You are on page 1of 125

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece
Lecture Presentations by
Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge
2
The Chemical
Context of Life
Overview: A Chemical Connection to Biolog

Biology is a multidisciplinary science

Living organisms are subect to basic la!s o" p#ysics


and c#emistry
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1
Concept 2.1: Matter consists of chemical elements
in pure form and in combinations called
compounds

%rganisms are composed o" matter

&atter is anyt#ing t#at ta'es up space and #as


mass
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Element! an" Com#o$n"!

&atter is made up o" elements

(n element is a substance t#at cannot be bro'en


do!n to ot#er substances by c#emical reactions

( compound is a substance consisting o" t!o or


more elements in a "i)ed ratio

( compound #as emergent properties,


c#aracteristics di""erent "rom t#ose o" its elements
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.2
Sodium chloride Sodium Chlorine
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.2a
Sodium
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.2b
Chlorine
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.2c
Sodium chloride
%he Element! o& Li&e

%" *2 natural elements, about 20+2,- are essential


elements, needed by an organism to live a #ealt#y
li"e and reproduce

Trace elements are re.uired in only minute


.uantities

$or e)ample, in vertebrates, iodine /I0 is re.uired "or


normal activity o" t#e t#yroid gland

In #umans, an iodine de"iciency can cause goiter


2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evol$tion o& %olerance to %o'ic Element!

1ome naturally occurring elements are to)ic to


organisms

In #umans, arsenic is lin'ed to many diseases and


can be let#al

1ome species #ave become adapted to environments


containing elements t#at are usually to)ic

$or e)ample, sun"lo!er plants can ta'e up lead, 2inc,


and ot#er #eavy metals in concentrations let#al to
most organisms

1un"lo!er plants !ere used to deto)i"y contaminated


soils a"ter 3urricane 4atrina
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concept ()(: An element*! #ro#ertie! "e#en" on
the !tr$ct$re o& it! atom!

Eac# element consists o" a certain type o" atom,


di""erent "rom t#e atoms o" any ot#er element

(n atom is t#e smallest unit o" matter t#at still


retains t#e properties o" an element
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
S$+atomic Particle!

(toms are composed o" smaller parts called


subatomic particles

5elevant subatomic particles include

Neutrons /no electrical c#arge0

Protons /positive c#arge0

Electrons /negative c#arge0


2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

6eutrons and protons "orm t#e atomic nucleus

Electrons "orm a cloud around t#e nucleus

6eutron mass and proton mass are almost identical


and are measured in daltons
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.7
Cloud of negatie
charge !" electrons#
Electrons
Nucleus
!a# !b#
Atomic N$m+er an" Atomic Ma!!

(toms o" t#e various elements di""er in number o"


subatomic particles

(n element8s atomic number is t#e number o"


protons in its nucleus

(n element8s mass number is t#e sum o" protons


plus neutrons in t#e nucleus

$tomic mass, t#e atom8s total mass, can be


appro)imated by t#e mass number
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ma!! n$m+er = number of protons + neutrons
= ! for so"ium
Atomic n$m+er = number of protons
= ## for so"ium
27
6a
11
$ecause neutrons an" protons each ha%e a mass of approximately
# "alton& 'e can estimate the atomic ma!! (total mass of one atom)
of so"ium as ! "altons
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
I!oto#e!

(ll atoms o" an element #ave t#e same number o"


protons but may di""er in number o" neutrons

%sotopes are t!o atoms o" an element t#at di""er in


number o" neutrons

&adioactie isotopes decay spontaneously,


giving o"" particles and energy
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

1ome applications o" radioactive isotopes in


biological researc# are

9ating "ossils

:racing atoms t#roug# metabolic processes

9iagnosing medical disorders


2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.4
Cancerous
throat
tissue
%he Energ Level! o& Electron!

