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The Principles Of Biblical Sacrifice



Author's note:

The material in this book is concise and thorough. It places in one ready
reference source a wealth of material and Bible references on a very difficult
subject, Biblical Sacrifice. I pray that this study will make this subject more
understandable to the student.
I hope that this material will help make the Bible come alive for you. May you
be blessed as you study God's Holy word.

~Terry Hill



Statement Of The Problem

The church of the twentieth century has little or no understanding of the
sacrifices of the Old Testament. So little study is done in the Old Testament that
the average church member has only a vague idea of its contents. The practices
and doctrines are unknown for the most part. Only the heroes and the Ten
Commandments are vaguely known.

In my research for this study I found very little has been written in this century
on the topic of sacrifice; while many of the writers of the last century addressed the
importance of sacrifice. The Pulpit Commentary has some lengthy articles on
sacrifice included in the introduction to the book of Leviticus. Alfred Edersheim
addressed the topic of sacrifice several times in his writings.

Because so little study is being done on this topic, the sacrifices that were
offered in the Old Testament era are only mentioned occasionally and never
studied in depth. It is for this reason that the only reaction forth coming when
sacrifice is mentioned is one of repulsion.

The slaying of animals, the burning of flesh, the sprinkling of blood, holds no
meaning. No efficacy or symbolism is seen in such an act. Only the grossness of
the taking of the life of the sacrifice remains long in the mind. In this the modern
mind can see no logic or reasonableness.

What efficacy can the death of an innocent animal bring to the one who offers
the sacrifice. We have been educated for so long that because of the sacrifice of
Christ, there is no longer a need for an animal sacrifice, and we accept almost
without question or thought Christ's sacrifice. Christians for the most part have
become complacent when considering the sacrifice of Christ. By this I do not
mean they have no feeling for the Saviour but that they have no thought of the
sacrifice He made. Or of the suffering that he experienced during His life and
crucifixion for us.

This then is the problem of the study. To answer the question of the Christian
when he asks, "Why all the sacrifices?", "Why all the death?", "Why all the
shedding of blood?", "Why didn't God just send Jesus right away as sacrifice?"

Aim Of The Study

The aim of the study is to help the Christian see the deeper meaning of the Old
Testament and the principles of sacrifice in order to help him make application of
these principles to his life. When we understand these principles we will cease to
think of God, as He dealt with the people of the Old Testament era, as a harsh God.
We will see that He has always been filled with love and compassion for fallen
man. He has never given commands just to confine or restrict us. His commands
have always been given in order to free us from the bondage of sin and its
consequences. Free from bondage to Satan. Free to serve our Creator.

With this insight the Christian will indeed feel free and not under bondage. A
majority of Non-Christians see Christianity as a form of bondage or restriction. I
fear that many Christians also feel that their freedom has been restricted by God's
law. This they will find is not the case.



Today a majority of the people in America accept the theory of evolution in one
form or another. Those that do not wish to reject God, as the atheistic evolutionist
does, but still wish to believe that the basic theory of evolution holds the answers
to where everything came from, claim to be theistic evolutionists. This is a vain
attempt to hold hands with God and man at the same time, fearing to reject either.
This causes many that call themselves Christians to believe that man evolved over
a long period of time and along with mans evolution, mans concept of God also

The creation story given in Genesis chapters one and two and the fall of man
recorded in chapter three are viewed as allegorical, mythical or ancient folklore.
And that they were included simply to allow man to know that God did have a
hand, however minor, in mans beginning. But in reality man evolved to his present
stage over a period of thousands or perhaps millions of years.

Along with mans evolution also evolved mans concept of God and sacrifice. It
is believed that man during his intellectual infancy through ignorance and
superstition came upon the idea that there was a God and that somehow man had
offended Him. Man during this stage of superstitious ignorance reasoned that the
sacrifice of an animal or another human would somehow appease the wrath of the
offended God. Sort of a bribe, in order to keep the gods from exercising their wrath
upon the offending individual.

These ideas of God continued to evolve until modern times, in which the
wisdom of man concludes that there is no need for sacrifice, only repentance and
submission to a declared code of conduct.

It is for this reason that many declare that the laws of sacrifice outlined in the
Old Testament were of a much later date than the date assigned by Bible believers.
The theory is that the more complex the later the date of its evolution both in
nature and in man and his religion. Many assign the laws of sacrifice therefore to a
much later date. Usually they will assign them to the period of Solomon's Temple
or the Babylonian captivity. Supposedly certain priests wanted to magnify their
authority over the religious lives of Israel so they knowingly forged the book of
Leviticus and claimed it to be of Mosaic origin. But we believe Jesus is of
sufficient authority to settle the issue of inspiration of the book of Leviticus and the
Pentateuch in general. Jesus in His teaching referred to the Pentateuch in general
as inspired several times, and assigns it to Moses.

Of course if the theory that the more complex the later the date were true, we
would always find the more complex of any facet of mans realm in the more
modern times. But let us take for instance the Anglo Saxon language with its five
cases and eight declensions of the noun. It is more complex than its modern
descendant, modern English. Latin is far more complex than Italian. As we can
readily see, the theory that the more complex the more modern is not true. Almost
without exception the more complex a thing the more ancient it is.

The evolutionary theory, if true, makes the Bible an invention of man. The
evolution of mans thought, specifically the evolution of mans thinking about God.
Therefore the Bible has no efficacy. Why then would man believe that obedience
to its commands would bring salvation from punishment for sin. For if this theory
is true there is no sin, and the humanist claim that all values are subjective, all
truths are changing, right and wrong are situational, must be true. But the
conscience of man before it has had time to be impressed with such logic declares
to us that there is a God and we feel guilt when we do that which is wrong. The
witness of the Bible and the conscience of man is sufficient to disprove the validity
of the theory of evolution.



Webster's New Collegiate dictionary defines a cult as:

1. formal religious veneration: worship 2. system
of religious beliefs and ritual; also; its body of
adherents 3. a religion regarded as unorthodox or
spurious; also its body of adherents.

These three definitions will fit all categories of sacrifice that will be discussed.
The first two definitions describe correctly the worship of Israel. The last
definition describes the worship by pagan religions.

According to the Bible, sacrifice is almost as old as man himself. We can trace
the first blood sacrifice offered by man to Abel, the son of Adam and Eve.
Although some Biblical critics believe that this account is not true and that the
Bible accounts of sacrifice in any specified order was written after the
establishment of the Temple or during the Babylonian captivity. History declares
the account to be true.

Almost all ancient cultures have an account of the fall of man from the garden.
The Persian tradition states:

Our first parents, innocent virtuous and happy, lived
in a garden, where there was a tree of immortality,
till and evil spirit in the form of a serpent appeared.

The Greek, Hindus, Babylonians, Chinese, Mongolians, Tibetians and Teutons
have similar traditions of the beginning state of man and his fall. All barbarous
races have traditions of a more civilized state.

Likewise in all ancient religions, sacrifice is central. Archaeology and history
demonstrate the universality of sacrifice in all human religions. The sacrifices
were in some respects alike and in others different. Different as to that which was
offered and the reason it was offered. Some of the more extreme religions offered
human sacrifices. Sometimes from those they captured in war and sometimes from
their own family. Children were most often used as sacrifice. An example is the
worship of Molech. Molech was usually made of brass, and was hollow inside. A
fire was built inside the belly of the idol and at the appropriate time in the worship
the child to be sacrificed was laid alive in the glowing red hot arms of Molech.
Sacrifice is the very pivot of mans attempt to somehow appease his god.

Many attempt to explain this as an evolution in religion, in an attempt to
reconcile the likenesses of the Old Testament sacrifices and the sacrifices of the
pagan religions. The explanation given is that the sacrifices of the Bible are
adaptations of pagan practices. Why would not the very opposite be the more
reasonable? Why would it not be more reasonable to think that the pagan religions
were adaptations by man of the commands of God. These commands were carried
out by God's people during the pre-flood age, beginning with Cain and Abel, and
carried over into the next by Noah and his descendants. Divinely revealed and
divinely ordered sacrifices are recorded from the time of Cain and Abel onward.
We know that the sacrifices of Cain and Abel were ordained by God but that only
Abel obeyed. The scripture tells us that Abel made his sacrifice by faith, (Hebrews
11:4). That is, in accordance to a God given command, (Romans 10:17). Also in
the case of Noah we know that the sacrifices were ordained by God. There is no
record of God's instructions to Noah, but the record informs us that Noah offered
animals that were later in Mosaical Law considered clean, (Genesis 8:20).
Therefore Noah had previously been informed by God what was clean and
unclean, what was acceptable and unacceptable.

Noah by faith offers what God instructed, and God is pleased. Because Divine
instruction has been followed, God makes a promise to Noah that He will never
again destroy the world with water, (Genesis 9:8-17).

But man wishes for a god that he can see, so he makes one for himself and
adapts from the commands for worship that have been given by God. Thus man
creates for himself a god and a way of worship that pleases himself. Why adapt?
For the very simple reason that man has no idea apart from Divine revelation what
would please God. Or even that there is a God. Nor does man know what is
displeasing to God without Divine revelation. But the God of all creation speaks
only to a few and to those few gives commands for all. This is dissatisfactory to
man in general. Man wishes to be his own god, but feeling inept because of his
own frailty, creates for himself gods, gods that he can equate to, gods that are not
smarter nor more powerful than man himself, gods that can be fooled.

It is unreasonable to believe that anything within man or nature would cause
man to believe that the sacrificing of another man or animal would bring about
forgiveness of sin. That such a sacrifice would cause God to forgive and not
punish, none that is, short of Divine revelation. If man had concluded from his
own intelligence or from nature that a sacrifice would please God, apart from
Divine revelation, then the same reason or sign in nature would still be declaring
its need for fulfillment. But it is not.

