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2 Gaussian Elimination 19

It can be argued that this statement is true when solving small systems by hand since

GaussJordan elimination actually involves less writing. However, for large systems of

equations, it has been shown that the GaussJordan elimination method requires about

50% more operations than Gaussian elimination. This is an important consideration

when working on computers.

Exercise Set 1.2

1. Which of the following 3 3 matrices are in reduced row-echelon form?

(a)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

(b)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

(c)

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

(d)

1 0 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

(e)

1 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 1

(f )

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

(g)

1 1 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

(h)

1 0 2

0 1 3

0 0 0

(i)

0 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

( j)

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

(a)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

(b)

1 2 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

(c)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 2 0

(d)

1 3 4

0 0 1

0 0 0

(e)

1 5 3

0 1 1

0 0 0

(f )

1 2 3

0 0 0

0 0 1

3. In each part determine whether the matrix is in row-echelon form, reduced row-echelon form,

both, or neither.

(a)

1 2 0 3 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

(b)

1 0 0 5

0 0 1 3

0 1 0 4

(c)

1 0 3 1

0 1 2 4

(d)

1 7 5 5

0 1 3 2

(e)

1 3 0 2 0

1 0 2 2 0

0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

(f )

0 0

0 0

0 0

4. In each part suppose that the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations has been

reduced by row operations to the given reduced row-echelon form. Solve the system.

(a)

1 0 0 3

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 7

(b)

1 0 0 7 8

0 1 0 3 2

0 0 1 1 5

(c)

1 6 0 0 3 2

0 0 1 0 4 7

0 0 0 1 5 8

0 0 0 0 0 0

(d)

1 3 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

5. In each part suppose that the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations has been

reduced by row operations to the given row-echelon form. Solve the system.

(a)

1 3 4 7

0 1 2 2

0 0 1 5

(b)

1 0 8 5 6

0 1 4 9 3

0 0 1 1 2

(c)

1 7 2 0 8 3

0 0 1 1 6 5

0 0 0 1 3 9

0 0 0 0 0 0

(d)

1 3 7 1

0 1 4 0

0 0 0 1

(a) x

1

+ x

2

+ 2x

3

= 8

x

1

2x

2

+ 3x

3

= 1

3x

1

7x

2

+ 4x

3

= 10

(b) 2x

1

+ 2x

2

+ 2x

3

= 0

2x

1

+ 5x

2

+ 2x

3

= 1

8x

1

+ x

2

+ 4x

3

= 1

(c) x y + 2z w = 1

2x + y 2z 2w = 2

x + 2y 4z + w = 1

3x 3w = 3

(d) 2b + 3c = 1

3a + 6b 3c = 2

6a + 6b + 3c = 5

7. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 6 by Gaussian elimination.

8. Solve each of the following systems by GaussJordan elimination.

(a) 2x

1

3x

2

= 2

2x

1

+ x

2

= 1

3x

1

+ 2x

2

= 1

(b) 3x

1

+ 2x

2

x

3

= 15

5x

1

+ 3x

2

+ 2x

3

= 0

3x

1

+ x

2

+ 3x

3

= 11

6x

1

4x

2

+ 2x

3

= 30

(c) 4x

1

8x

2

= 12

3x

1

6x

2

= 9

2x

1

+ 4x

2

= 6

(d) 10y 4z + w = 1

x + 4y z + w = 2

3x + 2y + z + 2w = 5

2x 8y + 2z 2w = 4

x 6y + 3z = 1

9. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 8 by Gaussian elimination.

10. Solve each of the following systems by GaussJordan elimination.

(a) 5x

1

2x

2

+ 6x

3

= 0

2x

1

+ x

2

+ 3x

3

= 1

(b) x

1

2x

2

+ x

3

4x

4

= 1

x

1

+ 3x

2

+ 7x

3

+ 2x

4

= 2

x

1

12x

2

11x

3

16x

4

= 5

(c) w + 2x y = 4

x y = 3

w + 3x 2y = 7

2u + 4v + w + 7x = 7

11. Solve each of the systems in Exercise 10 by Gaussian elimination.

12. Without using pencil and paper, determine which of the following homogeneous systems

have nontrivial solutions.