Energy is t#e capacity to cause c#ange

Potential energy is t#e energy t#at matter #as


because o" its location or structure

:#e electrons o" an atom di""er in t#eir amounts o"


potential energy

;#anges in potential energy occur in steps o" "i)ed


amounts

(n electron8s state o" potential energy is called its


energy level, or electron shell
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.,
Third shell !highest
energy leel in this
model#
Energy
lost
Energy
absorbed
$tomic
nucleus
Second shell !higher
energy leel#
First shell !lo'est
energy leel#
!a# $ ball bouncing do'n a flight
of stairs proides an analogy
for energy leels of electrons(
!b#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.,a
!a# $ ball bouncing do'n a flight
of stairs proides an analogy
for energy leels of electrons(

Electrons are "ound in di""erent electron shells)


eac# !it# a c#aracteristic average distance "rom t#e
nucleus

:#e energy level o" eac# s#ell increases !it#


distance "rom t#e nucleus

Electrons can move to #ig#er or lo!er s#ells by


absorbing or releasing energy, respectively
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.,b
Third shell !highest
energy leel in this
model#
Energy
lost
Energy
absorbed
$tomic
nucleus
Second shell !higher
energy leel#
First shell !lo'est
energy leel#
!b#
Electron ,i!tri+$tion an" Chemical Pro#ertie!

:#e c#emical be#avior o" an atom is determined by


t#e distribution o" electrons in electron s#ells

:#e periodic table o" t#e elements s#o!s t#e


electron distribution "or eac# element
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.<
First
shell
Second
shell
*ydrogen
+
*
Lithium
,
Li
-eryllium
.
-e
Third
shell
Sodium
++
Na
/agnesium
+"
/g
-oron
0
-
$luminum
+,
$l
Carbon
1
C
Silicon
+.
Si
Nitrogen
2
N
Phosphorus
+0
P
34ygen
5
3
Sulfur
+1
S
Fluorine
6
F
Chlorine
+2
Cl
Neon
+7
Ne
$rgon
+5
$r
*elium
"
*e
$tomic mass
$tomic number
Element symbol
Electron
distribution
diagram
"
*e
.(77
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.<a
*elium
"
*e
$tomic mass
$tomic number
Element symbol
Electron
distribution
diagram
"
*e
.(77
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.<b
First
shell
*ydrogen
+
*
*elium
"
*e
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.<c
Second
shell
Lithium
,
Li
-eryllium
.
-e
Third
shell
Sodium
++
Na
/agnesium
+"
/g
-oron
0
-
$luminum
+,
$l
Carbon
1
C
Silicon
+.
Si
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.<d
Nitrogen
2
N
Phosphorus
+0
P
34ygen
5
3
Sulfur
+1
S
Fluorine
6
F
Chlorine
+2
Cl
Neon
+7
Ne
$rgon
+5
$r
Second
shell
Third
shell

;#emical be#avior o" an atom depends mostly on t#e


number o" electrons in its outermost s#ell, or alence
shell

8alence electrons are t#ose t#at occupy t#e


valence s#ell

:#e reactivity o" an atom arises "rom t#e presence o"


one or more unpaired electrons in t#e valence s#ell

(toms !it# completed valence s#ells are unreactive,


or inert
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concept ()-: %he &ormation an" &$nction o&
molec$le! "e#en" on chemical +on"ing +etween
atom!

(toms !it# incomplete valence s#ells can s#are or


trans"er valence electrons !it# certain ot#er atoms

:#is usually results in atoms staying close toget#er,


#eld by attractions called chemical bonds
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Covalent Bon"!

( coalent bond is t#e s#aring o" a pair o" valence


electrons by t!o atoms

In a covalent bond, t#e s#ared electrons count as


part o" eac# atom8s valence s#ell

:!o or more atoms #eld toget#er by valence bonds


constitute a molecule
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.=>1
*ydrogen atoms !" *#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.=>2
*ydrogen atoms !" *#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.=>7
*ydrogen
molecule !*
"
#
*ydrogen atoms !" *#

:#e notation used to represent atoms and bonding


is called a structural "ormula

$or e)ample, 3?3

:#is can be abbreviated "urt#er !it# a molecular


"ormula

$or e)ample, 3
2
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

In a structural "ormula, a single bond, t#e s#aring o"


one pair o" electrons, is indicated by a single line
bet!een t#e atoms

$or e)ample, 3?3

( double bond, t#e s#aring o" t!o pairs o" electrons,


is indicated by a double line bet!een atoms

$or e)ample, % %
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.@
!d# /ethane !C*
.
#
!c# 9ater !*
"
3#
!b# 34ygen !3
"
#
!a# *ydrogen !*
"
#
Name and
/olecular
Formula
Electron
:istribution
:iagram
Structural
Formula
Space;
Filling
/odel
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.@a
Name and
/olecular
Formula
Electron
:istribution
:iagram
Structural
Formula
Space;
Filling
/odel
!a# *ydrogen !*
"
#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.@b
Name and
/olecular
Formula
Electron
:istribution
:iagram
Structural
Formula
Space;
Filling
/odel
!b# 34ygen !3
"
#