There are very few religions today that still offer blood sacrifices as a part of
worship. The Jewish religion of today views the sacrifices as commanded of God
not as a cover of sin or a propitiation for sin. The rationalist view of the sacrifices
of the Old Testament sacrifices is:

Sacrifice was ordained as an accommodation to the
conceptions of a primitive people, and for the
purpose of weaning them away from the debased
religious rites of their idolatrous neighbor

The Rabbi, however hoped that with the process
of time, human conduct would advance to higher
standards so that there would no longer be any
need for expiatory sacrifices. Only the feeling
of gratitude to God would remain.

Henceforth, repentance becomes the sole cond-
ition of all expiation and Divine forgiveness
of sins: Neither the sin-offering, nor the
trespass-offering, nor the Day of Atonement
is of any avail unless accompanied by repent-

It is true that sacrifices were not acceptable to God without repentance, because
repentance is one of the first requirements of acceptable sacrifice. The Jews of
today do not make blood sacrifices, they believe that:

With the cessation of sacrifices study of the
Torah, prayer, and beneficence definitely take
the place of the Temple service. It is for this
reason that the disappearance of the Temple did
not in any way cripple Judaism. When the Temple
fell, there still remained the Synagogue with
reading and exposition of the Torah, and congreg-
ational worship without priest or sacrificial
ritual. The Temple was only in Jerusalem, while
the Synagogue was in every village, the expressing
of the Jew's religion day by day and week by week.
The Temple was the altar, the Synagogue was the
hearth, and the sacred fire burned on both of
them. With the fall of the Temple, the fire was
quenched on the altar, stamped out under the heel
of the conquerors, but still it glowed on the
hearth. In all their history, the Jewish people
have scarcely done anything more wonderful than
to create the Synagogue. No human institution
has a longer continuous history, and none has
done more for the uplifting of the human race.

Alfred Edersheim in his book, "The Temple" notes that the Jew of the 1800's
also had this same attitude.

It is a curious fact, but sadly significant
that modern Judaism should declare neither
sacrifices nor a Levitical Priesthood to
belong to the essence of the Old Testament,
that, in fact, they had been foreign elements
imported into it - tolerated, indeed, by
Moses, but against which the prophets earn-
estly protested and incessantly labored.

We do note that the prophets were not against the offering of sacrifices, but against
the abuse of sacrifice. This will be brought out in the chapter, "Abuse In

The origin of the Synagogue is unknown. The traditions of the Jews give many
explanations for its beginning. But it is interesting what Alfred Edersheim had to
say on this topic:

.... there is not a hint of synagogue worship
either in the law or the prophets; and this
of itself would be decisive, considering the
importance of the subject. Besides, it may be
said that there was no room for such meetings
under the Old Testament dispensation. There
the whole worship was typical - the sacrifi-
cial services alike constituting the manner
in which Israel approached unto God, and
being the way by which He communicated bless-
ings to His people.

Where then did the synagogue begin? How did it reach such importance in the
mind of the Jew? How could it take the place of the sacrifices and the Temple
worship? Again Alfred Edersheim gives us a bit of insight into these questions.

In point of fact the attentive reader of the
books of Ezra and Nehemiah will discover in
the period after the return from Babylon the
beginnings of the synagogue. Only quite rudi-
mentary as yet, and chiefly for the purposes
of instructing those who had come back ignor-
ant and semi-heathenish - still, they formed
a starting point. Then came the time of terr-
ible Syrian oppression and persecutions, and
of the Maccabean rising. We can understand,
how under such circumstances the institution
of the synagogue would develop, and gradually
assume the proportions and the meaning which
it afterwards attained. For it must be borne
in mind, that in proportion as the spiritual
import of the Temple services was lost to
view, and Judaism became a matter of outward
ordinances, nice distinctions, and logical
discussion, the synagogue would grow in im-

We begin to understand then how such an excessive value could be placed upon
the Synagogue after the Temple was destroyed. It became the only means that the
Jewish people had to worship God that found its beginning with their forefathers.
Because of this synagogue worship rapidly grew in the estimation of the people
beyond all bounds of moderation or reason. The synagogue soon came to be more
important in the minds of the people than the Temple and the sacrifices that were
made there. Perhaps this is the reason that the attitude developed, that loss of the
Temple and the cessation of the sacrifices was no great loss.

From this we can see that the Jew of today believes that blood sacrifices have
no proper place in their worship. Even though they do not accept Jesus as Messiah
nor the sacrifice that He made.

Sacrifices were to cease, this is evident from a study of the Old Testament. But
not because man had progressed in his action or thinking, nor because religion and
man had evolved to such a state that blood sacrifices were no longer necessary.
But it is in Christ that all find their culmination. The Old Testament pointed to the
sacrifice Christ would make once and for all, for all mankind. We might say the
book of Leviticus anticipates the "Eternal Sacrifice", Jesus Christ. He is pointed
out as our blood sacrifice and High Priest, (Hebrews 9:1-28).

The children of Israel perverted God's way with their traditions, (Matthew 15:7-
9), just as the pagan religions perverted God's commands and adapted them to the
worship of their own gods. Some of the perverted ideas that sprang up around
sacrifice in the pagan religions were: The Food idea, they believed that, that which
was sacrificed was food that was needed by the god; The Totemistic idea, the
worshiper believed that when he offered food to the god and then partook of it
himself that he fed upon the god; The Life-liberation idea, a union was believed to
be made between the offerer and the god when the animals life was taken, the life
being received by the god and the flesh being eaten by the offerer; The Magic
idea, the sacrifice was a magical rite that forced the god to grant the wishes of the

From history we can see that there have been orthodox and unorthodox
sacrifices. The true sacrifice cult came into being by command of God.
that later developed were improvisions of man.

Believing that the Bible is true and the accounts given are not allegorical,
mythical or folklore, we must view the sacrifices as commands of a merciful God.

God gave these commands for a specific purpose to accomplish a specific end.
That end being communion between God and man, and when man through faith
offered what God commanded then, and only then, could that communion take



The principles of sacrifice are woven through the whole concept of Biblical
obedience to God. These principles are not readily seen in the Patriarchal period
but they become evident in the Mosaical period. These three principles are basic to
all Biblical sacrifice. These principles are unchanging and the understanding of
these principles will lead us that live under the New Testament to a more perfect

We do not find these principles outlined in the New Testament as readily as
they are in the Mosaical period of the Old Testament, but as we study we will see
how they apply. We must remember that the children of Israel had an
understanding of the principles of sacrifice. But the pagan religions did not
understand sacrifice. Their reasons for sacrifice varied according to the doctrine
taught by the priesthood of their particular deity or deities. Their mis-
understandings are discussed in the chapter, "Sacrifice Cult."

As we begin this study let us first look at some scriptures where these principles
are most evident, 1 Chronicles 28:8-9, and chapter 29:3,5,9. The first principle
that we find and continue to find throughout this reading is that of "Concession,"
willing concession. So the first principle that we find is that in order for a sacrifice
to be acceptable to God, it must be given willingly. If the sacrifice was given only
to complete a ritual or because the offerer felt forced to give, it was not acceptable.
Why? Because through the sacrifice the offerer was saying to God, "I give up" or
"I surrender." It was to be a giving up of self-will and the giving over totally to the
will of God.

The Old Testament word that best describes this principle is, "Qorban"
(sometimes spelled corban), and offering made unto the Lord, whether bloody or
not. Jesus condemned the Jews for their misuse of Qorban in Mark 7:11. The
Jews were using this as an excuse to circumvent their caring for their aged parents.
The very care that God had commanded them to give their aged parents. So in fact
they were giving up nothing. The very care they owed their parents they were
claiming to give to God. Truly they were offering to God that which cost them

God prospers us by allowing us to use the great bounty that is His. We in turn
show our love and thankfulness to God by returning to Him a portion of that which
He has given to us. We do this by giving to the poor and supporting those that can
no longer support themselves. We also show our love by supporting those that
preach the Gospel to a lost and dying world.

We in effect then become God's disbursing agents, if we truly are God's
children. But to often we begin to feel that it is by our hand and our own might
and ingenuity alone that we have such abundance. When we begin to feel this way
we also begin to feel that we are doing God a favor by serving Him, and that God
could not get along without us. David said it better than any when inspired by the
Holy Spirit he wrote of God saying:

For every beast of the forest is mine, and the
cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the
fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of
the field are mine. If I were hungry, I would
not tell thee: for the world is mine, and the
fullness thereof. Will I eat the flesh of bulls,
or drink the blood of goats? Offer unto God
Thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the most

If we keep this perspective we will not become puffed up in our own conceit,
believing that we are the power and the authority. But we will concede to God and
His authority. This we must do in order to meet the first principle of sacrifice.

The second principle of sacrifice is, "Completeness" or "Consecration" to God.
There had to be a loss. The offering had to cost the offerer something. Also we
notice that it cost the life of the offering. The life blood of the offering must be
poured out before the forgiveness of sin could take place. The book of Hebrews
informs us:

...and without the shedding of blood is no

This law was regarded by the Jew as universal in its application, in the Talmud it is

There is no atonement except in blood.

The offerer would lay his hands upon the head of the sacrifice to symbolize the
transfer of his sins to the animal offered. Also symbolizing the loss of self and
willful disobedience to the will of God. The offerer was not somehow relieved of
the responsibility for his sins but the sacrifice, if offered with trueness of heart, was
the offerers way of saying to God, "I give myself completely over to Your will. I
am consecrated to thy service."

If there was no loss the sacrifice was unacceptable. David in 2 Samuel 24:21-
24, portrays this principle best. David to make atonement for his sin goes to make
a sacrifice to show his repentance and his giving himself over to God. He is
instructed by the prophet Gad to make an altar unto God and sacrifice at the
threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.