(a) 2x

1

3x

2

+ 4x

3

x

4

= 0

7x

1

+ x

2

8x

3

+ 9x

4

= 0

2x

1

+ 8x

2

+ x

3

x

4

= 0

(b) x

1

+ 3x

2

x

3

= 0

x

2

8x

3

= 0

4x

3

= 0

(c) a

11

x

1

+ a

12

x

2

+ a

13

x

3

= 0

a

21

x

1

+ a

22

x

2

+ a

23

x

3

= 0

(d) 3x

1

2x

2

= 0

6x

1

4x

2

= 0

13. Solve the following homogeneous systems of linear equations by any method.

(a) 2x

1

+ x

2

+ 3x

3

= 0

x

1

+ 2x

2

= 0

x

2

+ x

3

= 0

(b) 3x

1

+ x

2

+ x

3

+ x

4

= 0

5x

1

x

2

+ x

3

x

4

= 0

(c) 2x + 2y + 4z = 0

w y 3z = 0

2w + 3x + y + z = 0

2w + x + 3y 2z = 0

1.2 Gaussian Elimination 21

14. Solve the following homogeneous systems of linear equations by any method.

(a) 2x y 3z = 0

x + 2y 3z = 0

x + y +4z = 0

(b) v + 3w 2x = 0

2u + v 4w + 3x = 0

2u + 3v + 2w x = 0

4u 3v + 5w 4x = 0

(c) x

1

+ 3x

2

+ x

4

= 0

x

1

+ 4x

2

+ 2x

3

= 0

2x

2

2x

3

x

4

= 0

2x

1

4x

2

+ x

3

+ x

4

= 0

x

1

2x

2

x

3

+ x

4

= 0

15. Solve the following systems by any method.

(a) 2I

1

I

2

+ 3I

3

+ 4I

4

= 9

I

1

2I

3

+ 7I

4

= 11

3I

1

3I

2

+ I

3

+ 5I

4

= 8

2I

1

+ I

2

+ 4I

3

+ 4I

4

= 10

(b) Z

3

+ Z

4

+ Z

5

= 0

Z

1

Z

2

+ 2Z

3

3Z

4

+ Z

5

= 0

Z

1

+ Z

2

2Z

3

Z

5

= 0

2Z

1

+ 2Z

2

Z

3

+ Z

5

= 0

16. Solve the following systems, where a, b, and c are constants.

(a) 2x + y = a

3x + 6y = b

(b) x

1

+ x

2

+ x

3

= a

2x

1

+ 2x

3

= b

3x

2

+ 3x

3

= c

17. For which values of a will the following system have no solutions? Exactly one solution?

Innitely many solutions?

x + 2y 3z = 4

3x y + 5z = 2

4x + y + (a

2

14)z = a +2

18. Reduce

2 1 3

0 2 29

3 4 5

19. Find two different row-echelon forms of

1 3

2 7

20. Solve the following systemof nonlinear equations for the unknown angles , , and , where

0 2, 0 2, and 0 < .

2 sin cos + 3 tan = 3

4 sin + 2 cos 2 tan = 2

6 sin 3 cos + tan = 9

21. Show that the following nonlinear system has 18 solutions if 0 2, 0 2, and

0 < 2.

sin + 2 cos + 3 tan = 0

2 sin + 5 cos + 3 tan = 0

sin 5 cos + 5 tan = 0

22. For which value(s) of does the system of equations

( 3)x + y = 0

x + ( 3)y = 0

have nontrivial solutions?

22 Chapter 1 / Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

23. Solve the system

2x

1

x

2

= x

1

2x

1

x

2

+ x

3

= x

2

2x

1

+2x

2

+ x

3

= x

3

for x

1

, x

2

, and x

3

in the two cases = 1, = 2.

24. Solve the following system for x, y, and z.

1

x

+

2

y

4

z

= 1

2

x

+

3

y

+

8

z

= 0

1

x

+

9

y

+

10

z

= 5

25. Find the coefcients a, b, c, and d so that the curve shown in the accompanying gure is the

graph of the equation y = ax

3

+bx

2

+cx +d.

26. Find coefcients a, b, c, and d so that the curve shown in the accompanying gure is given

by the equation ax

2

+ay

2

+bx +cy +d = 0.

y

x

2 6

20

20

(0, 10)

(1, 7)

(3, 11)

(4, 14)

Figure Ex-25

y

x

(2, 7)

(4, 3)

(4, 5)

Figure Ex-26

27. (a) Show that if ad bc = 0, then the reduced row-echelon form of

a b

c d

is

1 0

0 1

ax +by = k

cx +dy = l

has exactly one solution when ad bc = 0.

28. Find an inconsistent linear system that has more unknowns than equations.

Discussion and Discovery

29. Discuss the possible reduced row-echelon forms of

a b c

d e f

g h i

ax + by = 0

cx + dy = 0

ex + fy = 0

1.3 Matrices and Matrix Operations 23

Discuss the relative positions of the lines ax +by = 0, cx +dy = 0, and ex +fy = 0 when

(a) the system has only the trivial solution, and (b) the system has nontrivial solutions.

31. Indicate whether the statement is always true or sometimes false. Justify your answer by

giving a logical argument or a counterexample.

(a) If a matrix is reduced to reduced row-echelon form by two different sequences of ele-

mentary row operations, the resulting matrices will be different.

(b) If a matrix is reduced to row-echelon form by two different sequences of elementary row

operations, the resulting matrices might be different.

(c) If the reduced row-echelon form of the augmented matrix for a linear system has a row

of zeros, then the system must have innitely many solutions.

(d) If three lines in the xy-plane are sides of a triangle, then the system of equations formed

from their equations has three solutions, one corresponding to each vertex.

32. Indicate whether the statement is always true or sometimes false. Justify your answer by

giving a logical argument or a counterexample.

(a) A linear system of three equations in ve unknowns must be consistent.

(b) A linear system of ve equations in three unknowns cannot be consistent.

(c) If a linear system of n equations in n unknowns has n leading 1s in the reduced row-

echelon form of its augmented matrix, then the system has exactly one solution.

(d) If a linear system of n equations in n unknowns has two equations that are multiples of

one another, then the system is inconsistent.

1.3

MATRICES AND MATRIX OPERATIONS

Rectangular arrays of real numbers arise in many contexts other than as aug-

mented matrices for systems of linear equations. In this section we begin our

study of matrix theory by giving some of the fundamental denitions of the sub-

ject. We shall see howmatrices can be combined through the arithmetic operations

of addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

Matrix Notation and Terminology In Section 1.2 we used rectan-

gular arrays of numbers, called augmented matrices, to abbreviate systems of linear

equations. However, rectangular arrays of numbers occur in other contexts as well. For

example, the following rectangular array with three rows and seven columns might de-

scribe the number of hours that a student spent studying three subjects during a certain

week:

2

0

4

3

3

1

2

1

3

4

4

1

1

3

0

4

2

0

2

2

2

Mon.

Math

History

Language

Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun.

If we suppress the headings, then we are left with the following rectangular array of

numbers with three rows and seven columns called a matrix:

2 3 2 4 1 4 2

0 3 1 4 3 2 2

4 1 3 1 0 0 2

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