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Lesson I: SETS: AN INTRODUCTION Pre-requisite Concepts: Whole numbers

O!ecti"es:
In this lesson, you are expected to:
1. describe and illustrate
a. well-defined sets;
b. subsets;
c. universal set; and
d. the null set.
2. use enn !ia"rams to represent sets and subsets.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
T#is \$esson \$oo%s e&s' to te&c# ut (on)t e (ecei"e(* T#e intro(uctor'
concepts &re &\$+&'s cruci&\$* ,#&t (i--erenti&tes & set -ro. &n' /roup is
t#&t & set is +e\$\$ (e-ine(* E.p#&si0e t#is to t#e stu(ents*
1ou .&' "&r' t#e &cti"it' ' /i"in/ t#e stu(ents & (i--erent set o-
o!ects to /roup* 1ou .&' .&%e t#is into & c\$&ss &cti"it' ' s#o+in/ &
poster o- o!ects in -ront o- t#e c\$&ss or e"en .&%e it into & /&.e* T#e i(e&
is -or t#e. to cre&te t#eir o+n +e\$\$-(e-ine( /roups &ccor(in/ to +#&t t#e'
see &s co..on c#&r&cteristics o- e\$e.ents in & /roup*
Lesson Proper:
A*
I* Acti"it'
#elow are some ob\$ects. %roup them as you see fit and label each "roup.
&nswer the followin" 'uestions:
a. (ow many "roups are there)
b. !oes each ob\$ect belon" to a "roup)
c. Is there an ob\$ect that belon"s to more than one "roup) Which one)
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
1ou nee( to -o\$\$o+ up on t#e openin/ &cti"it' #ence2 t#e pro\$e.
e\$o+ is i.port&nt* U\$ti.&te\$'2 'ou +&nt stu(ents to &pp\$' t#e concepts o-
sets to t#e set o- re&\$ nu.ers*
*he "roups are called sets for as lon" as the ob\$ects in the "roup share a
characteristic and are thus, well defined.
Pro\$e.: +onsider the set consistin" of whole numbers from 1 to 2,,. -et
this be set .. /orm smaller sets consistin" of elements of . that share a different
characteristic. /or example, let 0 be the set of all even numbers from 1 to 2,,.
+an you form three more such sets) (ow many elements are there in each
of these sets) !o any of these sets have any elements in common)
!id you thin1 of a set with no element)
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
3e\$o+ &re i.port&nt ter.s2 not&tions &n( s'.o\$s t#&t stu(ents .ust
re.e.er* 4ro. #ere on2 e consistent in 'our not&tions &s +e\$\$ so &s not
to con-use 'our stu(ents* Gi"e p\$ent' o- e5&.p\$es &n( non-e5&.p\$es*
Important Terms to Remember
*he followin" are terms that you must remember from this point on.
1. & set is a well-defined "roup of ob\$ects, called e\$e.ents that share a common
characteristic. /or example, 2 of the ob\$ects above belon" to the set of head
coverin" or simply hats 3ladies hat, baseball cap, hard hat4.
2. 5et F is a suset of set A if all elements of F are also elements of A. /or
example, the even numbers 2, 6 and 12 all belon" to the set of whole numbers.
*herefore, the even numbers 2, 6, and 12 form a subset of the set of whole
numbers. F is a proper suset of A if F does not contain all elements of A.
2. *he uni"ers&\$ setU is the set that contains all ob\$ects under consideration.
6. *he nu\$\$ set is an empty set. *he null set is a subset of any set.
7. *he c&r(in&\$it' o- set A is the number of elements contained in A.
Notations and Symbols
In this section, you will learn some of the notations and symbols pertainin" to sets.
1. .ppercase letters will be used to name sets, and lowercase letters will be
used to refer to any element of a set. /or example, let ( be the set of all
ob\$ects on pa"e 1 that cover or protect the head. We write
H 8 9ladies hat, baseball cap, hard hat:
*his is the listin" or roster method of namin" the elements of a set.
&nother way of writin" the elements of a set is with the use of a descriptor. *his is
the rule method. /or example, H 8 9x; x covers and protects the head:. *his is read
as <the set ( contains the element x such that x covers and protects the head.=
2. *he symbol or 9 : will be used to refer to an empty set.
2. If F is a subset of A, then we write . We also say that A contains the set F
and write it as . If F is a proper subset of A, then we write .
6. *he cardinality of a set A is written as n3A4.