And David according to the saying of Gad went
up as the Lord commanded and Araunah looked,
and saw the king and his servants coming on
toward him and Araunah went out, and bowed
himself before the king on his face upon
the ground. And Araunah said, Wherefore is
my Lord the king come to his servant? And
David said, To buy the threshing floor of
thee, to build an altar unto the Lord, that
the plague may be stayed from the people.
And Araunah said unto David, Let my lord the
king take and offer up what seemeth good unto
him: behold here be oxen for burnt sacrifice,
and threshing instruments and other instru-
ments of the oxen for wood. All these things
did Araunah, as a king, give unto the king.
And Araunah said unto the king, The Lord accept
thee. And the king said unto Araunah; Nay
but I will surely buy it of thee at a price:
neither will I offer burnt offerings unto
the Lord my God of that which doth cost me

David understood this principle, "If it cost me nothing then it is worth nothing
to God." We need to learn this principle. We will deal with this more in the
chapter, "Abuse In Sacrifice." But at this point let it suffice to say that when we
today give from an abundance that which costs us nothing, when we give that
which will not be missed or that which we no longer want and call it sacrifice we
violate this principle.

The third principle of sacrifice is, "Change," or transformation. When one
sacrificed acceptably in the Old Testament there had to be a change. The change
took place in the heart of the offerer, when the life of the offering was taken. The
offerer brought the animal to be sacrificed usually from his own herds and flocks,
and laid his hands upon the head of the animal and the animal's throat was cut and
his life blood poured out, his life was ended. Ended not because of any fault of the
animal, not for food, but because of the rebellion of the offerer against God. The
individual making the offering recognized this fact if he truly was making the
offering for the purpose and reason God commanded. This should have had an
humbling effect even upon the most hardened sinner. To realize that the innocent
are dying, their life blood is being poured out, not for any fault of their own but
because of my rebellion against God.

The very idea presented in this is that God is not so interested in total
destruction as He is in transformation. God desires fellowship with His creation,
(Isaiah 1:16-19). God is interested in having fellowship with us. He loves us! The
very effect that God is hoping for is the change in man. The true sacrifice that God
wants is:

For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I
give it: thou delightest not in burnt offering.
The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a
broken and a contrite heart, O God thou will
not despise.

The whole fifty first chapter of Psalms is speaking of this aspect of sacrifice.
David is not saying God did not command sacrifices to be made but that the
sacrifice was not the end but the means to the end. The end being fellowship with
God. We read in Genesis 8:20-21, that after leaving the Ark, Noah built an altar
and offered thereon burnt offerings unto God of every clean beast. It is said that
these offerings were a sweet savour to the Lord. Was the smell of flesh burning a
sweet savour to the Lord? No! But Noah's heart and soul in grateful recognition
of the love and providence of the God of heaven and earth was. This was the
sweet savour that came up to God. Noah showed his love of God in the sacrifices
that he made. Again we see this concept set forth by Micah:

Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and
bow myself before the high God? Shall I come
before Him with burnt offerings, with calves
of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with
thousands of rams or with ten thousands of
rivers of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for
my transgression, the fruit of my body for the
sin of my soul?
He hath shewed thee, O man what is good and
what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do
justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly
with thy God?

So we know for certain that God is not so interested in the sacrifice as He is in
the transformation that is to take place in the heart of the offerer. And the change
that takes place in the fellowship between man and God.



During the stay of man in the Garden of Eden we have no record of any animal
sacrifice being made. But keeping in mind that there had been no sin, nobreak in
communion with God there was no need of such a sacrifice.

Never-the-less there was sacrifice. Adam and Eve for an undetermined amount
of time denied themselves the pleasure of eating the fruit of the tree of the
knowledge of good and evil. They had been forbidden by God to eat of it. God
had instructed them that the day they ate of it they would die. Faith led them to
submit to God.

Adam and Eve were created sinless and free moral agents. They were given the
right to choose. In exercising their right to choose, for an undetermined amount of
time they chose to sacrifice their freedom to disobey God, in order to please Him.
Adam and Eve's sacrifice of their right to choose wrong in order to please God
meets all the principles of sacrifice except the last principle. But we remember that
at this point there was no sin, no need for change in the relationship between God
and man was necessary. We realize that they too were meeting the criteria of the
principles of sacrifice. Then came the time when Adam and Eve chose to disobey
God and ate of the tree. In their rebellion they fell from the grace of God.

God in keeping with the provisions of the covenant that He made with Adam
caused him to die spiritually at that moment and drove him out of the Garden of
Eden, there separated from the tree of life to die physically. Although the word
covenant is not used in regards to that which was transacted between God and
Adam, the Biblical criteria for a covenant was met. Namely, God made a promise
suspended upon a condition, and attached to disobedience a certain penalty, and to
obedience a certain reward.

We know that Adam and Eve understood these conditions very well, because
Eve rehearsed God's commands for Satan when he appeared, (Genesis 3:2-3), and
Adam after he had eaten feared God, (Genesis 3:8-10).

God in His mercy, from the moment of mans rebellion, promised to send a
Saviour that would change mans rebellious state. That the communion and
fellowship that man had broken would be restored to its former state, by the
Saviour, (Genesis 3:15). Here we find the first promise of a Saviour, the first
promise of the ultimate sacrifice for all sin. Here also we see the first picture of
the blood sacrifice. God having pity upon fallen man kills innocent animals and
takes their skins to cover the nakedness and shame of man. From the very moment
of sin man has been trying to cover his nakedness and shame. Some according to
God's instruction and some seeking to cover their sin their own way. Those
seeking God's will and covering their sin God's way, communing with God, those
seeking to cover their sin their own way, still in rebellion against God. Both will
meet God, one with humility and love , the other with a stiff neck and hard heart.



The first recorded sacrifice was that of Cain and Abel. There is much
speculation and many theories as to the reason for their sacrifice. Did they do it
only from an innate desire to worship? Was this merely the beginning of the
evolution of sacrifice? Did they somehow believe that a sacrifice would please
God? All these questions are answered when we believe the Bible account of the
creation and the accounts of Cain and Abel as factual.

The Bible tells us that Abel's sacrifice was accepted because it was offered by
faith, (Hebrews 11:4). The Bible tells us that faith comes from hearing God's
word, (Romans 10:17). From this we know that a command had been given by
God for the sacrifice that they made. Although the command is not recorded, we
know that it was given. Nothing can be done by faith without previous instruction
being given by God. Faith is belief conjoined with obedience to God given

The Bible does not outline the sacrifice that was to be offered, but it informs us
that Abel's sacrifice was accepted and Cain's rejected. Why? Was Cain's rejected
because it was not a blood sacrifice? Or, was it because Abel brought the first fruit
and Cain just brought something to get by? It would be easy to say God rejected
the offering of Cain because it was not a blood sacrifice if it were not for the later
recorded command of God for the first fruit of the ground also to be sacrificed.
From a close reading of the scriptures we find that Cain's sacrifice was most likely
rejected because of it quality. (A literal translation of Genesis 4:7 from the
Septuagint says: "Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly but yet not
rightly divided it?" Cain sin was that he had not rightly divided, he did not bring
God the best. Whereas in the same text it says Abel brought the best of the best.
So we have found the answers to our questions. Cain's sacrifice was not rejected
because it was not a blood offering but because he did not bring the best. Abel's
sacrifice was accepted, not because it was a blood sacrifice but because it was the
best of the best.)

Noah also made sacrifices unto God, again we find no specific command
recorded, but sacrifices were offered. It seems that the sacrifices made until
Abraham were more by presentation than for atonement.

Abraham, a man much like Noah, lived in a world that did not seek God at all.
Abraham in humility sought after God, in obedience went out at God's command.
As he traveled he made sacrifices to God. Sacrifices of thanksgiving, sacrifices that
showed the love and friendship that he had with God. The ultimate test of
Abraham's faith and love came when God commanded Abraham to offer his son
Isaac as a sacrifice to Him. Without hesitation Abraham obeyed the voice of God.
But at the very moment that Abraham was about to slay Isaac God sent an angel to
stay his hand. Abraham had proven his faith and love for God, (Genesis 22:11-12).

I believe that God provided this test to prove Abraham's faith and love not only
to Himself but also to Abraham. God could read the heart of Abraham and know
that Abraham loved Him and how deep that love was. But did Abraham know?
God had great things in store for Abraham. Abraham needed to know the depth of
his love of God and the strength of his faith so that he would be prepared for what
lay ahead, so he would have no doubts about himself as he led his family, God's

God in His infinite wisdom has provided for us an example of true obedience
and sincere love by the testing of Abraham and setting him forth as an example for

From the time of Abraham until Moses the Patriarchs were with their sacrifices
laying their hearts and wills upon the altar. We see their complete submission to
the will of God. Yes, they made mistakes but they repented and turned to God.

During the Patriarchal period there was not a formal ritual that must always be
observed, nor was there only one place for the sacrifice to be offered as there was
later in the Mosaical period. The place of offering was usually at the discretion of
the offerer.



In chapter six the sacrifices of the Patriarchal period were studied let us now
study the blood sacrifices of the Mosaical period.

The first of the four types of blood sacrifices we will consider is the Sin
Offering, (for atonement). This offering was made for sins that were committed
unwittingly. That is, the act was not known to be a sin and at a later time it was
recognized as a trespass against the law of God.

The Sin Offering was offered by the High Priest, the congregation as a whole,
by a ruler, or by any individual realizing a non-intentional sin, (Leviticus 4:2-35,
Exodus 29:1-46, Numbers 15:22-29).