Eac# atom t#at can s#are valence electrons #as a


bonding capacity, t#e number o" bonds t#at t#e
atom can "orm

Bonding capacity, or alence, usually corresponds


to t#e number o" electrons re.uired to complete t#e
atom
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pure elements are composed o" molecules o" one


type o" atom, suc# as 3
2
and %
2

&olecules composed o" a combination o" t!o or


more types o" atoms are called compounds, suc# as
3
2
% or ;3
4
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.@c
Name and
/olecular
Formula
Electron
:istribution
:iagram
Structural
Formula
Space;
Filling
/odel
!c# 9ater !*
"
3#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.@d
Name and
/olecular
Formula
Electron
:istribution
:iagram
Structural
Formula
Space;
Filling
/odel
!d# /ethane !C*
.
#

(toms in a molecule attract electrons to varying


degrees

Electronegatiity is an atom8s attraction "or t#e


electrons in a covalent bond

:#e more electronegative an atom, t#e more


strongly it pulls s#ared electrons to!ard itsel"
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

In a nonpolar coalent bond, t#e atoms s#are t#e


electron e.ually

In a polar coalent bond, one atom is more


electronegative, and t#e atoms do not s#are t#e
electron e.ually

Ane.ual s#aring o" electrons causes a partial positive


or negative c#arge "or eac# atom or molecule
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
(nimationB ;ovalent Bonds
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.*
*
"
3
* *
3

<

+
Ionic Bon"!

(toms sometimes strip electrons "rom t#eir bonding


partners

(n e)ample is t#e trans"er o" an electron "rom


sodium to c#lorine

("ter t#e trans"er o" an electron, bot# atoms #ave


c#arges

Bot# atoms also #ave complete valence s#ells


2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.10>1
Na
Sodium atom
Cl
Chlorine atom
Na Cl
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.10>2
Na
Sodium atom
Cl
Chlorine atom
Na
+
Sodium ion
!a cation#
Cl
<
Chloride ion
!an anion#
Sodium chloride !NaCl#
Na Cl Na Cl
+ <

( cation is a positively c#arged ion

(n anion is a negatively c#arged ion

(n ionic bond is an attraction bet!een an anion and


a cation
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

;ompounds "ormed by ionic bonds are called ionic


compounds, or salts

1alts, suc# as sodium c#loride /table salt0, are


o"ten "ound in nature as crystals
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
(nimationB Ionic Bonds
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.11
Na
+
Cl
<
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.11a
.ea/ Chemical Bon"!

&ost o" t#e strongest bonds in organisms are


covalent bonds t#at "orm a cell8s molecules

Cea' c#emical bonds, suc# as ionic bonds and


#ydrogen bonds, are also important

&any large biological molecules are #eld in t#eir


"unctional "orm by !ea' bonds
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hydrogen Bonds

( hydrogen bond "orms !#en a #ydrogen atom


covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is
also attracted to anot#er electronegative atom

In living cells, t#e electronegative partners are


usually o)ygen or nitrogen atoms
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.12
*ydrogen bond
$mmonia !N*
,
#
9ater !*
"
3#

<

+

<

+
Van der Waals Interactions

I" electrons are distributed asymmetrically in


molecules or atoms, t#ey can result in D#ot spotsE
o" positive or negative c#arge

8an der 9aals interactions are attractions bet!een


molecules t#at are close toget#er as a result o"
t#ese c#arges
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fan der Caals interactions are individually !ea'


and occur only !#en atoms and molecules are
very close toget#er

;ollectively, suc# interactions can be strong, as


bet!een molecules o" a gec'o8s toe #airs and a
!all sur"ace
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A601
Molec$lar Sha#e an" F$nction

( molecule8s s#ape is usually very important to its


"unction

&olecular s#ape determines #o! biological


molecules recogni2e and respond to one anot#er
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.17
9ater !*
"
3#
/ethane !C*
.
#
+7.(0
-all;and;Stick
/odel
Space;Filling
/odel

Biological molecules recogni2e and interact !it# eac#


ot#er !it# a speci"icity based on molecular s#ape

&olecules !it# similar s#apes can #ave similar


biological e""ects
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.14
Natural
endorphin
Endorphin
receptors
-rain cell
/orphine
!b# -inding to endorphin receptors
!a# Structures of endorphin and morphine
Natural endorphin
/orphine
Nitrogen
Sulfur
34ygen
Carbon
*ydrogen
Key
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.14a
!a# Structures of endorphin and morphine
Natural endorphin
/orphine
Nitrogen
Sulfur
34ygen
Carbon
*ydrogen
Key
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.14b
Natural
endorphin
Endorphin
receptors
-rain cell
/orphine
!b# -inding to endorphin receptors
Concept ()0: Chemical reaction! ma/e an"
+rea/ chemical +on"!