II* 6uestions to Pon(er 7Post-Acti"it' Discussion8
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
It is i.port&nt -or 'ou to /o o"er t#e &ns+ers o- 'our stu(ents to t#e
questions pose( in t#e openin/ &cti"it' in or(er to process +#&t t#e' #&"e
\$e&rne( -or t#e.se\$"es* Encour&/e (iscussions &n( e5c#&n/es in t#e
c\$&ss* Do not \$e&"e questions un&ns+ere(*
-et us answer the 'uestions posed in the openin" activity.
1. (ow many sets are there)
There is the set of head covers (hats), the set of trees, the set of even nmbers, and
the set of polyhedra! "t, there is also a set of rond ob#ects and a set of pointy
ob#ects! There are \$ %ell&defined sets!
2. !oes each ob\$ect belon" to a set) 'es!
2. Is there an ob\$ect that belon"s to more than one set) Which ones are these)
All the hats belon( to the set of rond ob#ects! The pine trees and t%o of the
polyhedra belon( to the set of pointy ob#ects!
III* E5ercises
1. %ive 2 examples of well-defined sets.
Possi\$e &ns+ers: T#e set o- &\$\$ -&ctors o- 9:2 T#e set o- &\$\$ -irst 'e&r stu(ents
in t#is sc#oo\$2 T#e set o- &\$\$ /ir\$s in t#is c\$&ss*
2. >ame two subsets of the set of whole numbers usin" both the listin" or
roster method and the rule method.
E5&.p\$e:
Listin/ or Roster Met#o(:
E ; <=2 92 :2 >2 ?2 @*A
O ; <B2 C2 D2 72 @A
Ru\$e Met#o(:
E ; <95 E 5 is & +#o\$e nu.erA
O ; <95FB E 5 is & +#o\$e nu.erA
F A
A F F A
2. -et " 8 ?1, 2, 7, @, A:. -ist all the possible subsets of ".
< A2 <BA2 <CA2 <DA2 <7A2 <GA2 <B2 CA2 <B2 DA2 <B2 7A2 <B2 GA2 <C2 DA2 <C2 7A2 <C2 GA2 <D2 7A2 <D2
GA2 <72 GA2 <B2 C2 DA2 <B2 C2 7A2 <B2 C2 GA2 <C2 D2 7A2 <C2 D2 GA2 <D2 72 GA2 <B2 D2 7A2 <B2 D2 GA2
<B2 72 GA2 <C2 72 GA2 <B2 C2 D2 7A2 <B2 C2 D2 GA2 <B2 D2 72 GA2 <C2 D2 72 GA2 <B2 C2 72 GA2 <B2 C2
D2 72 GA H C9 susets in &\$\$*
6. &nswer this 'uestion: (ow many subsets does a set of n elements have)
T#ere &re 9n susets in &\$\$*
3* Ienn Di&/r&.s
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
A \$esson on sets +i\$\$ not e co.p\$ete +it#out usin/ Ienn Di&/r&.s*
Note t#&t in t#is \$esson2 'ou &re .ere\$' intro(ucin/ t#e use o- t#ese
(i&/r&.s to s#o+ sets &n( susets* T#e e5tensi"e use o- t#e Ienn
Di&/r&.s +i\$\$ e intro(uce( in t#e ne5t \$esson2 +#ic# is on set oper&tions*
T#e %e' is -or stu(ents to e &\$e to "er&\$i0e +#&t t#e' see (epicte( in t#e
Ienn Di&/r&.s*
5ets and subsets may be represented usin" enn !ia"rams. *hese are dia"rams
that ma1e use of "eometric shapes to show relationships between sets.
+onsider the enn dia"ram below. -et the universal set . be all the elements in sets
&, #, + and !.
0ach shape represents a set. >ote that althou"h there are no elements shown inside
each shape, we can surmise or "uess how the sets are related to each other.>otice
that set # is inside set &. *his indicates that all elements in # are contained in &. *he
same with set +. 5et !, however, is separate from &, #, +. What does it mean)
E5ercise
!raw a enn dia"ram to show the relationships between the followin" pairs or
"roups of sets:
D
A
C
1. 0 8 92, 6, B, 1C, 22:
/ 8 92, 22:
S&.p\$e Ans+er
2. is the set of all odd numbers
W 8 97, 17, 27, 27, 67, 77,D.:
S&.p\$e Ans+er
2. E 8 9x; x is a factor of 26:
5 8 9 :
* 8 9@, A, 11:
S&.p\$e Ans+er:
NOTE TO THE TEACHER:
En( t#e \$esson +it# & /oo( su..&r'*
Su..&r'
In this lesson, you learned about sets, subsets, the universal set, the null set, and
the cardinality of the set. Fou also learned to use the enn dia"ram to show
relationships between sets.