Each year upon the Day of Atonement a sin-offering was made by the High
Priest for Israel, (Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 16:2-28). The victim of the sin offering
had to be a he-goat when offered by a ruler, (Leviticus 4:;25). But for the ordinary
person according to his means, a she-goat, or a ewe lamb, or a turtle dove, or a
young pigeon, or a cereal offering could be made, (Leviticus 4:29-30, 5:7-11).
For the priest or Levite at their consecration a bullock must be offered as a sin
offering, (Exodus 29:36, Leviticus 4:3, Numbers 8:8). When a sin offering was
made for the whole congregation the offering must be a bullock, and a he-goat,
(Numbers 15:24). On the Day of Atonement a bullock was offered for the priests
and two he-goats for the congregation, (Leviticus 16:3ff).

When the offering was being made by a priest for his sin he would bring a
bullock to the door of the Tabernacle, (later the Temple) and lay his hands upon
the head of the victim and slay the victim there. The blood would be caught in a
bason and brought into the Tabernacle and sprinkled seven times before the veil of
the sanctuary, the priest would then place some of the blood on each of the horns
of the Altar of Sweet Incense that is in the Holy Place. The rest of the blood would
then be poured out at the bottom of the Altar of Sacrifice. The victim would be cut
up and the fat that covers the inwards, the two kidneys, and the caul above the liver
would be burned upon the Altar of Burnt Offerings. The remainder of the victim
would be burned outside the camp in a clean place, (where ever the ashes from the
altar were poured out), (Leviticus 4:3-12).

When a sin offering was made for the congregation, an offering of a young
bullock would be brought to the door of the Tabernacle and the Elders of Israel
would lay their hands upon the head of the victim. The victim would them be slain
by cutting its throat. The blood of the victim would be caught in a bason and
carried by a priest into the Tabernacle and sprinkled seven times before the veil,
again the blood would be placed upon the horns of the Altar of Incense and the
remainder of the blood poured out at the base of the Altar of Burnt Offering, which
stands just outside the door of the Tabernacle. The same portion that was burned
for the priest was prepared and offered upon the Altar of Burnt Offering. The
remainder of the victim was burned outside the camp in a clean place, (Leviticus

When a sin offering was offered for a ruler, a he-goat without blemish was
offered. The victim was brought by the ruler to the door of the Tabernacle and
offered in the same manner as the sin offerings of the priest and congregation. The
only difference being that the portion that usually was burned outside the camp
went to the priest accepting the sacrifice, (Leviticus 4:22-26).

When the sin offering was offered by a private individual the same ritual was
followed. With the portion that was not burned upon the altar going to the priest
that officiated at the sacrifice, (Leviticus 4:27-35).

Special occasions for the offering of sin offerings were; for the cleansing of a
leper, (Leviticus 14:13, 19, 22, 31); for the removal of ceremonial uncleanness,
(Leviticus 15:15, 30); on the Day of Atonement, (Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 16:2-
28); on the Day of Pentecost, (Leviticus 23:19); for the redemption of a vow,
(Numbers 6:11-16); at the Feast of Tabernacles, (Numbers 29:11-38); at the
beginning of the New Year, (Numbers 28:15); and the Passover, (Numbers 28:22).

The second of the blood sacrifices that should be considered is the Burnt-
Offering, (the sacrifice of self-dedication). The Burnt-Offering is the oldest of all
sacrifices. It was universal before the Mosaical period. We first see this sacrifice
being made by Abel. At God's command the burnt offering was continued into the
Mosaical period, (Leviticus 1:1-17).

The Burnt-Offering was a continual daily sacrifice during the Mosaical period.
It was first made at the Tabernacle and then later at the Temple. The daily
sacrifice was two lambs, (Exodus 29:38-42). (One in the morning and one in the
evening.) The Burnt-Offering was doubled on the weekly Sabbath, (Numbers
28:6-12). Upon the monthly New Moon Sabbath an additional two bulls, one ram
and seven lambs were offered, (Numbers 28:11-15). Daily during the Passover
week, two bulls, one ram and seven additional lambs (per day) were offered,
(Numbers 28:19-24). Daily during the Feast of Tabernacles, beginning with
Thirteen bulls, two rams and fourteen lambs, on the first day, the number being
decreased daily thereafter, (Numbers 29:12-40). With the sheaf of the First Fruits a
Burnt-Offering of one he-lamb was made, (Leviticus 23:12). On the day of First
Fruits, two young bulls, one ram and seven lambs were offered, (Numbers 28:26-
31). On Pentecost, one bull, two rams and seven lambs or two bulls were offered,
(Leviticus 23:18, Numbers 28:27). Upon the Day of Atonement a ram was
offered for the High Priest, a ram for the congregation and, one bull and seven
lambs were offered, (Leviticus 16:5, 24). At the consecration of priests, two rams
were offered, (Exodus 29:15-25). At the consecration of Levites one ram was
offered, (Leviticus 9:1-21).

For the sins of ignorance a Burnt-Offering of one young bull was made,
(Numbers 15:24-25). If one hears swearing, a Burnt-Offering of a turtle-dove, or a
young pigeon was made, (Leviticus 5:7-10). For the purification of women, one
lamb or one pigeon was offered, (Leviticus 12:6-8). For the cleansing of lepers,
one lamb or one pigeon was offered, (Leviticus 14:10, 21-22, 31). For one who
had been defiled, one young pigeon or turtle-dove was offered, (Leviticus 15:14-
15). For the defilement of a Nazarite, one turtle dove or one pigeon was offered,
(Numbers 6:11). On the expiration of any vow an offering of one lamb was made
as Burnt Offering, (Numbers 6:14-16). On the expiration of the vows of a Nazarite,
one he-lamb of the first year without blemish was offered, (Numbers 6:13-14).

At all the festivals celebrated by the children of Israel a Burnt-Offering was
made, (1 Chronicles 23:31).

The Burnt-Offering that was required was regulated by a persons rank, his
wealth and the severity of the sin. The offerer would bring the offering to the door
of the Tabernacle and lay his hands upon the victims head and it was accepted by
God as an atonement for the sins of the offerer, when it was slain.

The priest would kill the offering by cutting its throat, except in the case of
turtle-doves or pigeons, their heads were pinched off. The blood was sprinkled
around the altar. The offering if not a turtle-dove or pigeon would be cut into
pieces the legs and viscera were washed in water before placing them upon the
altar with all the other parts of the offering. The only portion of the Burnt-Offering
that went to the priest was the skin, everything else was burned.

Sometimes the Burnt-Offering is referred to as a holocaust, because it was
completely burnt, (Leviticus 1:1-17, 6:8-13, 9:2-24).

The Burnt-Offering was a burnt offering made by fire as a sweet savour unto
the Lord, (Leviticus 1:17).

Another of the blood sacrifices is the Trespass Offering or Guilt Offering. This
sacrifice was made for guilt through ceremonial uncleanness, or through rash
swearing, (Leviticus 5:2-4).

According to the means of the offerer the offering could be a female lamb, a kid
of the goats, two turtle-doves or two young pigeons, (Leviticus 5:6-7). The offerer
would bring the offering to the priest, the priest would slay the victim after the
offerer had made his confession. The blood of the offering would be sprinkled
upon the side of the altar with the remainder being poured out at the base of the

The priest offered the rump, the fat that covered the inward parts, the kidneys
and the caul above the liver upon the altar as an offering. The remainder was eaten
by the priests in the confines of the Holy Place, (Leviticus 7:1-6).

In the case that the offerer was too poor to bring the prescribed blood offering
he was allowed to bring a meal offering of a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour,
(Leviticus 5:11).

The last of the blood offerings that we will consider is the Peace offering, (the
sacrifice of change or transformation). This offering is also called the,
"Thanksgiving Offering", "Free-Will Offering", "Wave Offering" and "Heave
Offering," (Leviticus 3:1-17).

The Peace Offering was to bring peace and communion between the offerer and
God. We can see in all the sacrifices a representation of the work of Christ, but
perhaps this offering best depicts the great necessity of the sacrifice of Christ, in
order for man to be at peace with God.

The victim of the offering could be either of the herd or flock That is either a
calf, lamb or goat. It could be either male or female but it must be without
blemish. This offering also was taken to the priest at the door of the Tabernacle.
Like the other sacrifices the offer would lay his hands upon the head of the offering
and then the sacrificial animal was slain by the cutting of the throat. The blood
was caught in a bason and was sprinkled upon the sides of the altar, the remainder
being poured out under the altar. The fat that covered the inward parts, the whole
rump, the kidneys and the caul above the liver were offered upon the Altar of
Burnt Offering.

If the offering being made was a Thanksgiving Offering it would be
accompanied by a meal offering of cakes. The portion that belonged to the priest
had to be eaten the same day. But if the offering was a Voluntary Offering the
portion belonging to the priest could be eaten that day and the next, (Leviticus 3:1-
17, 7:12-21).

There was an order to the types of sacrifices offered.

In the consecration of Aaron and his sons,
(Leviticus 8), there was first a sin offering,
as an approach to God, next a burnt offering,
typical of dedication to His service, and the
meat offering of thanksgiving; and further,
a peace offering for the congregation, which
was accepted by the miraculous decent of fire
upon the altar. This was ever afterwards the
order of the sacrifices.

The natural order of victims in the sacrificial
service of the Law was, first the Sin-Offering,
then the Burnt-Offering, and last the Peace-
Offering. This answers to the spiritual process
through which the worshiper had to pass. He
had transgressed the Law, he needed the atone-
ment signified by the Sin-Offering: if his
offering had been made in truth and sincerity,
he could then offer himself to the Lord as an
accepted person, as a sweet savour, in the
Burnt-Offering, and in virtue of this acceptance,
he could enjoy communion with the Lord and with
his brethren in the Peace-Offering.

In the perfect sacrificial system, the four classes of blood offerings are to be
regarded as representing distinct aspects of Divine truth connected with man's
relation to Jehovah. But it is important to observe that in no sacrifice is the idea of
the Burnt-Offering left out.