Chemical reactions are t#e ma'ing and brea'ing


o" c#emical bonds

:#e starting molecules o" a c#emical reaction are


called reactants

:#e "inal molecules o" a c#emical reaction are


called products
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A602
&eactants &eaction Products
" *
"
3
"
" *
"
3

P#otosynt#esis is an important c#emical reaction

1unlig#t po!ers t#e conversion o" carbon dio)ide


and !ater to glucose and o)ygen
< ;%
2
+ < 3
2
% ;
<
3
12
%
<
+ < %
2
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1,

(ll c#emical reactions are reversibleB Products o" t#e


"or!ard reaction become reactants "or t#e reverse
reaction

Chemical e=uilibrium is reac#ed !#en t#e "or!ard


and reverse reaction rates are e.ual
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concept ()1: 2"rogen +on"ing give! water
#ro#ertie! that hel# ma/e li&e #o!!i+le on Earth

(ll organisms are made mostly o" !ater and live in


an environment dominated by !ater

Cater molecules are polar, !it# t#e o)ygen region


#aving a partial negative c#arge /G0 and t#e
#ydrogen region a slig#t positive c#arge /+0

:!o !ater molecules are #eld toget#er by a


#ydrogen bond
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1<
*ydrogen
bond
Polar coalent
bonds

$our emergent properties o" !ater contribute to


Eart#8s suitability "or li"eB

;o#esive be#avior

(bility to moderate temperature

E)pansion upon "ree2ing

Fersatility as a solvent
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cohe!ion o& .ater Molec$le!

Cater molecules are lin'ed by multiple #ydrogen


bonds

:#e molecules stay close toget#er because o" t#isH


it is called cohesion
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

;o#esion due to #ydrogen bonding contributes to


t#e transport o" !ater and nutrients against gravity
in plants

$dhesion, t#e clinging o" one substance to


anot#er, also plays a role
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
(nimationB Cater 1tructure
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1=
$dhesion
Cohesion
:irection
of 'ater
moement
T'o types of
'ater;conducting
cells
,77 m
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1=a
T'o types of
'ater;conducting
cells
,77 m

Surface tension is a measure o" #o! #ard it is to


brea' t#e sur"ace o" a li.uid

1ur"ace tension is related to co#esion


2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
(nimationB Cater :ransport
(nimationB Cater :ransport in Plants
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1@
Mo"eration o& %em#erat$re + .ater

Cater absorbs #eat "rom !armer air and releases


stored #eat to cooler air

Cater can absorb or release a large amount o" #eat


!it# only a slig#t c#ange in its o!n temperature
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Temperature and Heat

Kinetic energy is t#e energy o" motion

Thermal energy is a measure o" t#e total amount o"


'inetic energy due to molecular motion

Temperature represents t#e average 'inetic energy


o" molecules

:#ermal energy in trans"er "rom one body o" matter


to anot#er is de"ined as heat
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

:#e Celsius scale is a measure o" temperature


using ;elsius degrees /;0

( calorie !cal# is t#e amount o" #eat re.uired to raise


t#e temperature o" 1 g o" !ater by 1;

:#e DcaloriesE on "ood pac'ages are actually


kilocalories !kcal#, !#ere 1 'cal = 1,000 cal

:#e >oule !?# is anot#er unit o" energy, !#ere


1 I = 0.27* cal, or 1 cal = 4.1@4 I
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Waters High Specific Heat

:#e specific heat o" a substance is t#e amount o"


#eat t#at must be absorbed or lost "or 1 g o" t#at
substance to c#ange its temperature by 1;

:#e speci"ic #eat o" !ater is 1 calJgJ;

Cater resists c#anging its temperature because o"


its #ig# speci"ic #eat
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cater8s #ig# speci"ic #eat can be traced to


