exercise Set 1.2
1. Which of the following 3 3 matrices are in reduced row-echelon form?
(a)

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

(b)

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0

(c)

0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0

(d)

1 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0

(e)

1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1

(f )

0 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0

(g)

1 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 0

(h)

1 0 2
0 1 3
0 0 0

(i)

0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0

( j)

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

## 2. Which of the following 3 3 matrices are in row-echelon form?

(a)

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

(b)

1 2 0
0 1 0
0 0 0

(c)

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 2 0

(d)

1 3 4
0 0 1
0 0 0

(e)

1 5 3
0 1 1
0 0 0

(f )

1 2 3
0 0 0
0 0 1

3. In each part determine whether the matrix is in row-echelon form, reduced row-echelon form,
both, or neither.
(a)

1 2 0 3 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0

(b)

1 0 0 5
0 0 1 3
0 1 0 4

(c)

1 0 3 1
0 1 2 4

(d)

1 7 5 5
0 1 3 2

(e)

1 3 0 2 0
1 0 2 2 0
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0

(f )

0 0
0 0
0 0

4. In each part suppose that the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations has been
reduced by row operations to the given reduced row-echelon form. Solve the system.
(a)

1 0 0 3
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 7

(b)

1 0 0 7 8
0 1 0 3 2
0 0 1 1 5

(c)

1 6 0 0 3 2
0 0 1 0 4 7
0 0 0 1 5 8
0 0 0 0 0 0

(d)

1 3 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

## 20 Chapter 1 / Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

5. In each part suppose that the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations has been
reduced by row operations to the given row-echelon form. Solve the system.
(a)

1 3 4 7
0 1 2 2
0 0 1 5

(b)

1 0 8 5 6
0 1 4 9 3
0 0 1 1 2

(c)

1 7 2 0 8 3
0 0 1 1 6 5
0 0 0 1 3 9
0 0 0 0 0 0

(d)

1 3 7 1
0 1 4 0
0 0 0 1

## 6. Solve each of the following systems by GaussJordan elimination.

(a) x
1
+ x
2
+ 2x
3
= 8
x
1
2x
2
+ 3x
3
= 1
3x
1
7x
2
+ 4x
3
= 10
(b) 2x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0
2x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 2x
3
= 1
8x
1
+ x
2
+ 4x
3
= 1
(c) x y + 2z w = 1
2x + y 2z 2w = 2
x + 2y 4z + w = 1
3x 3w = 3
(d) 2b + 3c = 1
3a + 6b 3c = 2
6a + 6b + 3c = 5
7. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 6 by Gaussian elimination.
8. Solve each of the following systems by GaussJordan elimination.
(a) 2x
1
3x
2
= 2
2x
1
+ x
2
= 1
3x
1
+ 2x
2
= 1
(b) 3x
1
+ 2x
2
x
3
= 15
5x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0
3x
1
+ x
2
+ 3x
3
= 11
6x
1
4x
2
+ 2x
3
= 30
(c) 4x
1
8x
2
= 12
3x
1
6x
2
= 9
2x
1
+ 4x
2
= 6
(d) 10y 4z + w = 1
x + 4y z + w = 2
3x + 2y + z + 2w = 5
2x 8y + 2z 2w = 4
x 6y + 3z = 1
9. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 8 by Gaussian elimination.
10. Solve each of the following systems by GaussJordan elimination.
(a) 5x
1
2x
2
+ 6x
3
= 0
2x
1
+ x
2
+ 3x
3
= 1
(b) x
1
2x
2
+ x
3
4x
4
= 1
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 7x
3
+ 2x
4
= 2
x
1
12x
2
11x
3
16x
4
= 5
(c) w + 2x y = 4
x y = 3
w + 3x 2y = 7
2u + 4v + w + 7x = 7
11. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 10 by Gaussian elimination.
12. Without using pencil and paper, determine which of the following homogeneous systems
have nontrivial solutions.
(a) 2x
1
3x
2
+ 4x
3
x
4
= 0
7x
1
+ x
2
8x
3
+ 9x
4
= 0
2x
1
+ 8x
2
+ x
3
x
4
= 0
(b) x
1
+ 3x
2
x
3
= 0
x
2
8x
3
= 0
4x
3
= 0
(c) a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ a
13
x
3
= 0
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ a
23
x
3
= 0
(d) 3x
1
2x
2
= 0
6x
1
4x
2
= 0
13. Solve the following homogeneous systems of linear equations by any method.
(a) 2x
1
+ x
2
+ 3x
3
= 0
x
1
+ 2x
2
= 0
x
2
+ x
3
= 0
(b) 3x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
= 0
5x
1
x
2
+ x
3
x
4
= 0
(c) 2x + 2y + 4z = 0
w y 3z = 0
2w + 3x + y + z = 0
2w + x + 3y 2z = 0
1.2 Gaussian Elimination 21
14. Solve the following homogeneous systems of linear equations by any method.
(a) 2x y 3z = 0
x + 2y 3z = 0
x + y +4z = 0
(b) v + 3w 2x = 0
2u + v 4w + 3x = 0
2u + 3v + 2w x = 0
4u 3v + 5w 4x = 0
(c) x
1
+ 3x
2
+ x
4
= 0
x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 2x
3
= 0
2x
2
2x
3
x
4
= 0
2x
1
4x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
= 0
x
1
2x
2
x
3
+ x
4
= 0
15. Solve the following systems by any method.
(a) 2I
1
I
2
+ 3I
3
+ 4I
4
= 9
I
1
2I
3
+ 7I
4
= 11
3I
1
3I
2
+ I
3
+ 5I
4
= 8
2I
1
+ I
2
+ 4I
3
+ 4I
4
= 10
(b) Z
3
+ Z
4
+ Z
5
= 0
Z
1
Z
2
+ 2Z
3
3Z
4
+ Z
5
= 0
Z
1
+ Z
2
2Z
3
Z
5
= 0
2Z
1
+ 2Z
2
Z
3
+ Z
5
= 0
16. Solve the following systems, where a, b, and c are constants.
(a) 2x + y = a
3x + 6y = b
(b) x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
= a
2x
1
+ 2x
3
= b
3x
2
+ 3x
3
= c
17. For which values of a will the following system have no solutions? Exactly one solution?
Innitely many solutions?
x + 2y 3z = 4
3x y + 5z = 2
4x + y + (a
2
14)z = a +2
18. Reduce