When we turn to this Sinaitic institution what an infinite difference between it and
pagan expiatory notions. We observe by the outline the significance of the various
offerings, one signifying atonement, another self-dedication and another fellowship
and communion with God. The order is right.

The first necessity is that of pardoned sin
by moral provisions the sinner must be put
right with God, hence the sin offering. He
is now in position to dedicate himself to
God and His service, hence the burnt offering.
He may now enjoy the fellowship of God and
have the consciousness of being at peace
with Him, hence the peace offering.

Five animals are named in the law as suit-
able for sacrifice, the ox, the sheep, the
goat, the dove and the pigeon. It is wor-
thy of notice that these were all offered
by Abraham in the great sacrifice of the
covenant. (Genesis 15:9-10)

All the animals sacrificed met three qualifications, first they were clean
according to the law, Second they were commonly used as food, and third they
formed a part of the home wealth of the offerers.

Thus all information we have in the law about the offerings and the offerers
surround three basic areas. First, the offerer. Who is bringing the offering? Is he
a priest, a Levite, a ruler, or a common individual? Second, the offering. Is the
offering the quality and quantity that God has prescribed? Is the offering in
accordance not only with God's law but is it also in accord with the individual's
wealth and station in life? Third, the purpose. Is the sacrifice being offered for the
purpose God commanded? Is it being offered in the spirit which will be acceptable
to God? Or, is the offerer simply trying to bribe God, or trying to just get by?

That God commanded sacrifices to be made is certain, but it is also certain that
if the requirements regarding the offerer, the offering and the purpose were not met
then the sacrifice would not be acceptable to God. Later in this study we will
explore some thoughts about abuse in sacrifice from the prophets and from Jesus.
This will help us understand that right attitude is important to acceptable sacrifice.

Several different words are used in the Old Testament when speaking of
sacrifice, whereas generally in English only one or two words are used. A study of
the words used in the Old Testament might be beneficial to our study at this point.

The first word used in the Old Testament for sacrifice is "Minchah." It is used
in Genesis 4:3-4, and at this point refers both to the offering of vegetable and the
blood offerings made by Cain and Abel. Later it is used exclusively to refer to the
"Meat" (the vegetable offering). The word means:

....a gift offered to a divinity, a

Other words for sacrifice are:

Asham: a sacrifice for transgression.

Zabach: a sacrifice. It is not used of
the priest slaying the victims but of
private persons who brought sacrifices
at their own charge.

Zebach: a sacrifice, an offering. It
denotes sacrifices of which a part was
consumed by fire.

Chag: a festival sacrifice.

Alah: to offer a burnt offering.

Olah: what is offered upon the altar.

Asah: to make or prepare a victim to
be offered to God, hence to offer.

Qorban: an oblation, sacrifice, or
offering whether bloody or unbloody.

Tenuwphah: of sacrifices before Jehovah,
i.e. wave offering.

Teruwmah: especially used of a gift
brought to the Temple and the priests,
i.e. heave offering.

From this brief study it is easy to see that the words for offering and sacrifice in
the English come from several different Hebrew words. We also understand that
the English words often fail to convey the thought or idea that the Hebrew writers
were conveying to the people. When reading the original language text it is not
only understood by the language that the offering is being commanded but what
type of offering it is.

Perhaps different words or terms were used for different types of sacrifices so
that the common people would know what type was being commanded without a
constant interpretation by a priest. Thereby removing the excuse, "I didn't know"
or "I didn't understand."

People have not changed in the almost six thousand years they have been
around. They are still looking for excuses for not obeying God. God in His
infinite wisdom knows the heart of man and communicates His will to man in such
a way as to leave nothing to man's conjecture. When man, even common man,
reads God's commands, he knows what God is commanding, he knows what God
wants of him. Yet the most common response is still, "I don't understand" or "I
didn't know." I wonder how many folks will try using these excuses on the day of



Generally most folks assume that any male of the tribe of Levi could become a
priest but this is not the case. All Levites were not priests nor could all become
priests. Only men of the tribe of Levi and of the family of Kohath could become
priests. The family of Kohath was the family of which Moses and Aaron were
members. Although all Levites that were of sound body and mind worked and
served in the ordering of the Tabernacle, only the men of the family of Kohath
officiated as priests or as High Priest.

In order to officiate in the services of the tabernacle the priest had to be at least
thirty years old, (Numbers 4:1-3). But when a man was twenty-five years old he
began his apprenticeship to become a priest. From 1 Chronicles 23:24-32, we
learn that David changed the age that men began their apprenticeship to age
twenty. After the age of fifty a man was no longer required to serve as priest. His
services from that time on were voluntary, but he was expected to serve.

The men of the family of Kohath that were to be ordained as priests had to be
without any physical deformities. There could be no physical imperfections
whatsoever. An off-set eye, a limp, a deformed finger or any other physical
deformity would disqualify a man from serving as priest.

The priest was not allowed to marry anyone that had been divorced or that was
of ill character. The High Priest was only allowed to marry a virgin of good
character and of his own people, (Leviticus 21:13-15).

We begin to see very early in our investigation that the qualities both of body
and spirit were under consideration when choosing a man to become a priest. This
becomes more evident in the consecration service of the priest. With its symbols
and ritual it set forth in the minds of all, the importance of the office, and the purity
required to perform it. We see in this the shadow of the Christian priesthood.

The candidate that had come of age to be initiated as priest was brought to the
door of the Tabernacle. A bullock, two rams, unleavened bread and wheaten cakes
were also brought. The candidate was washed with water, arrayed in official
garments, anointed with holy oil, atoned for by a sin offering, sanctified by a burnt
offering, and admitted into fellowship by a peace offering. In one particular the
ritual of this closing sacrifice differed from that usually observed in sacrifices of
the same class. After the habitual imposition of the hands, and slaughter, some of
the collected blood was put upon the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the right
hand, and the large toe of the right foot, and was sprinkled upon the clothing of the
newly ordained priest. In addition to the usual smearing of the horns of the altar.

We note that this consecration consisted of two sets of acts; the first was a
solemn purification, an express investure and a formal anointing; the second was a
triple sacrifice, in order, a sin offering, a burnt offering and a peace offering.

These rites conveyed many valuable lessons to the children of Israel, but they
only received their full illumination in Christianity. The prescribed ceremony is a
simple and intelligible object lesson in the requisites of acceptable religious
service. In the washing with water we have a symbol of spiritual purification
without which none can approach God. In the Christian age the directly
corresponding symbol of baptism is used to signify the very same idea. In the
vesture there is the visible assumption of the priestly office. In the anointing, the
Divine seal is attached to the acceptance of the office. The inherent sins of the
accepted priest are removed by the sin offering and followed by the sacrifices of
consecration and fellowship. The blood of the ram of consecration being placed
not only upon the altar, but upon the newly ordained priest also. The blood being
placed upon the garment, the ear, the hand and the foot signify that every part must
be atoned for before they are hallowed. Once hallowed they are set apart from
common use. Consecrated and dedicated to their sacred use in God's service.
Interestingly enough the word translated from the Greek to English as Saint means
this very thing.

The priest's duties simply stated were: to offer sacrifices, burn incense and
perform all the other services of the Tabernacle. Also it was their duty to instruct
the people, and to act in all respects as God's ministers of mercy and benevolence.

The priests were middle-men, they had an exceptional privilege of Divine
approach, they represented God to man and man to God. Perhaps Alfred
Edersheim said it best:

The priesthood as representative offerers
of that blood and mediators of the people,
were also to show forth the holiness of
Israel. Everyone knows how this was sym-
bolized by the gold-plate which the High
Priest wore on his forehead, and which,
bore the words: "Holiness Unto Jehovah."
But though the High Priest is this, as
in every other respect was the fullest
embodiment of the functions of the object
of the priesthood, the same truth was also
otherwise shown forth. The bodily qualif-
ications required in the priesthood, the kind
of defilements which would temporarily or
wholly interrupt their functions, their mode
of ordination, and even every portion,
material, and color of their distinctive
dress were all intended to express in
symbolic manner this characteristic of

So we learn that the chosen people of God could not offer their sacrifices
directly to God. They had need of a mediator. The office of priest being the
fulfilling of this need. This made the office of priest of great importance. His
work as middle-man and instructor of righteousness set him before the people as an
example of righteousness. This made his moral values and ethical principles very
important. If the priesthood was corrupt the people would soon follow. The truth
of this is seen over and over again in the recorded history of the children of Israel.
When the priesthood was strong and righteous the people remained true to God.
When the priesthood was weak and sinful so were the people. The truth being
made evident is; the people will not be stronger than their leadership.

We know though that the priest were men, they made mistakes, they sinned.
Just as the sacrifices pointed to the ultimate sacrifice that would be made once and
for all, for all men, the priesthood also pointed to the ultimate High Priest. One
that had no sin, one that never made mistakes or failed to meet God's expectations,
one that would never disappoint the people because of a fault. Symbolic in that it
pictured Christ and the people's need for Him, yet functional because if followed
correctly it would lead them to Christ, (Galatians 3:19-24).



A study of the Holy Scriptures reveal to us that God also met the criteria of the
principles of sacrifice in dealing with man.

In Concession; willing surrender, God gave His only Son willingly, (John 3:16).
God was not forced to send Christ but He did. The background of God's
concession is; God desired to have a relationship with man, He desired peace.
Although God did not start the conflict that existed between man and God, He
wished it to cease. God demonstrated His desire for peace, He made the first
initiative to bring about peace. Man could not save himself, God showed His love
by helping man when man could not help himself. God set Jesus forward as a
sacrifice to satisfy the cost of sin and to bring about that peaceful relationship,
(Romans 3:25). God paid the price (surrendered willingly the price). The price of
peace was His only begotten Son. The Biblical concept of the first born was one of
honor. The first born was allowed privileges others did not have. He received a
double portion of the inheritance. The first born represented, might and strength
which was derived from the father, (Genesis 49:3). He was valuable. God gave
the most valuable, and closest thing to His heart for you and for me. The purchase
price of peace was the life of the Son of God. For a relationship with man God
gave the best that heaven had to offer.