#ydrogen bonding

3eat is absorbed !#en #ydrogen bonds brea'

3eat is released !#en #ydrogen bonds "orm

:#e #ig# speci"ic #eat o" !ater 'eeps temperature


"luctuations !it#in limits t#at permit li"e
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.1*
Santa -arbara 2,
San -ernardino
+77
&ierside 61
Pacific 3cean 15
-urbank
67
Santa $na
5.
Palm Springs
+71
Los $ngeles
!$irport# 20
San :iego 2"
.7 miles
27s !F#
57s
67s
+77s
Evaporative Cooling

Evaporation is trans"ormation o" a substance "rom


li.uid to gas

*eat of aporization is t#e #eat a li.uid must absorb


"or 1 g to be converted to gas

(s a li.uid evaporates, its remaining sur"ace cools, a


process called eaporatie cooling

Evaporative cooling o" !ater #elps stabili2e


temperatures in organisms and bodies o" !ater
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Floating o& Ice on Li3$i" .ater

Ice "loats in li.uid !ater because #ydrogen bonds


in ice are more Dordered,E ma'ing ice less dense

Cater reac#es its greatest density at 4;

I" ice san', all bodies o" !ater !ould eventually


"ree2e solid, ma'ing li"e impossible on Eart#
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.20
*ydrogen bond
%ce@
*ydrogen bonds
are stable
Li=uid 'ater@
*ydrogen bonds
break and re;form
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.20a
.ater: %he Solvent o& Li&e

( solution is a li.uid t#at is a #omogeneous mi)ture


o" substances

( solent is t#e dissolving agent o" a solution

:#e solute is t#e substance t#at is dissolved

(n a=ueous solution is one in !#ic# !ater is t#e


solvent
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cater is a versatile solvent due to its polarity, !#ic#


allo!s it to "orm #ydrogen bonds easily

C#en an ionic compound is dissolved in !ater, eac#


ion is surrounded by a sp#ere o" !ater molecules
called a hydration shell
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.21
Cl
<
Cl
<
Na
+
Na
+

Cater can also dissolve compounds made o"


nonionic polar molecules

Even large polar molecules suc# as proteins can


dissolve in !ater i" t#ey #ave ionic and polar regions
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.22
+
+
<
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances

( hydrophilic substance is one t#at #as an a""inity


"or !ater

( hydrophobic substance is one t#at does not


#ave an a""inity "or !ater

%il molecules are #ydrop#obic because t#ey #ave


relatively nonpolar bonds

( colloid is a stable suspension o" "ine particles in a


li.uid
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Solute Concentration in !ueous Solutions

&ost bioc#emical reactions occur in !ater

;#emical reactions depend on collisions o" molecules


and t#ere"ore on t#e concentration o" solutes in an
a.ueous solution
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

/olecular mass is t#e sum o" all masses o" all


atoms in a molecule

6umbers o" molecules are usually measured in


moles, !#ere 1 mole !mol# = <.02 10
27
molecules

(vogadro8s number and t#e unit dalton !ere de"ined


suc# t#at <.02 10
27
daltons = 1 g

/olarity !M# is t#e number o" moles o" solute per liter
o" solution
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Aci"! an" Ba!e!

1ometimes a hydrogen ion /3


+
0 is trans"erred "rom
one !ater molecule to anot#er, leaving be#ind a
hydro4ide ion /%3
G
0

:#e proton /3
+
0 binds to t#e ot#er !ater molecule,
"orming a hydronium ion /3
7
%
+
0

By convention, 3
+
is used to represent t#e
#ydronium ion
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A607
+
*ydronium
ion !*
,
3
+
#
" *
"
3
*ydro4ide
ion !3*
<
#
<

:#oug# !ater dissociation is rare and reversible, it


is important in t#e c#emistry o" li"e

3
+
and %3
G
are very reactive

1olutes called acids and bases disrupt t#e balance


bet!een 3
+
and %3
G
in pure !ater

$cids increase t#e 3


+
concentration in !ater, !#ile
bases reduce t#e concentration o" 3
+
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

(n acid is any substance t#at increases t#e 3


+

concentration o" a solution

( base is any substance t#at reduces t#e 3


+

concentration o" a solution
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
3;l 3
+
K ;l
G