2 1 3
0 2 29
3 4 5

## to reduced row-echelon form without introducing any fractions.

19. Find two different row-echelon forms of

1 3
2 7

20. Solve the following systemof nonlinear equations for the unknown angles , , and , where
0 2, 0 2, and 0 < .
2 sin cos + 3 tan = 3
4 sin + 2 cos 2 tan = 2
6 sin 3 cos + tan = 9
21. Show that the following nonlinear system has 18 solutions if 0 2, 0 2, and
0 < 2.
sin + 2 cos + 3 tan = 0
2 sin + 5 cos + 3 tan = 0
sin 5 cos + 5 tan = 0
22. For which value(s) of does the system of equations
( 3)x + y = 0
x + ( 3)y = 0
have nontrivial solutions?
22 Chapter 1 / Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices
23. Solve the system
2x
1
x
2
= x
1
2x
1
x
2
+ x
3
= x
2
2x
1
+2x
2
+ x
3
= x
3
for x
1
, x
2
, and x
3
in the two cases = 1, = 2.
24. Solve the following system for x, y, and z.
1
x
+
2
y

4
z
= 1
2
x
+
3
y
+
8
z
= 0

1
x
+
9
y
+
10
z
= 5
25. Find the coefcients a, b, c, and d so that the curve shown in the accompanying gure is the
graph of the equation y = ax
3
+bx
2
+cx +d.
26. Find coefcients a, b, c, and d so that the curve shown in the accompanying gure is given
by the equation ax
2
+ay
2
+bx +cy +d = 0.
y
x
2 6
20
20
(0, 10)
(1, 7)
(3, 11)
(4, 14)
Figure Ex-25
y
x
(2, 7)
(4, 3)
(4, 5)
Figure Ex-26
27. (a) Show that if ad bc = 0, then the reduced row-echelon form of

a b
c d

is

1 0
0 1

## (b) Use part (a) to show that the system

ax +by = k
cx +dy = l
has exactly one solution when ad bc = 0.
28. Find an inconsistent linear system that has more unknowns than equations.
Discussion and Discovery
29. Discuss the possible reduced row-echelon forms of

a b c
d e f
g h i

## 30. Consider the system of equations

ax + by = 0
cx + dy = 0
ex + fy = 0
1.3 Matrices and Matrix Operations 23
Discuss the relative positions of the lines ax +by = 0, cx +dy = 0, and ex +fy = 0 when
(a) the system has only the trivial solution, and (b) the system has nontrivial solutions.
31. Indicate whether the statement is always true or sometimes false. Justify your answer by
giving a logical argument or a counterexample.
(a) If a matrix is reduced to reduced row-echelon form by two different sequences of ele-
mentary row operations, the resulting matrices will be different.
(b) If a matrix is reduced to row-echelon form by two different sequences of elementary row
operations, the resulting matrices might be different.
(c) If the reduced row-echelon form of the augmented matrix for a linear system has a row
of zeros, then the system must have innitely many solutions.
(d) If three lines in the xy-plane are sides of a triangle, then the system of equations formed
from their equations has three solutions, one corresponding to each vertex.
32. Indicate whether the statement is always true or sometimes false. Justify your answer by
giving a logical argument or a counterexample.
(a) A linear system of three equations in ve unknowns must be consistent.
(b) A linear system of ve equations in three unknowns cannot be consistent.
(c) If a linear system of n equations in n unknowns has n leading 1s in the reduced row-
echelon form of its augmented matrix, then the system has exactly one solution.
(d) If a linear system of n equations in n unknowns has two equations that are multiples of
one another, then the system is inconsistent.
1.3
MATRICES AND MATRIX OPERATIONS
Rectangular arrays of real numbers arise in many contexts other than as aug-
mented matrices for systems of linear equations. In this section we begin our
study of matrix theory by giving some of the fundamental denitions of the sub-
ject. We shall see howmatrices can be combined through the arithmetic operations
of addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
Matrix Notation and Terminology In Section 1.2 we used rectan-
gular arrays of numbers, called augmented matrices, to abbreviate systems of linear
equations. However, rectangular arrays of numbers occur in other contexts as well. For
example, the following rectangular array with three rows and seven columns might de-
scribe the number of hours that a student spent studying three subjects during a certain
week:
2
0
4
3
3
1
2
1
3
4
4
1
1
3
0
4
2
0
2
2
2
Mon.
Math
History
Language
Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun.
If we suppress the headings, then we are left with the following rectangular array of
numbers with three rows and seven columns called a matrix:

2 3 2 4 1 4 2
0 3 1 4 3 2 2
4 1 3 1 0 0 2