In Completeness; God gave all, He did not just give Jesus partly but totally.
Jesus was set forward as the sacrificial lamb, (John 1:29). God didn't hold
anything back. There was a loss, it cost God something.

In Change; (transformation), God made the proper concession, the sacrifice was
given completely without reservation in order that there would be a change in the
relationship between God and man. Because of Christ's sacrifice man may now
approach God and know for certain that if he comes in submission to God's will
that God will never turn him away or reject him, (Ephesians 2:13-22).



The Bible declares that God from before the foundation of the world had an
eternal plan for man, and, that plan would be brought to its intended purpose by
Christ. Peter and John speaking by inspiration of the Holy Spirit say of Christ:

...Who verily was foreordained before the
foundation of the world.

...the lamb slain from the foundation of
the world.

From these scriptures plus many more we are made aware that God made the plan
for the death of Christ and the redemption of man, before this world was ever
created. Christ is the very pivot point of all of God's plans. He is the Saviour from
before the world began.

In order to set Jesus forth as Saviour we must be able to prove that He is the
Christ, the Son of God. Many demand and deserve proof that Jesus is the Son of
God before they commit their lives to Him. The Deity of Jesus is the foundation of
Christianity. Upon that fact rests the basis of His incarnation, (Isaiah 9:6-7,
Matthew 16:16-18), His Saviourhood, (Acts 8:35-37, Romans 10:9-10), and the
foundation of His church, (Matthew 16:16-18).

If Jesus is not the Son of God, God is a liar, because God claims Him to be,
(Matthew 3:17, 17:5). Jesus lied when He claimed to be the Son of God, (John
10:36). The Holy Spirit lied to Peter when He revealed to him that Jesus was the
Son of God, (Matthew 16:16-17). The Bible is an unreliable record because it sets
Him forth as the Son of God, ( 1 John 5:9-11). And the Apostles were either
mistaken or were deceivers when they declared to the world that Jesus is the Christ
the Son of God, (Acts 2:14-36).

Part of the proof of the Deity of Jesus is in the Divine names and titles He is
given. He is called, "God", (John 1:1, 20:28), He is called, "Immanuel", (Isaiah
7:14, Matthew 1:23), He is called, "The Son of God", (Over forty times in the
New Testament), He is called, "Messiah", (John 1:41, 4:25-26), He is called,
"Lord", (John 13:13), He is called, "King", (John 1:49, 18:37, Revelation 17:14,
19:16), He is called, "The Word", (John 1:1,4), He is called, "The Alpha and
Omega", (Revelation 1:8, 17, 22:13), He is called, "The Almighty", (Revelation

All these titles and names are attributed to Jesus and many more. Names that
are attributed only to God, names that set forth His power and sovereignty, names
that bring to mind Christ's position and fellowship with Jehovah. But names are
not the only proof. Jesus also possesses the Divine attributes of God. He is eternal,
(John 1:1-3), He is self-existent, (John 5:26), He is immutable, (Hebrews 1:10-12,
13:8), He is omnipotent, (Revelation 19:6, Matthew 28:18), Omniscient,
(Matthew 9:4, John 2:24-25), and omnipresent, (Matthew 28:20, 18:20).

Jesus also possesses the very nature of God. He is holy perfect like God, (Luke
1:35, Acts 4:27). He is just - hates sin and will punish it, (Matthew 23:33). He is
merciful - anxious to forgive, (Matthew 9:2, Hebrews 8:12). He is loving - He
died for our sins, (1 Corinthians 15:3). He wants to save, (Revelation 3:20). He
will condemn the wicked, (Matthew 25:30, 41, 46).

Jesus did the works of God. His works prove Him to be the Son of God. His
Divine works are illustrated in; the work of creation, (John 1:1-3), the work of
providence, (Colossians 1:17, Matthew 28:20), the work of revelation, (John
15:26, 16:7, 13, 17:8), the work of miracles, (John 3:2, 11:47, 20:30-31), the work
of atonement, (Hebrews 9:11-15, 24-28), and the work of redemption, (Ephesians
1:7, 1 Peter 1:18-19).

Jesus was worshiped as God. God commanded the angels to worship Jesus,
(Hebrews 1:6). At Christ's birth the angels did worship Him, (Luke 2:8-14). Jesus
claimed equal honor with the Father, (John 5:23). People did worship Jesus while
He was on the earth, (Matthew 8:2, 9:18, 15:25). More than this the Bible declares
to us that the judgment is coming and every knee will bow to Him and every
tongue will confess Him as Lord, (Romans 14:10-12). Man may deny the
existence of God and deny His works, man may declare that there will be no
judgment or punishment of the wicked, but in that day there will be no denying nor
refuting. They will all bow in awe of the majesty of Jesus.

Christ is the Son of God, He is our Redeemer, He is one of the Godhead. But is
that all? No! He also was the perfect substitutionary sacrifice for our sins,
(Ephesians 5:2, 1 Corinthians 10:11, Hebrews 9:14). All of the Old Testament
sacrifices were typical, they were all pointing to Christ. The blood of all the
animal sacrifices could not take away sin. But the perfect sacrifice of Christ could,
(Hebrews 10:1-10). All of the sacrifices were to make evident to the people that a
better sacrifice was needed. Because their sins were remembered again each year,
and sacrifice must be made again and again, (Hebrews 10:1-4). These sacrifices
expressed a need that the sacrifices themselves could not satisfy, but the coming
Saviour which they pre-figured could.

Jesus came to be the perfect substitutionary sacrifice. What is the principle of
substitutionary sacrifice?

In the matter of God's creating man, His
alternative was to either create rational
finite, peccable beings, or else to content
Himself with the creation of passive, irr-
ational beings, and material planets. On
the one hand, God did not fail to see from
the beginning of the creation of man not
only the possibility and probability of
sin, but also the certainty of it; but
on the other hand, He preferred beings of
responsible character of His own nature
to that of animals and material planets
an objects. Thus God- in His contemp-
lation of sin, on the one hand and His
contemplation of His own righteousness
on the other hand - made a plan for man
before He made man. That plan was that
He would send His Son to earth to die
in the place of man - that is God would
provide His Son as a substitutionary sac-
rifice. The point is that through the
substitutionary death of His sinless Son,
God would be both righteous and merciful.

For all have sinned, and come short of
the glory of God; being justified freely
by His grace through the redemption that
is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set
forth to be a propitiation through faith
in His blood, to declare His righteousness
for the remission of sins that are past
through the forbearance of God; To declare,
I say, at this time His righteousness: that
He might be just and justifier of him which
believeth in Jesus.

Since Jesus was the only substitutionary sacrifice that God would accept for the
sins of man. What were the qualifications that must be met in order for Christ to
be our sacrifice?

First, in order to qualify as substitutionary
sacrifice Christ had to be necessarily sinless.
What could be the justice of accepting the death
of one sinner in behalf of another sinner?

For He hath made Him to be sin for us, who
knew no sin; that we might be made the right-
eousness of God in Him.

Second, in order to qualify as a substitutionary
sacrifice, Christ had to choose of His own free
will to die in the place of man. If Christ had
been an unwilling sacrifice, God would have
been unjust in requiring His death.

Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of
our faith; who for the joy that was set before
Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and
is set down at the right hand of the throne of

Third, in order to qualify as a substitution-
ary sacrifice, Christ had to be of the same
nature as man - that is, He had to have a
body of flesh, bone and blood.

Let this mind be in you which was also in
Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God
thought it not robbery to be equal with God:
But made Himself of no reputation, and took
upon Him the form of a servant, and was made
in the likeness of men: Being found in fash-
ion as a man, He humbled Himself and became
obedient unto death, even the death of the

Forth, in order to qualify as a substitutio-
nary sacrifice, Christ had to spill His blood
in order that man could have access to a viable
blood sacrifice for his sins....He had to shed,
or spill, His blood to cover, or purify, sins
of man.

But Christ being come a high priest of good
things to come, by a greater and more perfect
tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say,
not of this building; Neither by the blood of
goats and calves, but by His own blood He
entered in once into the holy place, having
obtained eternal redemption for us. For if the
blood of bulls and of goats and the ashes of an
heifer sprinkled the unclean, sanctifieth to
the purifying of the flesh: How much more shall
the blood of Christ, who through the eternal
Spirit offered Himself without spot to God,
purge your conscience from dead works to serve
the living God? And for this cause He is the
mediator of the New Testament, that by means
of death, for the redemption of the trans-
gressions that were under the first testament,
they which are called might receive the promise
of eternal inheritance.

From the scriptures we have found that Christ met all the qualifications for
substitutionary sacrifice.

The great message of the perfect sacrifice.
It was necessary for the two yokes to be
removed from the soul of man. One was the
yoke of sin, and the other was the yoke of
death. Sin caused death, (James 1:15, Rom-
ans 6:23). Man was hopelessly mired in the
consequences of sin, and there was nothing
he could do to extricate himself from his
plight. The creature was impure, sinful and
unworthy as a sacrifice to God. The animal
sacrifices were ineffectual to the removing
of sin, and the thought of animal sacrifices
negating the sting of death had not even been
contemplated. Nothing short of a perfect sac-
rifice, or such power to be able to overcome
both sin and its consequences - death, would
suffice. God knew from the beginning, and
even though He could not witness the cruel
moment of Jesus' death, "God so loved the
world that He gave His only begotten Son,
that whosoever believeth in Him should not
perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16).
Try as we might man cannot, "direct his
own steps" (Jeremiah 10:23). We should be
thankful with every fiber of our being, and
every ounce of our loyalty to our God and to
the Lord Jesus Christ, for providing the per-
fect sacrifice through which we can live et-
ernally in heaven with God.