( strong acid li'e #ydroc#loric acid, 3;l, dissociates


completely into 3
+
and ;l
G
in !aterB

1odium #ydro)ide, 6a%3, acts as a strong base


indirectly by dissociating completely to "orm
#ydro)ide ions

:#ese combine !it# 3


+
ions to "orm !aterB
6a%3 6a
+
+ %3
G
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
63
7
+ 3
+
63
4
+
(mmonia, 63
7
, acts as a relatively !ea' base !#en
it attracts an 3
+
ion "rom t#e solution and "orms
ammonium, 63
4
+

:#is is a reversible reaction, as s#o!n by t#e double


arro!sB
;arbonic acid, 3
2
;%
7
, acts as a !ea' acid, !#ic#
can reversibly release and accept bac' 3
+
ionsB
3
2
;%
7
3;%
7
G
+ 3
+
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The pH Scale

In any a.ueous solution at 2,;, t#e product o" 3


+
and %3
G
is constant and can be !ritten as

:#e p* o" a solution is de"ined by t#e negative


logarit#m o" 3
+
concentration, !ritten as

$or a neutral a.ueous solution, L3


+
M is 10
G=
, so
L3
K
ML%3
G
M N 10
G14
p3 N Glog L3
K
M
Glog L3
+
M = G/G=0 = =
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

(cidic solutions #ave p3 values less t#an =

Basic solutions #ave p3 values greater t#an =

&ost biological "luids #ave p3 values in t#e range o"


< to @
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27
p* Scale
-attery acid
Aastric >uice) lemon >uice
8inegar) 'ine)
cola
Tomato >uice
-eer
-lack coffee
&ain'ater
Brine
Salia
Pure 'ater
*uman blood) tears
Sea'ater
%nside of small intestine
*ousehold
bleach
3en cleaner
/ilk of magnesia
*ousehold ammonia
Neutral
C*
+
D = C3*
<
D
%
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
l
y

$
c
i
d
i
c
C
*
+
D

>

C
3
*
<
D
%
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
l
y

-
a
s
i
c
C
*
+
D

<

C
3
*
<
D
-asic
solution
Neutral
solution
$cidic
solution
+.
+,
+"
++
+7
6
5
2
1
0
.
,
"
+
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27a
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27b
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27c
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27d
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.27e
-asic
solution
Neutral
solution
$cidic
solution
Buffers

:#e internal p3 o" most living cells must remain close


to p3 =

-uffers are substances t#at minimi2e c#anges in


concentrations o" 3
+
and %3
G
in a solution

&ost bu""ers consist o" an acid>base pair t#at


reversibly combines !it# 3
+
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

;arbonic acid is a bu""er t#at contributes to p3


stability in #uman bloodB
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
cidification" Threat to #ur #ceans

3uman activities suc# as burning "ossil "uels t#reaten


!ater .uality

;%
2
is t#e main product o" "ossil "uel combustion

(bout 2,- o" #uman>generated ;%


2
is absorbed by
t#e oceans

;%
2
dissolved in sea!ater "orms carbonic acidH t#is
causes ocean acidi"ication
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

(s sea!ater acidi"ies, 3
+
ions combine !it#
;%
7
2G
ions to "orm bicarbonate ions /3;%
7
+
0

It is predicted t#at carbonate ion concentrations


!ill decline by 40- by t#e year 2100

:#is is a concern because organisms t#at build


coral ree"s or s#ells re.uire carbonate ions
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.24
C3
"
C3
"
+ *
"
3 *
"
C3
,
*
"
C3
,
*
+
+ *C3
,
<
*
+
+ C3
,
"<
*C3
,
<
C3
,
"<
+ Ca
"+
CaC3
,
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A604
CC3
,
"
<
D !molEkg of sea'ater#
C
a
l
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
!
m
m
o
l

C
a
C
3
,
E
m
"


d
a
y
#

""7 "57 "17 ".7
"7
+7
7
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A60,
Neutrons !no charge#
determine isotope
Protons !+ charge#
determine element Electrons !< charge#
form negatie cloud
and determine
chemical behaior
Nucleus
$tom
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A60<
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A60=
%ce@ stable hydrogen
bonds
Li=uid 'ater@
transient hydrogen
bonds
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A60@
$cids donate *
+
in
a=ueous solutions(
-ases donate 3*
<

or accept *
+
in
a=ueous solutions(
-asic
C*
+
D < C3*
<
D
Neutral
C*
+
D = C3*
<
D
$cidic
C*
+
D > C3*
<
D
+.
7
2
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
$igure 2.A60*