Since holiness is God's fundamental attribute
it is only reasonable that He should be given
some satisfaction to remove the outrage of sin.
The death of Christ supplies this satisfaction.

How did Christ meet the qualifications of the three principles of sacrifice?

In Concession, He poured out His life for us, (Isaiah 53:12, John 19:34). God
sent His Son but Jesus came willingly. Jesus said,

"...I lay down my life, that I might take it
again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it
down of Myself."

In Completeness, Jesus gave it all, He held nothing back.

In Transformation, He brought about a change in the relationship man had with
God. He reconciled man to God, (2 Corinthians 5:17-19).

The Father and the Son obeyed the principles of sacrifice. God does not expect
anything of man that He, Himself was not willing to do. God asks us to love the
unlovely. Why? Because He loves the unlovely. He asks us to be holy. Why?
Because He is holy.

We reflect the God that we serve. Like the idol worshipers, the evil in their
lives was a reflection of their gods. If we are lusting after wealth or ease we are
reflecting the god that we worship. If we are not a sacrificing people then we are a
selfish people and we reflect the god that we serve, and that god is not Jehovah.

But if we wish to serve the God of heaven and earth, the Creator of all things
we too must understand and obey these principles of sacrifice and put them into
practice in our lives. We must know our God and be like Him.

If a person understands this concept we will not have to beg them to come to
worship at any time. Nor will we have to force them to try to reach their friends,
neighbors and relatives with the Gospel. They will teach, they will not be able to
keep from teaching. The love of God in their hearts will drive them.



In the closing of the last chapter we noticed that when a Christian understands
the principles of sacrifice he will be driven by the love of God that dwells in his
heart to follow all the commands of God. The Christian that understands these
principles will not treat God's commands as some type of smorgasbord, choosing
that which they like and leaving out that which they dislike. In humble obedience
they will obey the commands of God even when they do not fully understand why
God commanded such a thing. They will obey knowing that in time they will
understand and knowing that they are now pleasing to God by keeping His

The Christian will make that "Concession", (willing surrender). The Obedience
that we render in order to become a Christian is a part of this. Our obedience is not
an exercise in futility, it is known by God and will be rewarded by God. We
become disciples of Christ of our own free will. If there is a word in the New
Testament that depicts this it would be the word "repentance." We never make a
disciple until we teach repentance and we never become a disciple until we repent.
Repentance is a change of mind and direction. I change my mind, I give up self-
will and do the will of Jesus. I give up the ways of the world and take up the ways
of righteousness.

The four major thoughts involved in repentance are: regret, I'm sorry I did it;
resolve, I'm going to do something about it; reform, a changing of life; and restore,
giving back to God what is rightfully His, (all of myself).

Many times we fail to get a person to become a disciple of Christ because they
are not willing to repent. This is the single greatest problem in the world today,
repentance! This nation needs to repent! We must put ourselves at the disposal of
God, and yield ourselves to Him.

Neither yield ye your members as instruments
of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield your-
selves unto God, as those that are alive from
the dead, and your members as instruments of
righteousness unto God.

If our allegiance is to our family or to the folks at church we will fall. Because
people have faults, they will disappoint us. Because the church is made up of folks
that are imperfect they will disappoint us. This is not the fault of God but of
ourselves. Whereas if our allegiance is to God through Christ and to Him alone we
will not fall. The church may have problems, folks may falter and fail but God
will carry us through.

The Christian in "Completeness", (consecration). In Romans 6:3-4, two deaths
are under consideration, Christ's and my own. Christ died for my sins, now I must
die to sin. I cannot please the world and God at the same time. God doesn't 'hire'
any part time help! Satan cannot get any work out of a dead slave! I am to be dead
to Satan's call.

We have too many schizophrinic Christians. They try to live in both worlds at
the same time, they have just enough Christianity in their lives that they cannot
enjoy their sin and just enough sin in their lives they cannot enjoy their
Christianity. In order to have that life giving relationship with God we must give
up self.

The Christian and "Change", (transformation). When we initiated a relationship
with the death of Christ, (Romans 6:3-4), we were changed, (transformed), born
again, (John 3:3-5). We are baptized into Christ's death so that we may be
transformed, made new, changed from sin to righteousness.

The whole concept of discipleship is bound up in these three principles of
sacrifice. Without sacrifice there is no discipleship, without discipleship there is
no heavenly reward.



The New Testament declares the priesthood of all Christians. Christ is the High
Priest, (Hebrews 3:1), and every faithful Christian, priests under Him, (Revelation
1:6, 1 Peter 2:5,9).

We can see in the office of High Priest of the Mosaical period, the type of
which Christ is the anti-type, the ultimate High Priest. The High Priest that offered
once and for all the perfect sacrifice for the sins of all mankind, (Hebrews 9:11-12,
10:11-14). Christ in becoming the High Priest removed the necessity of an earthly
mediation, (High Priest), between God and man. This places every Christian in the
position to offer his own prayers and sacrifices to God, through the heavenly
mediator, Christ.

The priests of the usual order were types of the citizens of Christ's kingdom, the
church. Peter in writing to Christians says:

Ye also, as lively stones are built up a
spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to
offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable
to God by Jesus Christ.

Every Christian has a duty to perform, a ministry, an office. This is contrary to
popular opinion or practice but never-the-less true. Christians for the most part
feel that they are to be served, they believe, that the Evangelists are to carry out the
duties of the church for them. The Minister is to do all the teaching, visiting the
sick, seeing to the needs of the needy and orphans, in general officiating in the
office of New Testament priest, while they watch.

For the Old Testament priesthood to be considered faithful they had to perform
their office with diligence. The same is true of the New Testament priesthood.
Just as in the Old Testament we learned that when the priesthood was strong and
faithful so was the nation, the same is still true. Is this why this country is
becoming more and more evil, drugs, prostitution, illicit sex, corrupt politicians
and every other symptom of moral corruptness is evident, the priesthood is weak?

The world may devise ways to try to improve man's treatment of man, and to
change the moral decay that is evident, but all in vain. Man's truth changes, it
changes with the times and thinking of man. That which is right today may be
wrong tomorrow. The vacillating values of men frustrate man's attempt to be right.
Only God gives eternal truths that do not change. Only God's truths can remove
man's injustice to man. Only God's way is the remedy to the problem, and only
God's priesthood (Christians) have the message of change.

The world needs the message, "There is a way that pleases God!" The question
is, will God's holy priesthood complete its holy mission, (Matthew 28:19-20) ?
Will it deliver to a lost and dying world the message of salvation before it is to
late? We will, only if we are willing to make a "Concession", a willing surrender
to God, and in "Completeness", consecrate our lives to that work, "Changing", or
transforming our lives from self-serving to God serving.

The reason we have the problem of Christians not fulfilling their priestly duties
is that we have too many nice preachers, preaching to nice people, telling them to
be nicer. What we have is the bland leading the bland and they all have the blahs!
We must have preachers that have been saved from sin by the grace of God, telling
sinners how to be saved. This is the only way folks will come to Christ!

As a priest of God you must offer something, you must make sacrifices to God.
Are You? Are you first offering yourself to God and then bringing in the lost?



It was not long after God had ordained sacrifice that man began to pervert it.
Even during the lifetime of Adam, men devised gods of their own making and
sacrificed unto them as they had unto Jehovah.

The prophets during the Mosaical period struck at this abuse. They also
condemned the abuses of the sacrifices to God. Without repentance, justice and
purity, their sacrifices were rejected by God. Isaiah speaking for God to the
children of Israel says:

When ye come to appear before me, who hath
required this at your hand, to tread my
courts? Bring no more vain oblations: in-
cense is an abomination unto me; the new
moons sabbaths, the calling of assemblies,
I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even
the solemn meeting. Your new moons and
your appointed feasts my soul hateth:
they are a trouble unto me; I am weary
to bear them. And when you spread forth
your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you:
yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not
hear, your hands are full of blood.
Wash you, make you clean; put away the
evil of your doings from before mine eyes;
cease to do evil; learn to do well; seek
judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the
fatherless, plead for the widow.

And through Amos God said:

I hate, I despise your feast days, and I
will not smell in your solemn assemblies.
Though ye offer me burnt offerings and
your meat offerings, I will not accept
them: neither will I regard the peace
offerings of your fat beasts. Take thou
away from me the noise of thy songs; for
I will not hear the melody of thy viols.
But let judgment run down as waters and
righteousness as a mighty stream.

The message God was sending through the prophets was not, "Stop making
sacrifices" but "Stop abusing the privilege of sacrifice." With the privilege also
comes the responsibility of the offerer to insure that he comes in repentance to
make his offering and that justice and purity dwell in his heart.

The prophets were anxious because of the spiritual adultery of Israel. Israel had
not ceased calling on the name of God. Nor had they ceased going to the Temple.
But they had ceased giving their best.

The demonstration of improper sacrifice is manifested through one of five
different avenues. The first is; to sacrifice something just to get by, so that you can
say you have offered. Malachi asks, "Have you offered?", they answered, "Yes!"
But what had they offered? They had offered the lame, the maimed and the sick,
(Malachi 1:7-8, 13-14). They had the attitude, "I gave something I have fulfilled
my responsibility."

If the prophets were alive today and preaching to the Christian world, what
would be their message? Would not their message be the same as it was? They
could ask, "Are you worshiping God?" and we could answer, "Yes, I went to
church last Sunday morning." They could ask, "Did you sacrifice?" and we could
answer, "Yes, I gave my two dollars!" The prophets message is still pertinent.

We like the children of Israel often treat God like a dog. We give the scraps of
our time, talent and money. God gets the left-overs of our lives. We sacrifice
nothing, we indulge ourselves. The message is still relevant that we learn from 2
Samuel 24:24. David said the he would not offer to God something that cost him
nothing. If we would catch this spirit we would soon lose the attitude, "What is the
least I can do and still go to heaven?"

The second avenue is to sacrifice without a knowledge of God. The knowledge
of God is not simply to know that there is a God, to know that He exists. But do I
have an intimate knowledge of Him? Do I know Him personally? Have I read His
Holy word until I know His every revealed feeling and care? Do I know Him well
enough to feel His disappointment when I err.

The children of Israel came to the right place at the right time, they bowed their
heads at the right time and said the right words. They were doing the external acts
right but they had no relationship with God, they had no knowledge of Him.
Perhaps it was because they were living on borrowed faith. They were relying on
the faith of their fathers, and upon their heritage to make them children of God,
instead of faith of their own.

This is also evident in the church. Many come to the right place at the right
time and say all the right words, but they have no knowledge of God. How do we
know this is the case? We know when we ask them, "Are you a Christian?" and
they answer, "Why, Yes, I was raised in the church." Anyone that is a Christian is
one because of their relationship with God, not because of the relationship their
parents or grandparents have or/had with God. God has children but no
grandchildren! (No one was raised in the church, everyone that is in the church
was added to it by God after they came in obedience to His commands,(Acts 2:47),
Hearing His Word, (Romans 10:17), Believing in Jesus, (John 8:24), Confessing
their faith before men, (Matthew 10:32-33), Repenting of their sins, (Luke 13:3),
and being baptized for the remission of their sins, (Acts 2:38). These and these
only are in the church.)

When we rely upon the relationship our parents had with God we can know that
we are majoring in performance, not righteousness. The truth is that we must have
an intimate knowledge of God to worship Him acceptably. God has given us the
means whereby we may have this knowledge of Him, that means is the Bible.

The third avenue is, when there is no consistency between the external
ordinances and the heart. What the children of Israel were professing to be and the
way they were living was not congruent. Theirs was form devoid of relationship
with God. This is repulsive to God. When we come together as God's children to
worship God, remembering the death, burial, resurrection and coming again of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, taking personal inventory of our lives and thanking
God for His many blessings; then leave and act as though we had never been there,
living our lives as though God is far away, where is that relationship? How are we
to understand that? How is a lost and dying world to understand? But most
important of all, how is God to understand?

It is important that we correctly complete the external acts of worship that God
has command without adding to or taking from them. But it is of equal importance
that the internal is also right with God. Worship is not the end, but the means to
the end, adoration of God. Bible knowledge is not the end, but the means to the
end, a close abiding relationship with God.

Sacrifice and obedience cannot be separated, they go hand and hand.

The fourth avenue is the dis-harmony between corrupt lives and sacrifice.
Sacrifice is for introspection. We are to examine ourselves and our motives. Paul
writes to Timothy:

I will therefore that men pray everywhere,
lifting up holy hands, without fear and doubting.

We cannot live as we please and still please God! My life must be in harmony
with my profession. If I profess to be a Christian I should be living like one.

The fifth and final avenue we find is, ritual does not replace responsibility.
Worship is commanded by God to make us understand our responsibility to Him. I
am responsible and accountable to God. It is to make me aware of what I am and
what I should be. When obedience in worship becomes a ritual, more often than
not God becomes a local God in the mind of the worshiper. We begin to think of
God as living in the church building and no where else. This attitude is evident
when in our public prayers we hear, "God as we come before You now........."
Perhaps this is the idea that Jacob had. It seems that he thought of Jehovah as the
God of his father and that God was confined to the place where his father lived.
But when Jacob left home and traveled far from his father's house, he saw a vision
from God and he said:

Surely the Lord is in this place: and I
knew it not.

Jacob learned that God is everywhere. How about us? Have we learned this
lesson? God is not a local God, He is everywhere all the time. We may approach
Him in prayer where ever we are and at what ever time we are in need.

Jesus was born under the Mosaical sacrificial system but He did not condemn it.
He did however condemn its abuse. Jesus told the people that if they had ought
against a brother go and make it right then come and make their sacrifice. Right
relationship between brothers and sisters, (in Christ), is imperative to acceptable
worship. John addresses this very thing when he writes:

If any man say, I love God, and hateth his
brother, he is a liar; for he that loveth
not his brother whom he hath seem, how can
he love God whom he hath not seen? And this
commandment have we from Him, That he who
loveth God love his brother also.

When we:

....offer the sacrifice of praise to God
continually that is, the fruit of our lips
giving thanks to His name.

without a proper relationship with our brothers and sisters and with God we can be
assured that we are majoring in performance.

We find then that in order for a sacrifice to be acceptable we must have right
relations, a proper respect (reverence) for God and His commandments, and an
awareness of our responsibility to God and our fellow man. If I do not then I am
abusing my privilege of sacrifice and worship.



We have learned in this short study that sacrifice is central to the teaching of the
Bible. It begins with the sacrifice of self and ends with the sacrifice of self. The
outward actions that prove our self sacrifice have changed over the centuries, (by
command of God), but the principles have remained the same.

These principles were the hub of discipleship in the Old Testament and they are
the hub of discipleship in the New. The message of the scriptures has never
changed. The message is from the heart of God to the mind of man, and informs
us how to acquire righteousness of life and communion with God. God's principles
of dealing with man so that man may acquire righteousness of life and communion
with God have always been the same, they are; grace, faith and obedience, these
are eternal.

So we may ask why sacrifice? Why do I have to give? But when we remember
Abraham we remember, " How is God to know for certain that I love Him if I give
nothing of myself?", "How am I to know for certain that I love God enough to
withstand all the trials of life and succeed in attaining heaven?", unless I give. This
is the proof that we need and God wants. The question then that each one of us
must answer is, "Will I give it?"

End Notes

1 Matthew 5:18, Luke 24:14, John 5:46-47

2 Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, (Springfield, Massachusetts: G & C
Merriam Company 1981) pg 274

3 Henry H. Halley, Halley's Bible Handbook, (Grand Rapids, Michigan:
Zondervan Publishing House 1965) pg 69

4 Dr. J. H. Hertz ed., The Pentateuch And Haftorahs, (London: Soncino Press
1968) pg 562

5 The Pentateuch And Haftorahs, pg 562

6 The Pentateuch And Haftorahs, pg 562

7 The Pentateuch And Haftorahs, pg 562

8 Alfred Edersheim, The Temple Its Ministry And Services, (Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1982) pg 105

9 Alfred Edersheim, Sketches Of Jewish Social Life, In The Time Of Christ,
(Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1982) pg 251-

10 Sketches of Jewish Social Life, pg 252-253

11 The word cult is here being used in the sense of the first definition given at the
first of this chapter.

12 2 Samuel 24:18-25

13 Psalms 50:10-14

14 Hebrews 9:22

15 Yoma 5:1

16 2 Samuel 24:19-24

17 Psalms 51:16-17

18 Micah 6:6-8

19 Dr. William Smith, Smiths Bible Dictionary, (Nashville, Holman Bible
Publishers 1981) pg 265

20 F. C. Cook, The Bible Commentary, (Barnes Notes) (Grand Rapids,
Michigan, Baker Book House 1976) 3:112

21 Dickson New Analytical Bible, (Chicago, John A. Dickson Publishing Co.
1973) pg 162

22 Barnes Notes, 3:108

23 Samuel Pridesus Tregelles, Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old
Testament Scriptures, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House 1979) pg 487

24 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 86

25 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 238

26 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 238

27 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 260

28 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 631

29 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 631

30 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 657

31 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 742

32 Gesenius Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 869

33 Gesenuis Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, pg 874

34 The Temple, pg 85-86

35 1 Peter 1:20

36 Revelation 13:8

37 Dub McClish ed., Studies In 1 Corinthians, (Denton, Texas, Pearl Street
Church of Christ 1982) pg 247

38 Romans 3:23-26

39 Studies In 1 Corinthians, pg 248

40 2 Corinthians 5:21

41 Studies In 1 Corinthians, pg 248

42 Hebrews 12:2

43 Studies In 1 Corinthians, pg 249

44 Philippians 2:5-8

45 Studies In 1 Corinthians , pg 250

46 Hebrews 9:11-15

47 Eddie Whitten, ed., The Person And Life Of Christ, (Bedford, Texas, Christian
Supply Center 1983) pg 218

48 Henry C. Thiessen, Lectures In Systematic Theology, (Grand Rapids,
Michigan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1980) pg 237

49 John 10:17-18

50 Romans 6:13

51 1 Peter 2:5

52 Isaiah 1:12-17

53 Amos 5:21-24

54 1 Timothy 2:8

55 Genesis 28:16

56 1 John 4:20-21

57 Hebrews 13:15


Cook, F.C., The Bible Commentary, Barnes Notes,
Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House 1976

Edersheim, Alfred, Sketches of Jewish Social Life In
The Days Of Christ, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Company 1982

Edersheim, Alfred, The Temple Its Ministry And Services
As They Were In The Time Of Christ, Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1982

Halley, Henry H., Halley's Bible Handbook, Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House 1965

Hertz, Dr. J. H. ed., The Pentateuch and Haftorahs,
London: Soncino Press 1968

McClish, Dub ed., Studies In 1 Corinthians, Denton,
Texas: Pearl Street Church Of Christ 1982

Smith, Dr. William, Smith's Bible Dictionary, Nashville:
Holman Bible Publishers 1981


The New Analytical Bible, King James Version, Chicago:
John A. Dickson Publishing Co, 1973

Thiessen, Henry C., Lectures In Systematic Theology,
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